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\    .  S>    N- 





SIR    HARRY    H.    JOHNSTON,   K.C.B, 








3  0  1959 









GILBERT   STEVENSON,   J.    G.    KING,   J.    L.    NICOLL 





WHO    HAVE   WROUGHT   WITH   ME   SINCE    1889   IN    THE 



NORTH  of  the  Zambezi  and  in  the  South  Central  portion  of  the  continent 
of  Africa,  bounded  on  the  north  by  Lake  Tanganyika  and  the  Congo 
Free  State,  on  the  north-east  by  German  East  Africa,  on  the  east,  south-east 
and  west  by  Portuguese  possessions,  lies  what  is  now  termed  British  Central 
Africa,  Protectorate  and  Sphere  of  Influence.  The  Sphere  of  Influence  is 
much  larger  than  the  actual  Protectorate,  which  is  chiefly  confined  to  the 
districts  bordering  on  Lake  Nyasa  and  on  the  river  Shire.  The  Sphere  of 
Influence  is  at  present  administered  under  the  Charter  of  the  British  South 
Africa  Company ;  the  Protectorate  has  always  been  administered  directly 
under  the  Imperial  Government  from  the  time  of  its  inception.  Circumstances 
were  so  ordered  that  I  happened  to  be  the  chief  agent  in  bringing  all  this 
territory,  directly  or  indirectly,  under  British  Influence,  both  on  behalf  of  the 
Imperial  Government  and  of  the  Chartered  Company;  and  though  I  was 
ably  seconded  by  Mr.  Alfred  Sharpe  (now  Her  Majesty's  Deputy  Com- 
missioner), the  late  Mr.  Joseph  Thomson,  Mr.  J.  L.  Nicoll,  and  Mr.  A.  J. 
Swann,  it  lay  with  me  to  propose  a  name,  a  geographical  and  political  term 
for  the  mass  of  territory  thus  secured  as  a  dependency  of  the  British 

On  the  principle  that  it  is  disastrous  to  a  dog's  interest  to  give  him  a 
bad  name,  it  should  be  equally  true  that  much  is  gained  at  the  outset  of 
any  enterprise  by  bestowing  on  it  a  promising  title.  I  therefore  chose  that  of 
"  British  Central  Africa  "  because  I  hoped  the  new  sphere  of  British  influence 
might  include  much  of  Central  Africa  where,  at  the  time  these  deeds  were 
done,  the  territories  of  Foreign  Powers  were  in  a  state  of  flux,  no  hard  and 
fast  boundaries  having  been  determined  ;  therefore  by  fair  means  Great  Britain's 
share  north  of  the  Zambezi  might  be  made  to  connect  her  Protectorate  on 
the  Upper  Nile  with  her  Empire  south  of  the  Zambezi. 

viii  PREFACE 

Treaties  indeed  were  obtained  which  advanced  British  Territory  from  the 
south  end  to  the  north  end  of  Lake  Tanganyika,  where  the  British  flag  was 
planted  at  the  request  of  the  natives  by  Mr.  Swann  in  the  spring  of  1890; 
but  the  said  Treaties  arrived  too  late  for  them  to  be  taken  into  consideration  at 
the  time  the  Anglo-German  Convention  was  drawn  up. 

Consequently  all  our  Government  could  do  was  to  secure  from  Germany  a 
right  of  way  across  the  intervening  strip  of  territory;  and  the  boundaries 
of  German  East  Africa  and  of  the  Congo  Free  State  were  henceforth  con- 
terminous in  the  district  immediately  north  of  Tanganyika. 

Similarly  the  agents  of  the  King  of  the  Belgians  were  able  to  make  good 
their  claims  to  the  country  west  and  south-west  of  Tanganyika.  Therefore 
British  Central  Africa  did  not  ultimately  attain  the  geographical  limits  to  which 
I  had  originally  aspired,  and  which  would  have  amply  justified  its  title.  I 
write  this  in  (perhaps  needless)  apology  for  a  name,  which  after  all  is  a  fairly 
correct  designation  of  a  territory  in  the  South  Central  portions  of  the  continent 
separated  by  several  hundred  miles  from  the  East  or  West  Coasts  and 
stretching  up  to  the  equatorial  regions.  An  almost  exact  geographical  parallel 
to  the  British  Central  Africa  Protectorate  is  the  State  of  Paraguay  in  South 
America;  which,  like  British  Central  Africa,  has  only  free  access  to  the  sea 
by  the  course  of  a  navigable  river  under  international  control. 

This  book,  however,  will  deal  only  with  that  Eastern  portion  of  British 
Central  Africa  which  has  more  or  less  come  within  my  personal  experience, 
that  is  to  say  it  is  principally  confined  to  the  regions  bordering  on  Lakes 
Tanganyika  and  Nyasa  and  the  River  Shire. 

Although  for  seven  years  I  have  been  connected  with  these  countries,  and 
have  been  gathering  notes  all  that  time,  it  is  not  to  be  supposed  for  a  moment 
that  the  results  of  my  work  which  I  now  publish  deal  more  than  partially  with 
the  many  aspects  and  problems  of  this  small  section  of  Central  Africa.  The 
careful  reader  will  be  conscious  of  gaps  in  my  knowledge;  but  I  think  he 
will  not  find  his  time  wasted  by  vague  generalisations.  Such  information  as  I 
have  to  give  is  definite  and  practical.  During  my  present  leave  of  absence 
I  have  deemed  it  wise  to  gather  together  and  publish  the  information  I 
possess  while  an  opportunity  offered  and  before  such  information  is  useless 



or  stale.  Two  years'  more  residence  might  have  enabled  me  to  answer  to 
my  satisfaction  many  questions  about  which  I  am  dubious,  or  of  which  I 
know  nothing.  There  will  be  room  for  specialists  to  take  up  many  sections 
of  my  book,  and  using,  perhaps,  this  arrangement  of  material  as  a  basis,  to- 
correct  and  supplement  the  statements  I  have  made. 



IT  gives  me  great  pleasure  to  acknowledge  the  help  I  have  received  from  many  friends 
and  acquaintances  in  the  production  of  this  book.  Sir  Thomas  Sanderson,  K.C.B., 
Permanent  Under-Secretary  of  State  for  Foreign  Affairs,  has  revised  the  proofs  for  me ; 
and  Sir  Clement  Hill,  K.C.M.G.,  and  the  African  Department  of  the  Foreign  Office 
have  enabled  me  to  obtain  information  on  various  subjects ;  Mr.  Alfred  Sharpe, 
H.M.  Deputy  Commissioner  and  Consul  for  British  Central  Africa,  has  given  me 
from  time  to  time  interesting  notes,  and  has  taken  a  number  of  photographs  for  the 
special  purposes  of  the  book ;  Mr.  J.  B.  Yule,  B.C.A.A.,  of  the  North  Nyasa  district, 
has  lent  me  many  of  his  photographs  and  has  supplied  me  with  information  on  native 
manners  and  customs;  Dr.  David  Kerr  Cross,  M.B.,  has  allowed  me  to  use  his 
valuable  notes  on  Anthropology  and  the  Diseases  prevalent  among  Europeans  and 
natives;  Mr.  P.  L.  Sclater,  F.R.S.,  Secretary  of  the  Zoological  Society,  has  rendered  me 
great  help  in  preparing  the  chapters  on  Zoology,  to  which  also  Mr.  Oldfield  Thomas, 
Dr.  A.  G.  Butler,  Mr.  W.  F.  Kirby  and  other  officials  of  the  British  Museum  of  Natural 
History,  and  Mr.  W.  E.  de  Winton,  F.Z.S.,  have  contributed  information.  Mr.  Thiselton 
Dyer,  C.M.G.,  Director  of  the  Royal  Gardens,  Kew,  on  this  occasion  (as  indeed  on  all 
others  when  I  have  applied  to  him)  has  given  his  assistance  with  promptness  and 
cordiality.  Mr.  Alexander  Whyte,  F.Z.S.  (Principal  scientific  officer  in  British  Central 
Africa),  has  supplied  me  with  much  interesting  information  during  six  years ;  Mr.  J.  F. 
Cunningham,  Secretary  of  the  British  Central  Africa  Administration,  and  Mr.  Wm. 
Wheeler,  Chief  accountant  to  the  same,  have  obtained  for  me  photographs  and  informa- 
tion under  many  heads ;  the  Rev.  D.  C.  Ruffele-Scott,  B.D.  (of  the  Church  of  Scotland 
Mission,  Blantyre),  collected  five  vocabularies  for  me  :  I  have  found  his  dictionary  of 
the  Ci-nyanja  (Chi-mafianja)  language  a  useful  book  of  reference.  The  proprietors  of 
the  Graphic  have  been  very  kind  in  permitting  the  reproduction  in  these  pages  of  certain 
drawings  which  originally  appeared  in  one  or  other  of  their  journals.  Mr.  Fred  Moir, 
the  Secretary  to  the  African  Lakes  Company,  placed  his  photographs  at  my  disposal  and 
helped  rne  in  various  ways.  The  Rev.  A.  G.  B.  Glossop,  M.A.,  Mr.  R.  Webb,  and  Miss 
Palmer,  of  the  Universities  Mission,  have  been  particularly  kind  in  obtaining  and 
lending  photographs.  I  have  also  derived  much  information  from  the  notes  and 
reports  of  the  late  Lieut-Colonel  C.  A.  Edwards,  of  Commander  Percy  Cullen,  Captain 
\V.  H.  Manning,  and  Messrs.  J.  E.  McMaster,  A.  J.  Swann,  R.  Codrington,  H.  A. 
Hillier,  J.  O.  Bowhill,  the  late  J.  L.  Nicoll  and  Gilbert  Stevenson,  H.  C.  McDonald, 


I.  McClounie,  Donald  Malloch,  and  the  late  E.  G.  Alston,  of  the  British  Central  Africa 
Administration  ;  while  I  have  also  to  acknowledge  the  loan  of  photographs  from  Messrs. 
E.  Harrhy,  the  late  Gilbert  Stevenson,  Commander  Percy  Cullen,  and  many  others. 

A  special  mention  should  be  made  of  the  valuable  Appendix  to  my  chapter  on 
"  The  Botany  of  British  Central  Africa  " — the  list  of  all  the  known  species  of  plants 
collected  there  from  1859  to  the  present  day.  This  list  has  been  prepared  for 
inclusion  in  my  book,  under  the  direction  of  Mr.  Thiselton  Dyer,  by  Mr.  I.  H. 
Burkill,  U.A.,  a  member  of  the  Scientific  Staff  at  Ke\v. 

It  will  be  seen  from  this  long  list  of  persons  to  whom  I  am  indebted  for  information 
that  my  book  represents  the  summing-up  of  others'  researches  as  well  as  of  my  own,  and 
that  if  praise  be  awarded  to  the  book,  as  to  the  seven  years'  work  of  which  it  is  the 
record,  that  praise  must  be  fairly  distributed  among  many  workers.  It  is  pleasant  to 
me  to  think  that  one  of  my  collaborators  in  this  work  is  a  native  of  British  Central 



THE  orthography  of  native  words  and  names  used  throughout  this  book  (except 
in  the  Vocabularies)  is  that  of  the  Royal  Geographical  Society.  All  the 
consonants  are  pronounced  as  in  English  (except  "n,"  which  stands  for  the  nasal 
sound  in  "tinging"),  and  the  vowels  as  in  Italian.  Where  the  spelling  of  an 
African  name  is  established  in  a  European  language  it  is  not  altered  :  Examples — 
Congo  (Kongo),  Mozambique  (Msambiki),  Quelimane  (Keliman). 





II.        . 

PHYSICAL   GEOGRAPHY            .                .                . 


APPENDIX    I      . 

ANALYSIS   OF  NYASALAND   COAL    .                    .                    ... 



HISTORY              .                    .                    .                    .                    . 


IV.       . 



APPENDIX    I      . 




THE  SLAVE  TRADE    .                .                .                ... 


„        VI.        . 

THE   EUROPEAN    SETTLERS                  .                .            .        . 

1  60 

APPENDIX    I      . 




,,                ~      . 

HINTS  ON  OUTFIT              .                    .                    .                    ... 



MISSIONARIES               .                .                .                . 


VIII.    . 

BOTANY             .                .                .                .                ... 


APPENDIX    I      . 



„              2     . 




ZOOLOGY              .                    .                    .                    .                    ... 


APPENDIX    I     . 



„               2     . 



3    • 

LIST  OF   KNOWN   BIRDS  .                    .                    .                    ... 


4    • 



5    • 



6    . 



»           7    • 

LIST   OF   KNOWN   ORTHOPTERA,    ETC.                .                     ... 


8    . 

LIST  OF   KNOWN   LEPIDOPTERA      .                    .                    ... 


»           9    • 

LIST  OF   KNOWN  COLEOPTERA        .                    .                    ... 





APPENDIX    I     . 




LANGUAGES    .                .                .                .                ... 


APPENDIX    I     . 

VOCABULARIES                      .                    .                    .                    ... 







Vignette  on  Title-page 


An  Angoni  Warrior 
Portrait  of  the  Author  . 

ix  "  My  table  in  the  wilderness "    .  . 

2  Borassus  Palms  on  the  Shire      .  ... 

3  Tropical  Vegetation  on  the  banks  of  the  Shire 

5  The  Leopard's  resting-place  :  a  mountain  stream  in 
Central  Africa  .  .  ... 

7  A  Tree  Fern  .  .  ... 

8  "  The  Genius  of  the  Woods"  (green  Turaco) 

9  A  Bamboo  Thicket       .  .  ... 

10  "Jack  in  the  Beanstalk's"  Country 

1 1  On  the  Plateau  .  .  ... 

12  The  Mlanje  Cedar  Forests          .  ... 

13  A  Mlanje  Mountain      .  .  ... 

14  A  Rock  Garden  on  Mlanje          .  ... 

15  Papyrus  Marsh  and  Saddle-billed  Storks 

22  The  "Sultan's  Baraza"  .  .  .         . 

25  Mount  Kapemba,  Tanganyika  .  ... 

26  On  Tanganyika  .  .  ... 

32  Xiamkolo  :  South  end  of  Tanganyika 

33  "  His  Last  Fight "        .  .  .  .         . 

35  Forest  on  Mount  Cholo,  British  Central  Africa   . 

36  The  Mlanje  Range,  seen  from  Zomba  after  rainfall 

37  Native  Clearing  in  Forest  Country 

38  The   Shire   at   Chikwawa,  just  below  the  Murchison 

Falls  .  .  .  ... 

39  Pinda  Mountain  and  Pinda  Marsh,  Lower  Shire. 

40  Part  of  the  Falls  of  the  Ruo  at  Zoa 

41  A  Mountain  Stream  in  Central  Africa 

42  First  View  of  Mlanje  Mountain  from  the  Lower  Shire 

43  On  the  Upper  Ruo       .  .  ... 

45  The  Mlanje  Range  from  the  Tuchila  Plain 

46  Chambi  Peak,  Mlanje  .  ... 

47  The  Likubula  Gorge,  Mlanje     .  ... 

48  On  Lake  Nyasa  .  .  ... 

49  The  Lichenya  River,  Mlanje      .  ... 

50  The  Shire  Highlands  .  .  ... 
53  Portrait  of  a  Young  Bushman  .  ... 

57  Governor's  House,  Tete  .  ... 

58  The  Island  of  Mozambique,  seen  from  the  Mainland  . 


Drawing  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  Miss  Kate  Pragnell, 

"  The  Lady  Photographers,"  Sloane 

Street,  S/W. 
Photograph  by  the  Author. 

If  >»  »J 

Drawing  by  the  Author. 

Painting  by  the  Author. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 
Painting  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  the  Author. 

Photograph  by  Mr.  Wm.  Wheeler. 
Photograph  by  the  Author. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 

Photograph  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  J.  B.  Yule. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  Alfred  Sharpe. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  Fred.  M.  Moir. 
Painting  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  the  Author. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  the  Author. 

Drawing  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  the  Author. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 

Photograph  by  the  Author. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  J.  B.  Yule. 
Photograph  by  the  Author. 

»»  »  » 

From  a  photograph. 

»  » 

Drawing  by  the  Author. 




61  The  Point  on  the  South  Shore  of  Lake  Nyasa  whence 
the  Lake  was  first  seen  by  Dr.  Livingstone  and 
Sir  John  Kirk  in  1859  .  ... 

67  Mandala  House,  near  Blantyre. 

72  L.  Monteith  Fotheringham         .  ... 

72  John  Lowe  Nicoll         .  .  ... 

73  Group  of  Wankonde  (North  Nyasa) 

74  John  W.  Moir  .  .  ... 

74  Frederick  Maitland  Moir  .  ... 

75  Mr.  Alfred  Sharpe  in  1890  .  ... 
79  On  the  Chinde,  Mouth  of  the  Zambezi     . 

83  Sergeant-Major  Ali  Kiongwe     .  ... 

85  Mr.  John  Buchanan     .  .  ... 

87  Masea  and  Mwitu,  two  of  Livingstone's  Makololo 

91  Outskirts  of  Kotakota  .  ... 

92  The  late  Tawakali  Sudi ;  Jumbe  of  Kotakota,  etc. 

93  North  Nyasa  Arabs  :  Bvvana  'Omari  in  the  foreground 
95  Langenburg,  Capital  of  German  Nyasaland       .         . 

98  Sikh  Soldiers  of  the  Contingent  now  serving  in  British 

Central  Africa  .  .  ... 

99  H.M.S.  Mosquito,  a  Zambezi  Gunboat 

101  Fort  Johnston  in  1895  •  •  •  • 

103  Captain  Cecil  Montgomery  Maguire 

107  Mr.  William  Wheeler  .  ... 

109  Mr.  Nicoll's  House  at  Fort  Johnston 

no  Trees  planted  by  Mr.  Nicoll  at  Fort  Johnston  (two 
years'  growth)  .  .  ... 

in  The  Nyasa  Gunboats  in  Nkata  Bay,  West  Nyasa 

112  Lake  Road,  Chiromo  .  ... 

1 14  The  Katunga  Road  in  pre-Administration  Days 

1 15  Captain    Sclater's   Road   to    Katunga   in  process  of 

making  .  .  ... 

1 16  Mr.  J.  F.  Cunningham  .  ... 

1 18  Lieut.-Colonel  C.  A.  Edwards    .  ... 

1 19  A  Sikh  Soldier  in  the  B.C.A.  uniform 

1 19  A  Sikh  Soldier  in  fighting  kit     .  .  . 

1 20  A  Sikh  Soldier  in  fighting  kit     .  ... 

1 20  Sikh  Soldier  in  undress  .  . 

121  Collector's  House  at  Fort  Lister 

122  Captain  W.  H.  Manning  .  ... 

123  The  Raphia  Palm  Marsh  hehind  Chiwaura's 

125  On  the  Beach  at  Monkey  Bay   .  ... 

126  One  of  Makanjira's  Captured  Daus  at  Monkey  Bay  . 

127  The  Hoisting  of  the  Flag  at  Fort  Maguire 

129  The  Beach  at  Makanjira's          .  ... 

130  Three  of  Makanjira's  Captured  Daus  (Fort  Maguire) 

131  A  Rural  Post  Office,  B.C.A.       .  ... 

132  Watch  Tower  at  Fort  Johnston 

133  A  Sikh  Sergeant-Major  of  the  B.C.A.  Contingent 

134  Native  Soldiers,  B.C.A.  .  ... 

135  An  Atonga  Soldier 

136  In  Zarafi's  Town 

Photograph  by  Mr.  E.  Harrhy. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  Fred.  M.  Moir. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  J.  B.  Yule. 

»  »  » 

Photograph  by  the  Author. 
From  a  photograph. 

»  » 

Photograph  by  Mr.  Fred.  M.  Moir. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  J.  B.  Yule. 
Photograph    by   Commander  Percy 


Photograph  by  Mr.  J.  Trotter. 
Photograph  by  the  Author. 

Photograph  by  Mr.  Wm.  Wheeler. 
From  a  photograph. 
Photograph  by  the  Author. 
From  a  photograph. 
Photograph  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  J.  B.  Yule. 

Photograph  by  Mr.  J.  B.  Yule. 
Photograph  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  R.  Webb. 
Photograph  by  the  Author. 

Photograph  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  Wm.  Wheeler. 


by    the     late     Gilbert 
Photograph  by  Mr.  E.  Harrhy. 

Photograph  by  Mr.  J.  B.  Yule. 
Photograph     by    the     late     Gilbert 


Photograph  by  Mr.  Wm.  Wheeler. 
Photograph  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  J.  B.  Yule. 

»  »  » 

Photograph  by  the  Author. 

»  »  » 

Photograph  by  Rev.  A.  G.  B.  Glossop. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  E.  Harrhy. 
Photograph  by  Rev.  A.  G.  B.  Glossop. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  Wm.  Wheeler. 

Photograph  by  the  Author. 




137  Deep  Bay  Station         .  .                 ... 

138  Mlozi,  Chief  of  the  North  Nyasa  Arabs 

139  The  Transports  on  their  way  to  Karonga  arriving-  in 

Likoma  Bay  .  .  ... 

141  A  corner  of  Mlozi's  Stockade     .  ... 

142  The  Nyasa-Tanganyika  Road  (made  by  the  B.C. A. 

Administration)         .  .  ... 

143  The  Nyasa-Tanganyika  Road  .  ... 

144  In  Fort  Hill  .                  .                  ... 

145  The  Stockade,  Fort  Hill  .                 ... 

146  Mr.  Alfred  Sharpe  in  1896  .                  ... 

147  The  Zomba-Mlanje  Road  .                 ... 

148  A  Footbridge  across  the  Mlungusi  (Zomba) 

150  The  Gardens  of  the  Residency,  Zomba    . 

151  Mr.  Whyte  in  the  Gardens  at  Zomba 

153  Barracks  at  Fort  Johnston          .                 ... 

156  A  Swahili  Slave-trader  .                  ... 

157  Arab    and    Swahili    Slave-traders    captured   by   the 

B.C. A.   Forces          .  .  ... 

158  A  "Ruga-Ruga"  (Mnyamwezi,  Slave-raider  employed 

by  the  Arabs)  .  .  ... 

161  The  Consulate,  Blantyre  .                 ... 

162  A  Coffee  Tree  in  bearing  .                  ... 

163  A  Planter's  temporary  House    .  ... 
165  Morambala  Mount  from  the  River  Shire  . 

167  Sharrer's  Store  at  Katunga        .                 ... 

169  A  "  Capitao "                .                 .                 ... 

172  In  Camp  after  a  day's  shooting 

174  Natives  making  Bricks  .                  ... 

175  Cyprus  Avenue,  Blantyre            .  ... 

176  Eucalyptus  Avenue      .  .                  ... 

177  A  Planter      .  .                  .                  ... 

178  An  Ivory  Caravan  arriving  at  Kotakota 

181  Ivory  at  Mandala  Store  (African  Lakes  Co.) 

182  Kahn  &  Co.'s  Trading  Store  at  Kotakota 

191  (i)  Bishop  Hornby  (formerly  of  Nyasaland).     (2)  The 

late  Bishop  Maples  of  Likoma 

194  Native  Church  at  Msumba,  Lake  Nyasa  (Universities 

Mission)     .  .  .  ... 

199  Blantyre  Church  (Church  of  Scotland  Mission) 

207  Flowers  of  the  Gardenia  Tree  .  ... 

208  Lissochihis  Orchids      .  .                  ... 

209  An  Angnecum  Orchis.  .                  ... 

210  The  Ansellia  or  "  Tiger  "  Orchis 

211  A  Red  Lily    .  .                 .                 ... 

212  Oil  Palms  near  the  Songwe  River,  North  Nyasa 

212  A  Raphia  Palm  .                  .                  ... 

213  Raphia  Palm  Fruiting  .                  ... 

214  Bonissus  Palms  .                   .                   ... 

214  Wild  Date  Palms           .  .                   ... 

215  A  Reed  Brake  (Phmginites  coin  munis)     . 

217  Plumes  and  Young  Shoot  of  Phragniitcs. 

218  Barbed  Seeds  of  Stipa  .                  ... 


Photograph  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  Fred  Moir. 

Photograph  by  Miss  Palmer. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 

Photograph  by  Mr.  J.  B.  Yule. 

Photograph  by  the  Author. 

»  »  u 

Photograph  by  Mr.  Win.  Wheeler. 

Photograph  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  Wm.  Wheeler. 

Photograph  by  Mr.  Fred  Moir. 

Photograph  by  Mr.  E.  Harrhy. 

Photograph  by  Mr.  Wm.  Wheeler. 

Photograph  by  Mr.  Alfred  Sharpe. 

Drawing  by  the  Author. 

From  a  photograph. 

Photograph     by    the     late     Gilbert 


Photograph  by  Mr.  E.  Harrhy. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  J.  B.  Yule. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  Fred  Moir. 
Photograph  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  J.F.  Cunningham. 
From  a  photograph. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  Fred  Moir. 
From  a  photograph. 

Photograph  by  Miss  Palmer. 

Photograph  by  Mr.  R.  Webb. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  Fred  Moir. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 

Photograph  by  the  Author. 

»  »  )> 

Drawing  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  Alfred  Sharpe. 
Photograph  by  the  Author. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 




218  Papyrus         .                 .                 .  . 

218  A  Large  Duckweed  (Pistia  stratiotes) 

219  An  Albizsia  Tree          .                  .  ... 

220  The  Mucuna  Bean       .                  .  ... 

221  A  Baobab  Tree             .                 .  ... 

222  The  Euphorbia  of  the  Plains      .  ... 

222  Candelabra  Euphorbias                .  ... 

223  A  Landolphia  Liana     .                  .  ... 

224  Sansevieria  Fibre  Plant                .  ... 

225  Growth    cf   Branches ;    Foliage ;    and    Cones    of  the 

Mlanje  Cedar  (  Widdringtonia  whytei)  . 

226  Young-  Mlanje  Cedar  .                  .  ... 
290  A  Spotted  Hyena          .                 .  ... 
293  The  Central  African  Zebra.         .'  ... 
297  Head  of  a  Hippopotamus           .  ... 
299  A  Wart  Hog-                  .                 .  ... 

302  Head  of  a  Buffalo        .                  .  ... 

303  Horns  of  Congo  Buffalo               .  ... 

304  Livingstone's  Eland     .                  .  ... 

305  Horns  of  Livingstone's  Eland    .  ... 

306  A  Male  Bushbuck         .                 .  ... 

307  Head  of  a  Male  Kudu                  .  ... 

310  Diagram  showing  origin  and  relationships  of  modern 

groups  of  Horned  Ruminants 

311  A  Klipspringer              .                  .  ... 

312  A  Male  Reedbuck        .                 .  ... 

312  A  Male  Reedbuck's  Head           .  ... 

313  A  Male  Waterbuck      .                  .  ... 

314  A  Female  Waterbuck  .                 .  ... 

315  The  Sable  Antelope     .                 .  ... 

318  A  Roan  Antelope          .                  .  ... 

319  Johnston's  Pallah          .                  .  ... 

320  The  Nyasaland  Gnu  (Connochcetes  taurinus  johnstoni) 
329  The  Elephant  Marsh                     .  ... 
335  The  Syndactylous  Foot                .  ... 

338  Spur-winged  Geese      .                 .  ... 

339  Crowned  Cranes           .                  .  .  ... 

343  A  Pelican  of  Tanganyika           .  ... 

343  A  Stilt  Plover                .                 .  ... 

344  Head  and  foot  of  Fruit-pigeon 

345  The  Warlike  Crested  Eagle  (Spizcetus  bellicosus) 

346  A  Small  Falcon  (Falco  minor)     .  ... 
357  Nyasa  Crocodiles         .                 .  ... 

360  Chromis    squamipennis ;    Hemichromis    livingstonii: 

Fish  of  Lake  Nyasa                  .  ... 

361  Engraulicypris  pinguis               .  ... 

371  A  Termite  Ant-hill        .                  .  ... 

372  A  Stick  Insect                .                  .  ... 

373  A  Locustid  Insect         .                  .  ... 
378  The  Tsetse  Fly                              .  ... 
388  An  Angoni  Man  from  the  West  Nyasa  district    . 

390  A  Mnyanja    .                 .                 .  ... 

391  A  Yao  Man  .                 .                 .  ... 


Drawing  by  the  Author. 

Photograph  by  Mr.  Wm.  Wheeler. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  J.  B.  Yule. 

Drawing  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  Foulkes. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 

Photograph  by  the  Author. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 
From  a  photograph. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 

Engraving    lent    by    the    Zoological 

Drawing  by  the  Author. 

Photograph  by  Mr.  Alfred  Sharpe. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 

Photograph  by  the  Author. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 

Zoological  Society's  Proceedings. 

Photograph  by  Miss  Palmer. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 

Photograph  by  Mr.  Wm.  Wheeler. 




393  An  Arab  of  Tanganyika  (Rumaliza) 

395  A  Mtonga  Man  (to  show  profile) 

397  A  Yao  of  the  Upper  Shire          .  ... 

398  An  Ang-oni  from  Mombera's  country 

399  Boy  with  well-developed  breasts 

400  A  Young-  Mother  (showing  pendent  breasts) 

401  Wankonde  Men  .  .  ... 
403  A  Munkonde  from  North  Nyasa 

405  Sketch  of  Muscular  Development  in  a  Yao 

407  A  Yao  Woman  .  .  ... 

411  Young  Munkonde  Girl  .  .  .          . 

414  A  Mtonga  Man  .  .  ... 

416  "A  Good  Mother  "  (Sketch  of  a  Mnyanja  woman) 

420  A  Yao  of  Zomba          .  .  ... 

421  A  "Ruga-Ruga"         .  .  ... 

423  Specimens  of  Tatooing ;  Comb  ;   Plugs  for  insertion 

in  ear,  lips,  nose,  etc.  .  ... 

424  Example  of  "  Pelele"  in  upper  lip 

424  Another  example  of  the  "  Pelele  " 

425  Wooden  Hoe ;  and  wooden  Hammer  for  beating  out 

bark  cloth  .  .  ... 

427  North  Nyasa  Native  smoking  hemp 

428  Banana  Grove  (Mlanje)  .  ... 
431  Wankonde  Cattle         .                  .  ... 
433  The  Domestic  Goat  of  South  and  Central  Africa 

453  A  typical  Native  House  in  South  Nyasaland 

454  A  Nkonde  House          .  .  ... 
457  Natives  making  a  prone  tree  trunk  into  a  canoe 

457  A  River  Pilot  .  .  ... 

458  Weaving  in  Angoniland  .  ... 

459  Weaving  on  the  Nyasa-Tanganyika  Plateau 

460  Women  making  Pots  .  .  ... 

461  Pipes  for  hemp  and  tobacco        .  ... 

462  Central  African  Weapons,  etc.   .  ... 

464  African  Dancer  and  Drum  Players 

465  A    Mu-lungu    of   South    Tanganyika    blowing    ivory 

trumpet      .  .  .  ... 

467  A  "Sansi  "    . 

470  Angoni  Warriors  .  .  ... 

470  Head  stuck  on  a  pole  after  a  native  war  . 

472  "Young  Africa"  .  .  ... 

480  Map  showing  the  lines   of  migration  of  the   Bantu 
tribes  in  their  invasion  of  Southern  Africa 



Photograph  by  Mr.  Fred  Moir. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 

Photograph  by  Mr.  J.  B.  Yule. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  Alfred  Sharpe. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  Wm.  Wheeler. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  J.  B.  Yule. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 

Photograph  by  Mr.  Wm.  Wheeler. 

Drawing  by  the  Author. 

Photograph  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  Fred  Moir. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  Fred  Moir. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  Yule. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  R.  Webb. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  Fred  Moir. 

Photograph  by  Mr.  Yule. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 

From  a  photograph. 

Drawing   by   the   Author   from   a 

photograph  by  Mr.  Yule. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 
Photograph  by  Mr.  J.  F.Cunningham. 
Drawing  by  the  Author. 
Photograph     by    the     late     Gilbert 


Drawing  by  the  Author. 

i.    Map  of  British  Central  Africa,  showing  approximate  rainfall,  naviga- 
bility of  rivers,  etc. 

2-    showing  Orographical  features  .  .  .  . 

3-    showing  Administrative  divisions  .  .  .  . 

4.  Map  of  the  Shire  Highlands  ..... 

5.  Map   of  British    Central    Africa,    showing  density  of  population   and 

distribution  of  native  tribes  ..... 

6. showing  Mission  Stations  and  Foreign  Settlers  and  Settlements  . 

To  face  page 

'&        %x> 

J>*      LIBRARY,     ^ 
((          OCT   19  1897 

,o  >^TTL  <  Qj 



BEFORE  I  begin  to  discourse  on  the  dull  facts  of  history  and  geography, 
let  me  try  to  give  my  reader  some  idea  of  what  the  country  looks  like  by 
describing  certain  set  scenes  and  panoramas.    Perhaps  from  these  he  may 
•derive  a  clearer  impression  of  the  general  appearance  and   the  many  diverse 
aspects  of  British  Central  Africa. 

A  steadily  flowing  river.  In  the  middle  of  the  stream  an  islet  of  very  green 
grass,  so  lush  and  so  thick  that  there  are  no  bright  lights  or  sharp  shadows — 
simply  a  great  splodge  of  rich  green  in  the  middle  of  the  shining  water  which 
reflects  principally  the  whitish-blue  of  the  sky ;  though  this  general  tint  becomes 
opaline  and  lovely  as  mother-of-pearl,  owing  to  the  swirling  of  the  current  and 
the  red-gold  colour  of  the  concealed  sand-banks  which  in  shallow  places 
permeates  the  reflections.  Near  to  the  right  side  of  the  grass  islet  separated 
only  by  a  narrow  mauve-tinted  band  of  water  is  a  sand-bank  that  has  been 
uncovered,  and  on  this  stands  a  flock  of  perhaps  three  dozen  small  white  egrets 
closely  packed,  momentarily  immoveable,  and  all  stiffly  regardant  of  the 
approaching  steamer,  each  bird  with  a  general  similarity  of  outline  almost 
Egyptian  m  its  monotonous  repetition. 

The  steamer  approaches  a  little  nearer,  and  the  birds  rise  from  the  sand-bank 
with  a  loose  flapping  flight  and  strew  themselves  over  the  landscape  like  a 
shower  of  large  white  petals.  On  the  left  bank  of  the  river  looking  down 
stream  is  a  grove  of  borassus  palms  rising  above  the  waterside  fringe  of  white 
flowered  reeds  and  apple-green  mopheads  of  papyrus.  The  trunks  of  the 
taller  palms  are  smooth  and  whitish,  but  those  of  younger  growth  nearer  to  the 
ground  are  still  girt  about  by  a  fierce  spiky  hedge  of  dead  blnck-stemmed 
fronds.  The  crowns  of  the  palm  trees  are  symmetrical  and  fan-shaped  in 
general  outline,  while  each  individual  frond  has  in  its  inner  side  a  horse-shoe 
curve.  The  colour  of  the  fronds  is  a  deep  bluish-green  singularly  effective 
in  contrast  with  the  grey-white  column  they  surmount.  The  fruit  of  the  palms, 
when  they  can  be  descried,  are  like  huge  yellow-green  apples  thickly  clustered 
on  pendent  racemes  protruding  from  the  centre  round  which  the  fronds  radiate. 


Behind  the  palm  forest  is  a  long  line  of  blue  mountain  so  far  away  that  it  is  just 
a  faint  blue  silhouette  against  the  paler  blue  sky.  The  afternoon  is  well  advanced, 
and  in  the  eastern  sky,  which  is  a  warm  pinkish  blue,  the  full  moon  has  already 
risen  and  hangs  there  a  yellow-white  shield  with  no  radiance.  On  the  opposite 
bank  of  the  river  to  the  palm  trees  is  a  clump  of  tropical  forest  of  the  richest 
green  with  purple  shadows,  lovely  and  seductive  in  its  warm  tints  under  the 
rays  of  the  late  afternoon  sun.  Here  are  large  albizzia  trees.1  Over  the  water- 
side hang  thick  bushes  overgrown  with  such  a  drapery  of  convolvulus  creepers 


that  the  foliage  of  the  bush  is  almost  hidden.  This  green  lacework  is  beauti- 
fully lit  up  by  large  mauve  flowers.  Above  the  bushes  rise  the  heads  of  the 
wild  date  palm,  and  amid  the  fronds  of  this  wild  date  here  and  there  a  cluster 
of  its  small  orange  fruit  peeps  out.  These  palms  rise  over  masses  of  foliage, 
and  occasionally  top  the  higher  trees,  growing  within  their  canopy  in  almost 
parasitic  fashion.  This  cluster  of  tropical  vegetation  will  be  here  and  there 
scooped  out 'into  fairy  bovvers  by  the  irregularities  of  the  bank.  Sometimes  the 
trees  will  overhang  the  stream  where  the  bank  has  been  washed  away.  Tiny 
kingfishers  of  purple-blue  and  chestnut-orange  flit  through  the  dark  network  of 
gnarled  trunks,  and  deep  in  this  recess  of  shade  small  night-herons  and  bitterns 
stand  bolt  upright,  so  confident  in  their  assumed  invisibility  against  a  back- 

1   A  genus  related  to  the  acacia  with  the  thickest  foliage  of  pinnate  leaves  looking  at  a  distance  like 
green  velvet. 


Around  of  brown  and  grey  that  they  do  not  move  even  when  the  steamer  passes 
so  close  by  them  as  to  brush  against  the  tangle  of  convolvulus  and  knock  down 
sycomore  figs  from  the  glossy-leaved,  many-rooted  fig  trees. 

It  is  a  backwater  on  the  Shire  river,  or  perhaps  not  so  much  a  backwater 
as  a  sluggish  branch  of  the  stream  which  the  main  current  has  deserted  and  left 
hidden  away  between  bosky  islands  and  the  high  wooded  bank.  The  flow 
of  the  current  is  not  discernible,  and  the  reflections  are  glassy  and  mirror-like 
in  their  exactitude,  except  that  the  surface  of  the  water  in  the  foreground  is 
strewn  with  oval  lotus  leaves  looking  in  shape  and  even  colour  exactly  like  those 
copper  ashtrays  or  cardtrays  made  in  Indian  ware  with  slightly  turned -up 
crinkled  edges.  The  scene  is  much  framed  in  with  overarching  foliage  and 
branches  from  island  and  opposite  bank.  On  this  shore  of  the  mainland 


there  are  tall  acacia  trees  with  smooth  pale-green  trunks  and  whitish-green 
branches,  and  a  feathery  light-green  foliage  spangled  with  hanging  clumps 
of  tiny  golden-stamened,  petalless  flowers  which  exhale  the  most  penetrating, 
absolute,  and  honeyed  of  all  flower  scents,  a  scent  so  strong  that  it 
may  be  wafted  on  a  still,  hot  day  across  a  mile  of  water.  In  the  middle 
distance  is  a  fine  group  of  trees,  elm-like  in  shape,  growing  on  the  river  bank 
above  the  flood  limit.  In  the  farthest  distance  a  few  sparse-foliaged  acacias 
stand  out  against  the  grey-blue  sky  above  a  high  fence  of  reeds.  In  the 
nearer  distance  one  clump  of  spear-like  reeds  rises  from  the  waterlilies  and 
shows  some  fine  white  flowering  plumes  against  the  dark  background  of  the 
forest  clump.  In  the  foreground  is  a  huge  snag,  the  relic  of  a  fine  forest 
tree  that  has  been  washed  down  in  the  flood  and  stranded  in  the  mud  of 
this  backwater.  On  its  branches  are  perched  darters  with  sheeny  plumaged 
bodies  of  greenish-black  and  chestnut-coloured  necks  ending  in  a  head  and 
spear-like  beak,  so  slim  that  it  seems  a  mere  termination  of  the  angular 
weapon  of  the  neck.  Amongst  the  \Vaterlily  leaves  rise  the  beautiful  blue-pink 
flowers  that  are  styled  the  lotus. 


We  are  going  to  climb  a  mountain.  First  there  are  the  low  foothills  to 
surmount. .  The  soil  is  red  and  hard  ;  the  grass  is  scattered  and  in  yellow  wisps, 
and  the  many  wild  flowers  are  drooping,  for  it  is  the  end  of  the  dry  season. 
The  trees  are  in  foliage,  though  the  rains  have  not  yet  fallen,  and  the  young 
leaves  at  this  stage  are  seldom  green,  but  the  most  beautiful  shades  of  carmine 
pink,  of  pinkish  yellow,  of  greenish  mauve,  and  even  inky  purple.  Here  and 
there  sprays  of  foliage  are  in  a  more  advanced  development,  and  are  green  with 
a  bluish  bloom,  or  of  the  brightest  emerald.  But  the  height  of  the  trees  is  not 
great,  and  their  leaves,  though  large,  are  scattered  in  a  tufty  growth  that  yields 
but  a  feeble  patchwork  of  shade  from  the  hot  sun  ;  the  branches  are  coarse, 
and  thick,  and  seldom  straight,  they  look  just  like  the  branches  of  trees  drawn 
from  imagination  by  amateur  water-colour  artists.  In  many  cases  the  bark 
is  still  black  and  sooty  with  the  scorching  of  the  recent  bush  fires.  The  general 
impression  of  all  this  vegetation,  though  one  is  forced  to  admire  the  individual 
tints  of  the  newly-opened  leaves,  is  disappointing.  It  is  scrubby.  The  land- 
scape has  not  the  dignity  of  a  blasted  heath,  or  the  simplicity  of  a  sandy 
desert ;  its  succession  of  undulations  of  low  scattered  forest  of  such  a  harlequin 
variation  of  tints  is  such  as  to  produce  no  general  effect  of  definite  form  and 
settled  colour  on  the  eye.  But  this  is  a  good  game  country.  As  you  plod 
along  the  hard  red  path,  baked  almost  into  brick  by  the  blazing  sun  acting  on 
the  red  mud  of  the  rainy  season,  you  will  suddenly  catch  sight  of  a  splendid 
sable  antelope  with  ringed  horns,  almost  in  a  half  oval,  a  black  and  white  face, 
a  glossy  black  body,  white  stomach,  fringed  and  tufted  tail,  and  heavy  black 
mane ;  or,  it  may  be,  his  beautiful  female  of  almost  equal  bulk,  but  with 
smaller  horns,  and  with  all  the  markings  and  coloration  chestnut  and  white 
instead  of  white  and  black.  Unless  you  are  very  quick  with  your  rifle,  the 
beast  will  soon  be  hid  and  almost  undiscoverable  amongst  the  low  trees  and 

The  path  is  broken  here  and  there  by  seams  of  granite.  Every  now  and 
then  there  is  a  regular  scramble  over  wayworn  rocks;  granite  boulders  are  more 
and  more  interspersed  amongst  the  red  clay.  Between  the  boulders  grow 
aloes  with  fleshy  leaves  of  green,  spotted  with  red,  and  long  flower  spikes 
of  crimson  which  end  in  coral -coloured  flower  buds — buds  which  open 
grudgingly  at  the  tip;  the  edges  of  the  sprawling  aloe  leaves  are  dentelated, 
and  in  their  tendency  to  redness  sometimes  all  green  is  merged  in  a  deep 
vinous  tint. 

Now  there  is  less  scrub,  and  the  trees  as  we  ascend  become  larger  and  more 
inclined  to  stand  in  clumps;  their  foliage  is  thicker.  We  are  approaching  a 
stream,  and  its  course  is  marked  by  a  forest  of  a  different  type,  fig  trees  of 
various  species,  tall  parinariums  (a  tree  which  bears  a  purple  plum),  huge- 
leaved  gomphias,  and  velvet-foliaged  albizzias.  On  either  side  of  the  stream, 
also,  there  is  a  jungle  of  bamboos,  and  the  path  descends  from  out  of  the  weary 
glare  of  the  white  sunlight  on  the  red  clay  into  a  cool,  moist,  green  tunnel 
through  the  numberless  spear-heads  of  bamboo  leaves.  There  are  many  ferns 
on  either  side  of  the  stream  bank  and  beautiful  carmine  lilies1  are  growing 
by  the  water's  edge,  but  as  the  rains  are  still  withheld  there  is  but  a  thin  film  of 
water  slipping  down  over  the  grey  rocks  and  brown  pebbles,  and  the  stream 
may  be  easily  crossed  from  stepping  stone  to  stepping  stone.  Then  a  clamber 
up  the  opposite  bank  and  through  the  bamboo  out  once  more  into  the  scorching 
sunshine,  and  so  on  and  on  along  a  winding  path  through  a  native  village 

1  See  illustration,  pa^e  211. 




with  its  untidy  haycocks  of  huts,  its  clumps  of  bananas,  plantations  of  sweet 
potatoes  and  tobacco,  and  adjoining  stubble  fields  where  gaunt  isolated  stalks 
of  sorghum  still  linger.  The  blue  mountain  wall  towards  which  we  are  aiming 
rises  higher  into  the  sky,  and  its  blue  vagueness  becomes  resolvable  into  a  detail 
of  purple  and  yellow  grey.  But  though  the  sun  is  hotter  than  ever  as  it 
approaches  the  zenith  our  continual  ascent  brings  us  to  a  region  that  enjoys 
more  benign  conditions  of  moisture  and  coolness  at  night  time.  The  young 
green  grass  is  more  advanced  than  down  below,  the  herbage  is  so  thick  that  the 
red  soil  is  almost  hidden.  The  wild  flowers  commence  to  be  beautiful.  There 
are  innumerable  ground  orchids  in  various 
shades  of  mauve  or  yellow,  or  with  strange 
green  blossoms,  or  flowers  of  richest  orange. 
A  beautiful  white  clematis  grows  from  an 
upright  stalk,  and  here  and  there  are 
bushes  of  a  kind  of  mallow,  which  bears 
large  azalea  -  like  clusters  of  the  most 
perfect  blush  pink.  Higher  up  still  there 
are  more  and  more  flowers  in  many  shades 
of  blue  and  mauve  and  yellow.  There  is 
a  small  kind  of  sunflower  that  is  a  deep 
maroon  crimson,  and  another  coreopsis 
more  like  the  cultivated  sunflower  with 
flaming  yellow  petals.  In  moist  places — 
and  the  path  is  now  constantly  crossing 
small  brooks  —  grows  the  dissotis,  with  ;  f 
large  flowers  of  deep  red -mauve.  The 
path  curves  and  twists  and  runs  up  above 
heights  and  then  down  into  deep  ravines, 
and  still  the  flowers  grow  thicker  and 
thicker  and  more  lovely,  till  in  the  ecstasy 
of  a  colour  dream,  all  remembrance  of  the 
sun's  heat,  of  your  great  fatigue  and  your 
sweat -drenched  clammy  garments  is  for- 
gotten. On  the  hill-sides  there  are  frequent 
clumps  of  wild  date  palms,  some  of  which 
rise  to  a  great  height  with  their  slender 
stems  often  bowed  or  curved  and  seldom 

perpendicular.  Then  you  come  to  your  first  tree-fern,  or  if  you  are  a  botanist 
you  are  delighted  with  a  rare  cycad  growing  majestically  alone  and  looking 
very  much  as  though  it  were  an  admirable  piece  of  artificial  foliage  executed  in 
green  bronze.  Still  ascending,  with  a  pause  here  and  a  rest  there  in  the 
absolute  shade  of  the  great  forest  trees,  tree-ferns  become  so  abundant  at 
last  as  to  make  fairy  forests  of  themselves,  excluding  other  arborescence. 
Then  they  give  way  again  to  densely- packed  thick -foliaged  forest  trees  of 
low  growth  through  which  a  path  winds  over  many  a  bole  and  through 
many  a  bamboo  bower  in  deep  green  gloom.  Through  this  gloom  flit  the 
crimson  -  winged  turacos,  the  lovely  genii  of  the  African  forest  —  birds  of 
purple-blue,  bluish-green  and  grass-green  silky  plumage  with  a  white-tipped 
crest,  red  parrot-like  beaks,  and  bare  red  cheeks,  but  always,  no  matter -what 
their  species,  with  the  broad,  rounded  pinion  feathers  of  the  wing  the  most 
perfect  scarlet-crimson  ever  seen  in  nature.  The  loud  parrot  cries  of  these 

A    TREE-l  K.RN 


birds  (not  unmelodious)  echo  and  re-echo  through  the  forest  glades  as  they 
call  to  one  another;  and  here  is  a  crimson  flash,  and  there  is  a  long  crimson 
streak  drawn  across  the  green  background  as  they  fly  backwards  and  forwards 
before  the  delighted  intruder. 

Runnels  of  water  will  at  times  trickle  through  the  black  leaf  mould  of  the 
scarcely  discernible  path,  and  you  will  come  to  many  a  fairy  glen  where  the 
dark,  clear,  cold  water  lies  in  deep  pools  amongst  the  ferns. 


The  forest  for  a  time  will  give  place  to  a  bamboo  thicket,  the  bamboos 
perhaps  of  a  different  species  to  those  lower  down,  with  smaller  and  finer  leaves 
of  a  deeper  green  ;  nothing  more  beautiful  than  these  bamboo  glades  is  to 
be  seen  in  the  way  of  vegetation.  It  is  difficult  to  express  in  words  the 
effect  which  is  produced  by  thousands  of  narrow,  pointed  leaves  of  shiny  surface 
shaped  like  small  spear  blades — a  wall  of  green  facets — moving  at  times  with 
a  faint  tremor  which  sends  a  shimmering  of  green  around  you,  accompanied  by 
the  tiniest  whispering  sound.  No  transformation  scene  ever  shown  on  the  stage 
was  so  beautiful  as  a  bamboo  glade  on  the  high  mountain  side  with,  invariably, 
water  falling  down  the  centre  of  the  picture  in  tiny  cascades  and  the  soft  ground 
carpeted  with  a  deposit  of  cast  leaves  like  thin  spear  blades  of  pale  gold. 


Beyond  the  bamboos  the  path  becomes  terrible.  You  emerge  from  the 
gloom  of  this  first  forest  belt  on  to  bare  rock  and  obtain  glorious  views  over  the 
flower-braided  hill-slopes  below,  over  the  band  of  dark  green  velvet  forest,  and 
beyond  into  plains  that  are  purple-blue  with  a  diamond  flash  of  water  here  and 
there  till  the  horizon  is  closed  up  with  the  palest  silhouettes  of  other 

The  path  is  now  scarcely  apparent.  It  is  a  hazardous  progress  up  a  steep 
face  of  smooth  polished  rock  from  grass  clump  to  grass  clump.  Here  and  there 
on  ledges  of  the  rock  where  a  little  vegetable  soil  may  have  collected  tussocks 
of  grass  are  growing,  and  these  afford  a  precarious  foothold  ;  nevertheless 
though  there  is  no  good  path  it  is  obvious  that  men  often  pass  this  way  up 
and  down  the  mountains  since  the  tussocks  of  grass  that  are  regularly  trodden 


on  are  grey  and  dead  in  comparison  to  those  untouched  by  the  human  foot, 
which  remain  green.  Here  the  difficulty  of  your  ascent  will  be  lightened  by 
the  joy  you  must  feel  in  the  lobelias,  if  you  have  any  sense  of  colour.  In  the 
crevices  of  these  glabrous-looking  mountain  ribs  will  grow  bunches  of  lobelias 
extravagant  in  their  thousands  of  blue  flowerets. 

At  last  the  ascent  of  this  mountain  wall  is  safely  accomplished,  and  you 
fling  yourself  panting  on  short  wiry  turf  growing  in  clumps  and  know  that  you 
have  reached  the  limits  of  "  Jack-in-the-Beanstalk's  "  country. 

All  the  great  mountains  of  South  Central  Africa  seem  to  be  isolated 
fragments  of  an  older  plateau,  and  most  of  them  present  more  or  less  precipitous 
wall-like  sides  rising  above  the  foot  hills,  which  latter  are  created  by  land  slides 
and  debris,  or  represent  smaller  remains  of  the  plateau  that  in  course  of  time 
have  been  more  worn  away  than  the  larger  blocks  constituting  the  big 
mountains  or  the  long  mountain  ranges.  These  wall-like  sides  are  naturally 
difficult  of  ascent ;  but  when  one  has  clambered  up  over  the  edge,  and  on  to 


the  more  level  surface  of  the  upraised  tableland,  it  is  a  veritable  "  Jack-in-the 
Beanstalk's"  country,  quite  different  in  aspect  to  the  tropical  plains  below. 
Turning  your  eyes  away,  however,  from  the  blue  gulf  which  yawns  beneath  the 
precipitous  ascent  of  several  thousand  feet — which  blue  gulf  after  analysis  by 
the  eye  resolves  itself  into  the  faint  map  of  many  leagues  of  surrounding 
countries — you  find  that  the  plateau  on  which  you  stand  is  a  little  world  in 
itself.  The  general  surface  is  rolling  grass  land  and  beautifully-shaped  downs, 
with  little  streams  and  little  lakes,  and  little  forests  ;  and  again  from  out  of  this 
tableland  little  mountains  of  one  to  three  thousand  feet,  chiefly  of  granite,  rise 
up  into  the  clouds  and  in  their  austere  rockiness  contrast  charmingly  with  the 
lawns  of  short  grass,  the  flowery  vales,  and  the  rich  woodlands  at  their  base. 
Altogether  the  scenery  is  pretty  rather  than  grand,  and  if  you  could  forget  the 
ascent  you  have  made  and  your  geographical  position,  you  might  imagine 


yourself  in  Wales,  and  believe  that  country  of  this  sort  stretched  illimitably 
before  you  for  miles  and  miles,  were  it  not  that  upon  walking  a  few  steps 
in  another  direction  you  suddenly  stop  shuddering  on  the  sharp  edge  of  an 
awful  gulf— a  gulf  which  on  a  misty  day  might  be  the  end  and  edge  of  the 

It  is  a  "  Jack-in-the-Beanstalk  "  country.  A  little  section  of  land  upraised 
and  quite  apart  from  the  rest  of  Tropical  Africa  with  a  climate  and  flora  of  its 
own,  and  as  a  rule  without  indigenous  human  inhabitants.  The  fauna  of  these 
altitudes  has  usually  peculiar  features  though  most  of  the  mammals  differ  but 
little  from  those  of  the  plains.  Antelopes,  buffalos,  and  even  elephants  will 
scramble  to  these  heights,  if  they  be  in  any  way  accessible,  for  the  sake  of  the 
sweet  herbage  ;  therefore  in  your  ramblings  over  these  plateaux  you  may  catch 
sight  of  big  game,  and  even  meet  in  its  train  the  lion  and  leopard.  The  woods 
of  Cape-oak  and  other  evergreens — the  branches  of  which  are  hung  with  long 
sprays  of  greenish-white  lichen,  "the  old  man's  beard"1 — are  resonant  with  the 

1  Usnea,  the  "orchilla"  weed  of  commerce. 


cries  of  turacos,  possibly  a  species  slightly  differing  from  that  found  in  the 
warmer  climate  of  the  plains  or  hill-sides.  Most  of  the  other  birds  will  be 
allied  to  South  African,  Abyssinian  or  even  European  species — large  purple 
pigeons  with  yellow  beaks  or  pretty  doves  with  roseate  tinge  and  white  heads  ; 
orioles  of  green  and  yellow  and  grey ;  chats,  buntings,  fly-catchers,  plump 
speckled  francolin  and  tiny  harlequin-quails  ;  few,  if  any  birds  of  prey,  but 
many  great-billed  black  and  white  ravens  and  an  occasional  black  crow.  The 
wild  flowers  remind  one  touchingly  of  home.  There  are  violets,  there  is  a  rare 
primula,  there  are  buttercups,  forget-me-nots,  St.  John's  wort,  anemones,  vivid 
blue  hound's-tongue  and  heather.  Unfamiliar,  however,  are  the  lovely  ground 
orchids,  the  strange  proteas  and  the  "  everlasting  "  flowers.  Also  there  are  strag- 
gling arborescent  heaths,  almost  like  small  conifers  in  appearance,  though  other 
forms  more  ^closely  resemble  our  own  heather.  Near  the  edges  of  the  plateau 

ON    THK    I'l.ATKAT 

amongst  the  rocks  grows  a  big  kind  of  tree-lily  with  a  gouty,  pachydermatous, 
branching  stem  and  tufts  of  grass-like  leaves.  If  it  be,  as  I  imagine,  the  early 
spring  when  you  are  ascending  the  mountain,  these  otherwise  ugly  shrubs  will 
be  covered  with  white  lily-like  blossoms. 

The  air  of  these  lofty  plateaux  is  cool  and  bracing  and  the  sunshine  harmless 
in  the  day-time.  When  the  weather  is  fine  the  sky  is  a  lovely  pale-blue. 
Daylight  under  these  conditions  is  one  long  inexhaustible  joy  of  living. 
Fatigue  is  not  felt ;  the  sun's  heat  is  pleasantly  warm  ;  a  moderate  thirst  can 
be  delightfully  quenched  in  the  innumerable  ice-cold  brooks  ;  but  when  the 
sun  is  set — set  amid  indescribable  splendour  in  what  appears  to  be  the  middle 
of  the  sky,  so  high  is  the  horizon — -nature  wears  a  different  even  an  alarming 
aspect :  unless  you  have  a  cheerful  log-hut  to  enter  or  a  well-pitched  comfortable 
tent  (with  a  roaring  fire  burning  at  a  safe  distance  from  the  tent  porch) 
you  will  feel  singularly  dismal.  Perhaps  a  thunder-storm  may  have  come 
on.  Enormous  masses  of  cloud  may  be  bearing  down  on  and  enveloping 
you — thunder  of  the  most  deafening  description  breaks  around  you  and 



re-echoes  worse  than  any  roar  of  artillery  in  battle  from  every  ravine  and 
hill-side.  The  drenching  rain  or  the  driving  mist  may  be  chilling  your 
half-naked  followers  into  blue  numbness,  and  even  bringing  them,  if  they  are 
unsheltered,  dangerously  near  death  from  cold.  Even  if  it  be  a  fine  night, 
and  the  moon  shining,  there  will  be  something  a  little  repellent  and  awe- 
striking  in  the  world  outside  your  tent.  The  forest,  to  the  vicinity  of  which 
you  have  come  for  shelter,  is  very  black,  and  the  strange  cries  of  bird  and 
beast  coming  from  these  depths  quite  confirm  the  native  belief  that  the  trees 
are  haunted  with  the  spirits  of  the  departed.  The  stars  seem  so  near  to  you, 


and  if  in  the  moonlight  you  have  found  your  way  over  the  tussocky  grass 
to  the  edge  of  the  plateau  and  looked  forth  on  a  sleeping  universe  you  feel 
a  little  frightened— so  completely  are  you  aloof  from  the  living  world  of 
man.  It  is  much  pleasanter,  therefore,  to  be  shut  up  in  a  good  tent  or  log 
cabin,  snugly  ensconced  in  bed  (for  it  is  probably  freezing  hard)  reading  a  novel. 

We  are  on  the  upper  plateau  of  Mlanje,  grandest  of  all  British  Central 
African  mountains.  It  is  early  morning,  say  6.30  a.m.  We  have  been  roused 
by  our  native  attendants,  have  had  a  warm  bath  and  a  cup  of  coffee  and  are 
now  inspecting  our  surroundings  in  the  glory  of  the  early  sunshine.  On  the 
short  wiry  grass  there  lies  a  white  rime  of  frost  as  we  walk  down  the  slope 
to  the  cedar  woods.  Here  rises  up  before  us  a  magnificent  forest  of  straight 
and  noble  trees,  of  conifers1  which  in  appearance  resemble  cedars  of  Lebanon 

1   Widdringtonia  ivhytei. 


though  they  have  also  a  look  of  the  Scotch  pine  and  are  actually  in  their 
natural  relationship  allied  to  the  cypress.  Their  trunks  are  straight  and  the 
outer  bark  is  often  bleached  white  ;  the  wood  is  the  tint  of  a  cedar  pencil.  The 
foliage  which  on  the  older  trees  grows  in  scant  tufts  (leaving  a  huge  white 
skeleton  of  sprawling  branches)  on  the  younger  trees  is  abundant,  bluish-green 


below  and  the  dark,  sombre  green  of  the  fir  tree  above.  The  extremities  of 
each  branch  have  a  pretty  upward  curl. 

Much  of  the  undergrowth  of  these  cedar  woods  is  a  smaller  species  of 
Widdringtonia  with  a  lighter  green  foliage,  most  gracefully  pendent  and  starlike 
in  each  cluster  of  needles. 

Oh  !  the  deep  satisfying  peace  of  these  cedar  woods.  The  air  is  thick  with 
the  odour  of  their  wholesome  resin.  The  ground  at  our  feet  is  a  springy 



carpet  of  emerald  green  moss  out  of  which  peep  anemones  and  primulas. 
Here  indeed  when  the  mild  warmth  of  the  day  has  dried  up  the  night  dews 
might  one  lie  half  stupefied  by  the  rich  aroma  of  the  cedar  wood,  "the  world 
forgetting,  by  the  world  forgot,"  while  the  big  purple  pigeons  with  white- 
streaked  necks  and  yellow  beaks  resume  their  courtship  on  the  branches  above 


our  heads.  Beyond  the  cedar  wood  is  the  mountain-side  strewn  with  innumer- 
able boulders  and  cubes  of  rock  which  are  interspersed  with  huge  everlasting 
flowers  and  a  strange  semi-Alpine  vegetation.  If  we  are  trying  to  scramble  up 
these  to  reach  the  summit  we  shall  hear  from  time  to  time  the  musical 
trickle  of  water  in  caverns  and  holes,  closed  in  by  these  strong  boulders  and 
thickly  hung  with  mosses  and  ferns.  Should  we  then  have  reached  any 
of  the  great  summits  of  Mlanje  and  looked  down  into  its  central  crater  we 
shall  realise  that  here  must  have  been  at  one  time  volcanic  action.  The 



scene  before  us  is  an  indescribable  wilderness  of  stones  and  boulders  which  look 
as  though  they  had  been  hurled  right  and  left  from  some  central  eruption. l 

On  the  left-hand  side  stretches  an  arid  plain  of  loose  friable  soil  once  formed 
below  the  water,  and  white  with  the  lime  of  decomposed  shells  blazing  in  the 
reverberating  sunshine  of  noonday — the  refracted  heat  of  its  surface  so  great 
that  the  horizon  quivers  in  wavy  lines  before  our  half-blinded  eyes  ;  on  the 
other  side  a  papyrus  marsh  with  open  pools  of  stagnant  water.  Beyond  the 
arid  waste  of  light  soil  on  which  a  few  grey  wisps  of  grass  are  growing,  lie 
the  deep  blue  waters  of  a  lake — almost  an  indigo  blue  at  noonday  and  seen 
from  this  angle.  Behind  the  papyrus  marsh  is  a  line  of  pale  blue-grey 
mountains  —  a  flat  wash  of  colour,  all  detail  veiled  by  the  heat  haze.  We 
are  at  the  mouth  of  a  great  river  and  the  marshes  on  one  side  of  us  repre- 
sent either  its  abandoned  channels  half  dried  up  or  its  back  water  at  times 
of  overflow.  For  a  mile  or  so  the  eye,  turning  away  with  relief  from  the 
scorching,  bleached,  barren  plain  which  lies  between  us  and  the  lake,  looks 
over  many  acres  of  apple-green  papyrus.  The  papyrus,  as  you  will  observe,  is 
a  rush  with  a  smooth,  round,  tubelike  stem,  sometimes  as  much  as  six  feet  in 
height.  The  stem  terminates  in  a  great  mop-head  of  delicate  green  filaments 
which  are  often  bifid  at  their  ends.  Three  or  four  narrow  leaflets  surround  the 
core  from  which  the  filaments  diverge.  If  the  papyrus  be  in  flower  small 
yellow-green  nodules  dot  the  web  of  the  filaments.  With  the  exception  of 
this  inflorescence  the  whole  rush— stem,  leaves,  and  mop-head — is  a  pure  apple- 
green  and  the  filaments  are  like  shining  silk. 

The  water  in  the  open  patches  in  between  the  islands  and  peninsulas  of 
papyrus  is  quite  stagnant  and  unruffled  and  seemingly  clear.  Sometimes  the 
water  is  black  and  foetid  but  its  tendency  to  corruption  is  often  kept  in  check 
by  an  immense  growth  of  huge  duck  weed, — the  Pistia  stratiotes,  for  all  the 
world  like  a  pale  green  lettuce. 

A  pair  of  saddle-billed  storks  are  wading  through  the  marsh,  searching 
for  fish  and  frogs  and  snakes.  Their  huge  beaks  are  crimson -scarlet,  with 
a  black  band,  and  their  bodies  are  boldly  divided  in  coloration  between  snowy 
white,  inky-black,  and  bronze-green. 

On  Lake  Nyasa.  The  steamer  on  which  you  are  a  passenger,  in  imagina- 
tion, has  left  her  safe  anchorage  in  the  huge  harbour  of  Kotakota  in  the  early 
morning  and  rounding  the  long  sandspit  which  shields  the  inlet  from  the  open 
lake,  finds  herself  breasting  a  short,  choppy  sea.  The  waves  at  first  are  a 
muddy  green  \yhere  the  water  is  shallow  but  soon  this  colour  changes  to  a  deep, 
cold,  unlovely  indigo.  A  strong  southern  breeze  is  blowing  in  your  teeth  and 
each  billow  is  crested  with  white  foam.  The  "  Mwera  "  or  south-easter — the 
wind  which  ravages  the  lake  at  certain  times— is  to-day  against  you,  and  you 
are  condemned  by  circumstances  to  steam  southwards  opposed  by  this  strong 
gale.  As  you  get  out  into  the  middle  of  the  lake  the  situation  is  almost  one 
of  danger,  for  the  vessel  on  which  you  are  travelling,  though  dignified  with  the 
name  of  "steamer,"  is  not  much  larger  than  a  Thames  steam  launch.  In  such 
weather  as  this  she  could  not  possibly  go  far  with  the  billows  on  her  beam 

These  isolated  fragments  of  granitic  rock  are  found  miles  away  from  the  Mlanje  mountain  in  the 
plains  below  hearing  all  the  appearance  of  having  been  hurled  through  the  air  for  miles  into  the  surround- 
ing country.  Mlanje  mountain  is  evidently  a  large  slice  left  of  the  pre-existing  tableland  from  which 
again  volcanic  cones  have  risen. 


or  she  would  be  rolled  over ;  then  again  if  the  steamer  went  northwards  with 
a  following  sea  she  would  be  speedily  swamped  ;  her  only  course — and  it 
happens  on  this  occasion  to  fit  in  with  preconcerted  arrangements — is  to  steam 
southwards,  facing  both  wind  and  waves.  At  times  the  vessel  seems  to  be 
standing  on  end  as  she  crests  some  huge  ridge  of  water ;  and  as  she  descends 
into  the  furrow  this  broad-backed  roller  comes  up  under  her  stern  and  floods 
the  upper  deck.  Then  again  she  mounts,  to  fall  again  and  mount  again  and 
fall  again,  until  the  best  sailor  in  the  world  would  be  dizzy  with  this  hateful 
see-saw  motion.  In  fact,  if  it  were  not  quite  so  dangerous,  an  ordinary 
passenger  would  give  way  to  seasickness  ;  yet  on  this  occasion  you  are  too 
frightened  that  the  ship  may  be  swamped  and  founder  to  bestow  much  attention 
on  the  qualms  of  your  stomach. 

But  the  captain  is  hopeful,  and  tells  you  that  as  this  is  the  third  day  the 
wind  has  been  blowing  it  will  probably  cease  towards  the  evening.  Overhead, 
in  spite  of  the  whistling  wind,  the  sky  is  clear  of  clouds  and  a  pale  blue.  The 
lake  is  dark  indigo,  flecked  with  white  foam — not  the  rich,  creamy,  thick,  white 
froth  of  saltwater,  but  a  transparent  clear  foam  like  innumerable  glass  drops 
reflecting  the  sunlight  coldly  from  many  facets. 

The  lake  is  perhaps  forty  miles  broad.  North  and  south  there  is  a  clear  sea 
horizon.  East  and  west  there  are  pale  greyish-blue  outlines  of  mountain 
ranges ;  but  owing  to  the  driving  wind  and  the  slight  diffusion  of  spray  at 
lower  levels,  or  some  such  atmospheric  cause,  the  lower  slopes  of  the  mountains 
are  invisible  and  the  distant  land  has  no  direct  connection  with  the  sharp-cut 
line  of  the  indigo,  foam-flecked  water. 

But  with  the  afternoon  heat  the  wind  gradually  lessens  in  force — lessens 
to  a  positive  calm  an  hour  before  sunset ;  and  the  waters  of  the  lake  so  easily 
aroused  are  as  quickly  and  as  easily  appeased.  As  the  wind  diminishes  in 
force  the  waves  grow  less  and  less  till  they  are  but  a  gentle  swell  or  a  mere 
ripple.  At  last,  half  an  hour  before  sunset,  you  have  the  following  scene  before 
you.  The  steamer  is  now  travelling  smoothly  and  on  an  even  keel  along  the 
south-east  coast  of  Nyasa.  The  eastern  sky  is  a  yellowish  white,  which  near 
the  horizon  becomes  a  very  pale  russet  pink.  The  distant  range  of  mountains 
facing  the  rays  of  the  almost  setting  sun  has  its  hollows  and  recesses  and 
ravines  marked  in  faint  shadows  of  pinkish-purple,  while  the  parts  bathed  in 
sunlight  are  yellowish  grey.  On  the  left-hand  side  of  the  picture  the  land 
projects  somewhat  into  the  lake  in  a  long  spit  surmounted  with  low  wooded 
hills,  where  the  ground  is  reddish-brown  dotted  with  white  rocks,  and  the  trees 
are  a  warm  russet  green  in  their  lights  and  mauve-blue  in  their  shadows.  In 
the  middle  of  the  view,  breaking  the  long  line  of  the  water  horizon  under  the 
distant  mountains  are  three  warm-tinted  blots  of  brown-pink,  that  represent 
three  islets. 

The  water  of  the  lake,  however,  gives  the  greatest  feast  of  colour.  Its 
ground  tint  near  the  horizon  is  a  lemon  white,  which  changes  insensibly 
to  silver-blue  close  up  to  the  ship's  side.  But  this  immobile  sheet  of  lemon- 
white,  melting  into  palest  azure,  is  scratched  here  and  smeared  there  (like  plush 
which  has  had  the  nap  brushed  the  wrong  way)  with  streaks  and  patches  of 
palest  amber.  The  whole  effect  is  that  of  a  great  mirror  of  tarnished  silver. 
The  amber-white  of  these  disconnected  areas  of  ripples,  where  the  expiring 
breeze  faintly  ruffles  the  perfect  calm  of  the  reflected  sky,  resembles  the  pinkish 
brown  stains  on  a  silver  surface  just  becoming  discoloured  from  exposure  to 


Presently  it  will  be  night  with  a  sky  of  purple  grey  studded  with  pale  gold 
specks  of  stars  and  planets,  all  of  which  will  be  reflected  in  the  calm  lake, 
so  that  the  steamer  will  seem  to  be  carving  her  way  through  a  liquid  universe. 

In  a  native  village  near  to  a  great  river  there  are  three  Europeans  in  a  hut. 
Although  styled  genetically  a  "  hut "  this  native  dwelling  is  of  considerable  size, 
with  a  high-peaked  thatched  roof  like  a  broad-mouthed  funnel  in  shape,  the 
straggling  ends  of  the  thatch  coming  down  to  within  a  couple  of  feet  of  the 
ground  and  so,  to  some  extent,  shielding  from  the  sun  the  raised  verandah  of 
grey  mud  which  runs  half  round  the  outside.  But  the  low-hanging  thatch 
screens  the  doorway  into  the  hut,  making  the  interior  dark  even  though  the 
European  occupants  have  broken  small  holes  in  the  clay  walls  to  let  in  a 
little  more  light  from  the  shaded  verandah.  Inside,  the  rafters  of  palm  ribs, 
which  form  the  structure  of  the  roof,  are  all  shiny  cockroach-black  with  the 
smoke  of  many  months  which  has  ascended  to  the  roof  and  found  its  way 
out  through  the  thatch.  Cobwebs,  covered  with  soot,  hang  from  the  rafters. 

Of  the  three  white  men  inside  this  hut  two  are  well  and  hearty faces  red, 

and  arms  sun-tanned — and  are  seated  upon  empty  provision  cases  :  the  third  is 
sick  unto  death,  with  dull  eyes,  haggard  cheeks  and— if  there  is  daylight  enough 
to  see  it  by — a  complexion  of  yellowish-grey.  He  is  stretched  on  a  low  camp 
bed,  is  dressed  in  a  dirty  sleeping  suit,  and  partially  covered  by  two  trade 
blankets  of  garish  red,  blue  and  yellow,  one  of  which  slips  untidily  to  the  dusty 
floor  of  hardened  earth.  The  two  healthy  men  are  smoking  pipes  vigorously  ; 
but  the  smell  of  strong  Boer  tobacco  is  not  sufficient  to  disguise  the  nauseous 
odours  of  the  sick  room,  and  the  fumes  of  whisky,  which  arise  both  from  an 
uncorked  bottle  and  from  the  leavings  of  whisky  and  water  in  two  enamelled- 
iron  cups. 

By  the  sick  man's  bedside  on  a  deal  box  is  an  enamelled-iron  basin  con- 
taining grey  gruel-like  chicken  broth,  in  which  large  bits  of  ship's  biscuit  are 
floating.  The  soup  has  been  made  evidently  without  skill  or  care,  for  it  has  the 
yellow  chicken  fat  floating  on  the  top  and  even  an  occasional  drowned  feather 
attached  to  the  sodden  remnants  of  fowl.  Also,  there  are  a  cup  containing 
strong  whisky  and  water  (untouched),  a  long-necked  bottle  of  lime  juice,  and 
a  phial  of  Quinine  pills. 

The  sick  man  turns  ever  and  anon  to  the  further  side  of  the  bed  to  vomit, 
and  after  one  of  these  attacks  he  groans  with  the  agony  of  futile  nausea.' 
Lheer  up,  old  chap !"  says  one  of  his  companions,  "  we  sent  yesterday  morning 
to  the  doctor-man  at  the  mission  station  :  it  is  only  about  thirty  miles  away  and 
he  ought  to  be  here  this  afternoon."  The  doorway  is  darkened  for  a  moment 
but  not  with  the  doctor's  advent.  A  negro  girl  has  stooped  under  the  thatch  to 
enter  through  the  low  doorway  and  for  a  moment  obscures  the  dubious  light 
refracted  from  the  small  piece  of  blazing  sun-lit  ground  visible  under  the  eaves. 
"  Here,  git,  you  black  slut,"  shouts  one  of  the  men  (he  with  the  sand}-  beard  and 
pockmarked  face),  lifting  up  a  short  whip  of  hippopotamus  hide  to  enforce  his 
"  Hold  on,"  says  the  other  healthy  one,  a  tall  brawny  Cornishman, 
with  dark  eyes  and  black  beard,  "  it  is  only  his  girl ;  harmless  enough  too,  poor 
thing,  considering  she  has  known  him  more 'n  a  fortnight.  It 's  wonderful  what 
these  nigger  girls '11  do  for  a  white  man/' 

"  There  are  all  sorts  of  girls,  there  is  every  kind  of  girl, 

There  are  some  that  are  foolish,  and  many  that  are  wise, 
You  can  trust  them  all,  no  doubt,  but  be  careful  to  look  out 
For  the  harmless  little  girlie  with  the  downcast  eyes," 


sings  the  pockmarked  man,  in  reminiscence  of  a  smoking  concert  he  attended 
months  ago  at  Salisbury,  before  he  and  his  companions  tramped  northwards 
across  the  Zambezi  in  search  of  gold  and  any  other  profitable  discoveries  they 
might  make  in  the  unknown  North. 

The  woman,  who  has  taken  little  or  no  notice  of  the  other  men,  has 
seated  herself  on  the  floor  near  the  sick  man's  bed  and  is  fanning  away 
the  flies  from  his  death-like  face.  He  scarcely  notices  this  attention,  con- 
tinuing as  before  to  roll  his  head  languidly  across  the  rolled-up  coat  which 
serves  as  pillow. 

Outside  the  hut  it  is  a  bright  world  enough — a  sky  of  pure  cobalt,  with 
white  cumulus  clouds  moving  across  it  before  a  pleasant  breeze.  Except 
where  these  clouds  cast  a  momentary  shadow  there  is  a  flood  of  sunshine, 
making  the  dry  thatched  roofs  of  the  round  haycock  houses  glitter;  and 
as  to  the  bare  beaten  ground  of  the  village  site,  in  this  strong  glare  of 
sunshine  you  would  hardly  realise  it  is  mere  red  clay :  it  has  an  effulgent 
blaze  of  flame -tinted  white  except  where  objects  cast  on  it  circumscribed 
shadows  of  a  purple  black. 

Two  or  three  native  curs,  of  the  usual  fox-coloured,  pariah  type,  lie  sleeping 
or  grubbing  for  fleas  in  the  sunshine.  A  lank,  wretched-looking  mangy  bitch, 
with  open  sores  on  her  ears  and  fly-infested  dugs,  trails  herself  wearily  from  hut 
to  hut,  seeking  food,  but  only  to  be  repulsed  by  kicks  from  unseen  feet,  or 
missiles  hurled  by  unseen  hands.  Little  chocolate -coloured  children  are 
playing  in  the  dust,  or  baking  in  the  sun  clay  images  they  have  made 
with  dust  and  water.  Most  of  the  houses  have  attached  to  them  a  woman's 
compound  at  the  back,  fenced  in  with  a  high  reed  fence.  If  you  entered 
this  compound  from  the  verandah,  or  peeped  over  the  high  fence,  you  would 
see  cheerful  garrulous  women  engaged  in  preparing  food.  A  steady  "  thud, 
thud ! '  "  thud,  thud ! "  comes  from  one  group  of  hearty  girls  with  plump 
upstanding  breasts  who,  glistening  with  perspiration,  are  alternately  pounding 
corn  in  a  wooden  mortar  shaped  like  a  dice  box.  Each  in  turn,  as  she  takes 
the  pestle,  spits  on  her  hands  and  thumps  the  heavy  piece  of  wood  up  and 
down  on  the  bruised  corn.  Another  woman  is  grinding  meal  on  the  surface 
of  a  large  flat  stone  by  means  of  a  smaller  stone  which  is  smooth  and  round  ; 
again,  another  wife  with  the  aid  of  other  flattened  stones  bruises  green  herbs 
mixed  with  oil  and  salt  into  a  savoury  spinach.  In  all  the  compounds  and 
about  the  streets  are  hens  and  broods  of  chickens.  Mongrel  game-cocks  are 
sheltering  themselves  from  the  heat  under  shaded  verandahs,  which  they  share 
with  plump  goats  of  small  size  and  diverse  colours — white,  black,  chestnut,  grey ; 
black  and  white,  white  and  chestnut,  grey  and  white.  The  sun-smitten  village 
at  high  noon  is  silent  but  for  the  low-toned  talk  of  the  women,  of  the  "  thud, 
thud  "  of  the  corn-mortars,  the  baaing  and  bleating  of  an  imprisoned  kid,  or  the 
sudden  yelp  of  the  half-starved  bitch  when  a  missile  strikes  her. 

Beyond  the  collection  of  haycock  huts  (occupying  perhaps  a  half  square 
mile  in  area),  is  a  fringe  of  bananas,  and  beyond  the  bananas  from  one  point 
of  view  the  glint  of  a  river,  and  across  the  river  a  belt  of  black-green  forest. 
In  other  directions,  away  from  the  water-side  is  red  rising  ground  sprinkled 
with  scrubby  thin-foliaged  trees,  among  which  here  and  there  grows  a  huge 
gouty  baobab,  showing  at  this  season  digitate  leaves  like  a  horse-chestnut's, 
and  large  tarnished  white  flowers  that  depend  by  a  straight  string-like  stalk 
from  the  pink  and  glabrous  branches. 

Noon  declines  to  afternoon.     The  two  men  who  are  whole  still  remain  in 


the  hut;  the  sick  man  is  obviously  sicker  than  before.     His  face  is  an  obscure 
yellow,   he  has   ceased   to  vomit,  he  is  no  longer  restless,  he  lies  in  a  stupor, 
breathing  stertorously.     The  black-bearded  man  smokes,  and  reads  a  tattered 
novelette,  glancing  from  time  to  time  uneasily  at  the  one  who  lies  so  ill,  but 
trying  to  still  his  anxiety  by  assuring  himself  "that  the  poor  beggar  has  got 
to  sleep  at  last."     The  man   with  the  red  hair  and  pockmarked  cheeks  sings 
snatches  of  music-hall  songs  at  intervals  and  drinks  whisky  and  water,  trying 
hard  to  keep  up  his  courage.     For  he  is  in  a  cold-sweating  dread  of  death  by 
fever— a  death  which  can  come  so  quickly.     A  month  ago  there  were  four  of 
them,   all   in   riotous  health,  revelling  in  the  excitements  of  exploring  a   new 
country,   confident  that  they  had   found   traces  of  gold,   merrily  slaughtering 
buffalo,  eland,  kudu  and  sable  ;  sometimes' after  elephant  with  the  thought  of  the 
hundreds  of  pounds'  worth  of  ivory  they  might  secure  with  a  few  lucky  shots  ; 
killing  "hippo"  in  the  river  and  collecting  their  great  curved  tusks  for  subsequent 
sale  at  a  far-off  trading  station  ;  trafficking  with  the  natives  in  the  flesh  of  all 
the  beasts  they  slew  and  getting  in  exchange  the  unwholesome  native  meal, 
bunches  of  plantains,  calabashes  of  honey,  red  peppers,  rice,  sugar  cane,  fowls, 
eggs,  and  goat's  milk.     They  had  not  treated  the  natives  badly,  and  the  natives 
in  a  kind  of  way  liked  these  rough  pioneers  who  offered  no  violence  beyond  an 
occasional  kick,  who  were   successful   in   sport   and   consequently  generous  in 
meat  distribution,  and  who  gave  them  occasional  "tots"  of  "  kachaso,"1  and 
paid   for   the   temporary  allotment   of  native  wives   in  pinches   of  gunpowder, 
handfuls  of  caps,  yards  of  cloth,  old  blankets  and  clasp  knives.     Yes  ;  a  month 
ago  they  were  having  a  very  good  time,  they  were  not  even  hampered  by  the 
slight  restraints  over  their  natural  instincts  which  might  exist  in  Mashonaland. 
They  had  found  obvious  signs  of  payable  gold—"  an  ounce  to  the  ton  if  only 
machinery  could  be  got  up  there  for  crushing  the  rock  "—they  would  return  to 
the  south  and  float  a  company ;  meantime  they  had  intended  to  see  a  little  more 
of  this  bounteous  land  blessed  with  an  abundant  rainfall,  a  rich  soil,  a  luxuriant 
vegetation,  a  friendly  people,  grand  sport,  and  heaps  of  food ;  and  then,  all  at 
once,   one  of  them   after  a  bottle  of  whisky  overnight  and  a  drenching  in   a 
thunderstorm  next  day,  complains  of  a  bad  pain  in  his  back.     A   few"  hours 
afterwards   he   commences  to  vomit,  passes   black-water,   turns   bright  yellow, 
falls   into   a  stupor,   and   in   two   days   is  dead.     "Was  it  the   whisky,   or  the 
wetting,  or  neither?     It  could  not  be  the  whisky:  good  liquor  was  what  was 
wanted  to  counteract  this  deadly  climate ;  no,  it  could  not  be  the  whisky  ;  on 
the  contrary,"  thought  the  man  who  turns  these  thoughts  over  musingly  in  his 
mind,  "he  himself  must  take  more  whisky  to  keep  his  spirits  up.     When  old 
Sampson    was    better    and   could    be  carried    in    a   hammock,  they   would    all 
make  straight  for  the  Lake  and  the  steamers  and  so  pass  out  of  the  country, 
perhaps  returning  to  work  the  gold,  perhaps  not." 

The  heat  of  the  afternoon  increases.  The  man  on  the  bed  still  snores,  the 
woman  still  fans,  Blackbeard  has  fallen  asleep  over  his  novelette  and  Redhead 
over  his  whisky  and  water.  The  silence  of  the  village  is  suddenly  broken  by  a 
sound  of  voices  and  the  tramp  of  feet.  Blackbeard  wakes  up,  rubs  his  eyes 
and  staggers  out  into  the  sunshine  to  greet  a  thin  wiry  European  with  bright 
eyes  and  a  decided  manner.  "Oh  ...  you  are  the  Mission  doctor,  aren't  you? 
Come  in— in  here.  He  is  pretty  bad,  poor  chap,  but  I  expect  you  will  do  him 
a  lot  of  good."  . 

It  is  early  evening.     The  two  mining  prospectors  have  left  the  hut,  advised 

1    Fire- water — whisky. 



by  the  doctor  to  chuck  their  whisky  bottles  into  the  river  and  go  out  shooting. 
The  former  piece  of  advice  they  have  not  followed,  but  the  latter  they  have 
gladly  adopted,  frightened  at  the  aspect  of  their  dying  comrade,  and  only  too 
glad  to  leave  the  responsibility  of  his  care  to  the  Mission  doctor,  who  for 
two  hours  has  tried  all  he  knows  to  restore  the  patient  to  consciousness,  without 
success.  The  woman  has  helped  him  as  far  as  she  was  able,  the  doctor  much 
too  anxious  about  his  patient  to  concern  himself  about  the  propriety  of  her 
position  in  the  case.  Outside  the  hut  there  is  a  cheerful  noise  of  the  awakening 
village  settling  down  to  its  evening  meal.  Flights  of  spurwinged  geese,  black 
storks  and  white  egrets  pass  in  varied  flocks  and  phalanxes  across  the  rosy 
western  sky.  But  inside,  by  the  light  of  two  candles  stuck  in  bottles,  which  the 
doctor  has  lit  to  replace  the  daylight,  it  may  be  seen  that  his  patient  is  nearing 
the  end;  yet  as  the  end  comes  there  is  a  momentary  return  to  consciousness. 
The  stertorous  breathing  has  given  way  to  a  scarcely  perceptible  respiration,  and 
as  the  doctor  applies  further  means  of  restoration  a  sudden  brightness  and  light 
of  recognition  come  into  the  dull  eyes.  The  expiring  man  tries  to  raise 
his  head — cannot !  and  to  speak— but  no  sound  comes  from  his  whitened 
lips,  then  one  long  drawn  bubbling  sigh  and  the  end  has  come. 

A  great,  untidy,  Arab  town  near  the  shores  of  a  lake,  the  blue  waters  of 
which  can  be  seen  over  the  unequal  ground  of  the  village  outskirts  and  through 
a  fringe  of  wind-blown  banana  trees.  On  one  of  the  little  squares  of  blue 
water  thus  framed  in  by  dark-green  fronds  may  be  seen  part  of  a  dau  at  anchor 
with  a  tall,  clumsy,  brown  mast,  thick  rigging,  and  a  hull  somewhat  gaudily 

painted  in  black  and  pink.  We 
are  sitting  under  the  broad 
verandah  of  a  large  house,  a 
house  which  is  in  reality  no- 
thing but  a  structure  of  timber 
and  lath  covered  with  a  thick 
coating  of  black  mud;  but  the 
mud  has  been  so  well  laid  on 
and  is  so  smooth,  time-worn 
and  shiny  as  to  have  the 
appearance  of  very  dark  stone. 
The  roof  is  of  thatch,  descend- 
ing from  some  forty,  feet  above 
the  ground  to  scarcely  more 
than  five  feet  over  the  edge  of 
the  verandah.  This  verandah 
only  occupies  one  side  of  the 
house  and  is  large  enough  to 
be — what  it  is — an  outer  hall 
of  audience;1  fifteen  feet  broad  and  with  a  raised  dais  of  polished  mud  on 
either  side  of  the  passage  which  crosses  the  verandah  to  enter  the  main 
dwelling.  As  the  interior  rooms  of  this  house  are  mostly  unfurnished  with 
windows  and  only  derive  their  light  from  the  central  passage  (which  has  an 
open  door  at  either  end)  they  are  quite  dark  inside  and  even  in  the  daytime 
little  Arab  lamps  (earthenware  saucers  filled  with  oil  and  with  cotton  wicks) 
have  to  be  lighted  to  see  one's  way  about. 

1  Called  by  Zanzibaris  "baraza."' 



In  front  of  the  house,  in  the  open  public  square,  is  a  fine  cocoanut  tree 
\vhich  has  been  planted  from  a  cocoanut  brought  from  the  East  Coast  of  Africa. 
Across  the  square  a  ramshackle  building  is  pointed  out  as  the  Mosque,  and 
Arabs  of  all  shades — of  negro  blackness  and  of  European  whiteness — are 
walking  backwards  and  forwards  through  the  blazing  sunshine  to  perform  their 
ablutions  in  the  court  of  the  Mosque,  or  to  enter  the  building  to  pray. 

The  Sultan  of  the  place,  in  one  of  whose  houses  we  are  tarrying  (in 
imagination)  is  about  to  have  his  noontide  meal,  and  asks  us  to  join.  He 
himself  is  seated  on  a  mattress  placed  on  a  mud  bench  against  the  wall  under 
the  verandah,  and  is  clothed  in  a  long,  white  garment  reaching  down  to  his  heels, 
over  which  he  wears  a  sleeveless,  orange-coloured  waistcoat  richly  embroidered 
with  silver,  a  shawl-sash  wound  round  his  waist,  and  over  one  shoulder  a  light 
Indian  cloth  of  chequered  pattern  brightly  fringed.  Through  the  shawl 
waistband  peep  out  the  hilt  and  part  of  the  scabbard  of  one  of  those  ornamental 
curved  daggers  which  are  worn  at  Zanzibar  and  in  the  Persian  Gulf;  this  hilt 
and  scabbard  are  of  richly-chased  silver. 

The  Sultan  has  a  face  which  in  some  respects  is  prepossessing.  It  is 
certainly  not  cruel  though  he  is  known  to  have  done  many  cruel  things.  The 
once  fine  eyes  are  somewhat  clouded  with  premature  age  and  the  exhaustion  of 
a  polygamist ;  but  there  are  a  sensitiveness  and  refinement  about  the  purple- 
lipped  mouth  and  well-shaped  chin,  the  outlines  of  which  can  be  seen  through 
the  thin  grey  beard.  The  hands  have  slender,  knotted  fingers  and  the  nails  are 
short  and  exquisitely  kept. 

The  taking  of  food  is  preceded  by  the  washing  of  hands.  Attendants — 
who  are  either  black  coast  Arabs,  gorgeously  habited  in  embroidered  garments 
of  black,  silver  and  gold,  or  else  dirty,  blear-eyed,  negro  boys,  scarcely  clothed 
at  all  and  with  grey,  scurvy  skins  (the  dirtiest  and  stupidest-looking  of  these 
boys  is  the  Sultan's  factotum  in  the  household  and  carries  his  keys  on  a  string 
round  his  lean  neck)  come  to  us  with  brass  ewers  and  basins.  The  ewers  are 
long-spouted,  like  coffee  pots.  Water  is  poured  over  our  hands,  which  after 
rinsing  we  dry  as  best  we  can  on  our  pocket  handkerchiefs,  while  the  Sultan 
wipes  his  on  his  Indian  cloth  which  is  slung  over  his  shoulder  and  is  used 
indifferently  as  napkin  and  handkerchief.  Then  a  brass  platter  of  large 
size,  covered  with  a  pyramid  of  steaming  rice,  is  placed  on  the  dais  and 
alongside  it  an  earthenware  pot  (very  hot)  containing  curried  chicken.  The 
Sultan  having  rolled  up  a  ball  of  rice  between  his  fingers  and  dipped  it  into  the 
curry,  invites  us  to  do  the  same.  Our  fingers  are  scalded  by  the  rice  ;  but  it 
must  be  admitted  that  the  flavour  of  the  curry  is  excellent.  When  this  course 
is  finished  a  bowl  of  pigeons  stewed  with  lentils  is  brought  on,  and  this  also 
is  eaten  by  the  aid  of  our  fingers.  For  drink  we  have  cold,  pure  water  from 
an  earthenware  cooler,  and  the  milk  of  unripe  cocoanuts. 

The  meal  finishes  with  bananas  and  roasted  ground  nuts.  Then  more 
washing  of  hands  and  we  recline  on  some  dirty  cushions  or  on  lion  skins,  whilst 
the  Sultan  gives  audience  to  messengers,  courtiers  and  new  arrivals.  Some  of 
these  last-named  glance  suspiciously  at  us  and  are  not  disposed  to  be  very 
communicative  about  their  recent  experiences  in  the  presence  of  Europeans. 
The  Sultan  sees  this  and  enjoys  the  humour  of  the  situation.  He  is  himself 
indifferent  to  the  slave  trade,  having  secured  his  modest  competence  years  ago 
and  now  caring  for  nothing  more  than  the  friendship  of  European  potentates, 
which  will  enable  him  to  finish  his  days  in  peace  and  tranquillity.  After  he 
is  gone  he  knows  that  in  all  probability  there  will  be  no  other  Sultan  in  his 


place,  but  a  European  official.  In  his  heart  of  hearts,  of  course,  he  sees  no 
harm  in  the  slave  trade.  He  is  well  aware  that  he  is  entertaining  at  one  and 
the  same  time  European  officials  of  high  standing  and  five  or  six  powerful 
Arab  slave  dealers,  and  that  his  large,  rambling  metropolis  of  several  square 
miles  in  area  harbours  simultaneously  not  only  the  Europeans  and  their  porters, 
servants,  and  escort,  but  perhaps  three  hundred  raw  slaves  from  the  Lualaba. 
But  he  is  not  going  to  give  his  compatriots  away  unless  they  make  fools  of 
themselves  by  any  attempt  to  molest  the  Europeans,  in  which  case,  and  in 
an>'  case  if  it  comes  to  a  choice  of  sides,  he  will  take  the  part  of  the  European. 
In  his  dull  way  this  unlettered  man,  who  has  read  little  else  than  the  Koran 
and  a  few  Arab  books  of  obscenities,  or  of  fortune-telling,  has  grasped  the  fact 
that  from  their  own  inherent  faults  and  centuries  of  wrong-doing,  Islam  and 
Arab  civilisation  must  yield  the  first  place  to  the  religion  and  influence  of  the 
European.  He  has  no  prejudice  against  Christianity — on  the  contrary,  perhaps 
a  greater  belief  in  its  supernatural  character  than  some  of  the  Englishmen  he 
entertains  from  time  to  time — but  if  his  inchoate  thoughts  could  be  interpreted 
in  one  sentence  it  would  be  "  Not  in  our  time,  O  Lord  ! "  The  change  must 
come  but  may  it  come  after  his  death.  Meantime  he  hopes  that  you  will  not 
drive  home  too  far  the  logic  of  your  rule.  When  he  is  gone  the  Christian 
missionary  may  come  and  build  there,  but  while  he  lasts  he  prefers  to  see 
nothing  but  the  ramshackle  mosques  of  his  own  faith  and  to  have  his  half- 
caste  children  taught  in  the  Arab  fashion.  He  points  out  some  to  you  who  are 
sitting  in  the  verandah  of  an  opposite  hut,  under  the  shade  of  a  knot  of  papaw 
trees  ;  a  hideous  old  negroid  Arab  with  a  dark  skin  and  pockmarked  face  is 
teaching  them  to  read.  Each  child  has  a  smooth  wooden  board  with  a  long 
handle,  something  like  a  hand-mirror  in  shape.  The  surface  of  this  board  is 
whitened  with  a  thin  coating  of  porcelain  clay  ;  and  Arab  letters,  verses  of  the 
Koran  and  sentences  for  parsing  are  written  on  it  by  means  of  a  reed  pen 
dipped  in  ink  or  by  a  piece  of  charcoal. 

There  is  a  certain  pathos  about  this  uneducated  old  coast  Arab  who  has  been 
a  notable  man  in  his  day  as  conqueror  and  slave  raider  but  who  has  had 
sufficient  appreciation  of  the  value  of  well-doing  not  to  be  always  a  slave  raider, 
who  has  sought  to  inspire  a  certain  amount  of  affection  among  the  populations 
he  enslaved.  These  in  time  have  come  to  regard  him  as  their  natural 
sovereign,  though  the  older  generation  can  remember  his  first  appearance  in  the 
country  as  an  Arab  adventurer  at  the  head  of  a  band  of  slavers.  His  soldiers, 
most  of  them  now  recruited  from  amongst  his  negro  subjects,  cheerfully  raid  the 
territories  of  other  chiefs  in  the  interior,  but  slave  raiding  within  his  own  especial 
kingdom  has  long  since  ceased  and  a  certain  degree  of  order  and  security  has 
been  established.  Let  us  set  off  against  the  crimes  of  his  early  manhood  the 
good  he  has  done  subsequently  by  introducing  from  Zanzibar  the  cocoanut- 
palm,  the  lime  tree,  the  orange,  good  white  rice,  onions,  cucumbers  and  other 
useful  products  of  the  East;  by  sternly  repressing  cannibalism,  abolishing 
witchcraft  trials,  improving  the  architecture,  and  teaching  many  simple  arts  and 
inducing  the  negroes  to  clothe  their  somewhat  extravagant  nudity  in  seemly, 
tasteful  garments. 

He  has  known  Livingstone  and  may  even  have  secured  a  good  word  from 
that  Apostle  of  Africa  for  hospitality  and  for  relative  humanity,  as  compared 
to  other  and  wickeder  Arabs.  This  casual  mention  of  him  in  the  book  of  the 
great  "Dottori"1  will  cause  him  a  childish  pleasure  if  you  point  it  out.  "Has 

1   The  name  by  which  Livingstone  is  almost  universally  known  in  Central  Africa. 



the  '  Ouini  '  read  this  book?"  he  asks.  "Yes,"  you  reply.  "Then  the  Queen 
has  seen  my  name?"  and  this  reflection  apparently  causes  him  much  satisfaction, 
for  he  repeats  the  observation  to  himself  at  intervals  and  even  forces  it  on  the 
attention  of  a  sullen-looking  black-browed  Maskat  Arab  who  is  waiting  in 
the  barasa  to  settle  with  the  Sultan  the  amount  of  tribute  he  must  pay  for 
the  passage  of  his  slave  and  ivory  caravan  across  the  territory  arid  over  the  lake 
by  means  of  the  Sultan's  daus. 

I  will  transport  you  to  the  south  end  of  Lake  Tanganyika. 
In  the  background  to  this  scene  is  a  fine  mountain  which,  like  most  Central 
African  mountains,  presents  from  below  the  appearance  of  a  cake  that  has  been 


cut  and  is  crumbling.  There  is  first  of  all  the  granite  wall  of  undulating  out- 
line bearing  a  thin  line  of  trees  along  its  crest.  Then  half-way  down  its  slope 
begins  below  the  bare  shining  rock  walls  a  ribbed  slope  of  debris,  which  slope 
is  covered  with  luxuriant  purple-green  forest :  the  whole  estoinpc  with  a  film  of 
blue  atmosphere,  which  sets  it  back  to  its  proper  place  in  the  distance,  so  that 
if  you  half  close  your  eyes  the  general  effect  of  this  mountain  mass  is  a  greyish 

As  if  in  abrupt  contrast  to  this  upreared  mass  of  rocks  and  trees  towering 
at  least  4000  feet  into  the  sky  is  a  slice  of  bright  green  swamp,  separating  the 
mountain  slopes  from  the  lake  water.  The  foreground  to  this  picture  is  the 
broad  estuary  of  a  river  at  its  entrance  to  Tanganyika.  On  your  right  hand 


you  have  a  spit  of  yellow  sand  which  separates  the  unruffled  mirror  of  this  calm 
water  from  the  boisterous  waves  of  the  open  lake.  These  are  greenish  blue 
with  brown  marblings  and  muddy  white  crests  where  they  are  receiving  the 
alluvium  of  the  river  ;  and  fierce  indigo  streaked  with  blazing  white  foam  where 
the  lake  is  open,  deep  and  wind-swept.  On  your  left  hand  the  estuary  of  this 

river  (where  the  water  is  a  speckless 
mirror  of  the  blue  sky  and  its 
cream -white  grey- shadowed  clouds) 
is  studded  with  many  green  islets  of 
papyrus  and  girt  with  hedges  of  tall 
reeds  —  the  reeds  with  the  white 
plumes  and  pointed  dagger  leaves 
that  I  have  once  or  twice  before 

This  conjunction  of  mountain,  river, 
marsh,  estuary,  sandspit,  open  lake 
and  papyrus  tangle  brings  about  such 
a  congeries  of  bird  life  that  I  have 
thought  it  worth  the  trouble  to  bring 
you  all  the  way  to  Tanganyika  to 

ON  TANGANYIKA  gaze   at   this   huge   aviary.     And  al- 

though on   many  of  these  journeys 

you  are  supposed  to  be  looking  on  the  scene  with  the  eye  of  the  spirit 
and  not  of  the  flesh,  and  therefore  able  to  see  Nature  undisturbed  by  the 
presence  of  man,  still  on  this  spot  you  might  stand  in  actuality,  as  I  have 
stood,  and,  provided  you  did  not  fire  a  gun,  see  this  collection  of  birds  as 
though  they  were  enclosed  in  some  vast  Zoological  Gardens.  For  some 
cause  or  other  has  brought  the  fish  down  from  the  upper  reaches  of  the 
stream  or  up  from  the  lake.  The  water  of  the  estuary  is  of  unruffled 
smoothness.  Most  waterbirds  detest  the  rough  waves  of  the  open  lake,  or 
the  current  of  a  rapid  stream  ;  even  now  if  you  turn  your  eyes  lakewards 
the  only  birds  you  will  see  are  small  grey  gulls  with  black  barred  faces  and 
black  tipped  wings  "and  the  large  scissor-billed  terns  (grey  and  white  with 
crimson  beaks)  flying  with  seeming  aimlessness  over  the  troubled  waters. 
But  in  the  estuary,  what  an  assemblage  !  There  are  pelicans  of  grey,  white 
and  salmon  pink,  with  yellow  pouches,  riding  the  water  like  swans,  replete 
with  fish  and  idly  floating.  Egyptian  geese  (fawn-coloured,  white,  and  green- 
bronze)  ;  spur  winged  geese  (bronze-green,  white  shouldered,  white  flecked,  and 
red  cheeked) ;  African  teal  (coloured  much  like  the  English  teal) ;  a  small  jet 
black  pochard  with  a  black  crest  and  yellow  eyes  ;  whistling  tree  duck  (which 
are  black  and  white,  zebra-barred,  and  chestnut) ;  other  tree  ducks  (chestnut  and 
white) ;  that  huge  Sarcidiornis  (a  monstrous  duck  with  a  knobbed  beak,  a 
spurred  wing,  and  a  beautiful  plumage  of  white  and  bronzed-blue  with  a  green- 
blue  speculum  in  the  secondaries  of  the  wing).  All  these  ducks  and  geese 
hang  about  the  fringe  of  the  reeds  and  the  papyrus.  The  ducks  are  diving 
for  fish,  but  the  geese  are  more  inclined  to  browse  off  the  water-weed.  Every 
now  and  then  there  is  a  disturbance,  and  the  reflexions  of  the  water  are  broken 
by  a  thousand  ripples  as  the  ducks  scutter  over  the  surface  or  the  geese  rise 
with  much  clamour  for  a  circling  flight.  Farthest  away  of  all  the  birds  (for 
they  are  always  shy)  is  a  long  file  of  rosy  flamingoes  sifting  the  water 
for  small  fish  and  molluscs.  They  are  so  far  off  that  their  movements  are 


scarcely  perceptible  ;  against  the  green  background  of  the  marsh  they  look  like 
a  vast  fringe  of  pale  pink  azaleas  in  full  blossom. 

Small  bronze-green  cormorants  are  plunging  into  the  water  for  fish,  diving 
and  swimming  under  water,  and  flying  away.  Fish-catching  on  a  more  modest 
scale  and  quite  close  to  where  we  stand  is  being  carried  on  by  black  and  white 
Ceryle  kingfishers,  who  with  their  bodies  nearly  erect  and  the  head  and  beak 
directed  downwards  will  poise  themselves  in  the  air  with  rapidly  fluttering  wings 
and  then  dart  unerringly  head  foremost  on  some  tiny  fish  under  the  surface  of 
the  water. 

On  the  sandspit  two  dainty  crowned  cranes  are  pacing  the  sand  and  the 
scattered  wiry  grass  looking  for  locusts.  Even  at  this  distance — and  especially 
if  you  use  a  glass — you  can  distinguish  the  details  of  their  coloration.  It 
will  be  seen  that  they  have  a  short,  finely-shaped  beak  of  slatey  black,  a 
large  eye  of  bluish  grey,  surrounded  by  a  black  ring  ;  and  the  cheeks  covered 
with  bare  porcelain-like  skin,  pure  white,  which  is  much  enhanced  by  an 
edging  of  crimson  developing  below  the  throat  into  two  bright  crimson 
wattles.  The  head  is  fitly  crowned  with  a  large  aigrette  of  golden  filaments, 
tipped  with  black.  The  neck  with  its  long  hackles  is  dove  grey.  The  back 
and  the  breast  are  slate  colour,  the  mass  of  the  wing  is  snow  white,  and  its 
huge  broadened  pinions  are  reddish  chocolate,  the  white  secondaries  being 
prolonged  into  a  beautiful  golden  fringe  hanging  graceful!}'  over  the  chocolate 
quill  feathers. 

The  quacking  of  the  ducks,  the  loud  cries  of  the  geese  and  the  compound 
sound  of  splashings  and  divings  and  scuttering  flights  across  the  water,  are 
dominated  from  time  to  time  by  the  ear-piercing  screams  of  a  fish  eagle, 
perched  on  one  of  the  taller  poles  of  a  fishing  weir.  The  bird  is  as  full  of 
fish  as  he  can  hold,  but  yet  seems  annoyed  at  the  guzzling  that  is  going  on 
around  him,  and  so  relieves  his  feelings  at  odd  moments  by  piercing  yells.  He 
is  a  handsome  bird — head  and  neck  and  breast  snow  white,  the  rest  of  the 
plumage  chocolate  brown. 

Add  to  the  foregoing  enumeration  of  birds  stilt  plovers  of  black  and  white  ; 
spur-winged  plovers  with  yellow  wattles  ;  curlew  ;  sandpipers  ;  crimson-beaked 
pratincoles;  sacred  ibis  (pure  white  and  indigo-purple);  hagedash  ibis  (irides- 
cent-blue, green,  and  red-bronze) ;  gallinules  (verditer  blue  with  red  beaks  : 
black  water-rails  with  lemon  beaks  and  white  pencillings ;  black  coots ;  other 
rails  that  are  blue  and  green  with  turned-up  white  tails  ;  squacco  herons  (white 
and  fawn-coloured) ;  large  grey  herons  ;  purple-slate-coloured  herons  ;  bluish- 
gray  egrets  ;  white  egrets  ;  large  egrets  with  feathery  plumes  ;  small  egrets  with 
snowy  bodies  and  yellow  beaks  ;  Goliath  herons  (nut-brown  and  pinkish-grey) ; 
small  black  storks,  with  open  and  serrated  beaks ;  monstrous  bare-headed 
marabu  storks  ;  and  dainty  lily-trotters1  (black  and  white,  golden-yellow  and 
chocolate-brown) ;  and  you  will  still  only  have  got  half  way  through  the 
enumeration  of  this  extraordinary  congregation  of  water  birds  at  the  estuary 
of  the  river  Lofu,  on  the  south  coast  of  Tanganyika. 

Civilisation. — We  are  going  to  spend  a  Sunday  at  Blantyre,  a  European 
settlement  in  the  Shire  Highlands.  Except  for  the  name,  however,  there  is  no 
similarity  between  the  little  manufacturing  town,  which  was  Livingstone's  birth- 
place, and  the  chief  focus  of  European  interests  here  in  South  Central  Africa. 
These  are  the  characteristics  of  the  African  Blantyre  on  a  bright  Sunday 

1    J'arra  Africana. 


morning  in  May: — A  glorious  blue  sky;  floods  of  sunshine;  a  cool  breeze  and 
a  sparkling  freshness  in  the  atmosphere  which  reminds  one  of  Capetown;  clean 
red  roads,  neat  brick  houses,  purple  mountains,  and  much  greenery. 

The  organ  is  giving  forth  a  hymn  of  Mendelssohn's  by  way  of  introit  as  we 
enter  the  church,  and  as,  simultaneously,  the  choir  and  clergy  take  their  places. 
The  Norman  architecture  of  the  interior,  the  stained  glass  windows,  the 
embroidered  altar  cloths,  the  brass  lecterns  and  their  eagles,  the  carved  altar 
rails,  the  oak  pulpit,  the  well-appointed  seats  with  scarlet  cushions — even  the 
sunlight  checked  in  its  exuberance  by  passing  through  the  diamond  panes 
of  the  tinted  windows — produce  an  effect  on  the  newcomer  of  absolute  astonish- 
ment. He  requires  to  fix  his  eyes  on  the  black  choir  in  their  scarlet  and  white 
vestments  to  realise  that  he  is  in  Africa  and  not  in  Edinburgh  or  Regent's  Park. 
The  congregation  consists  mainly  of  Europeans  and  the  service  is  in  English. 
[The  natives  will  assemble  at  other  hours  when  worship  is  conducted  in  their 
own  language.]  A  short  service  with  good  music,  well  sung  by  the  black  choir, 
and  a  quarter  of  an  hour's  sermon:  then  we  are  out  once  more  in  the  sunny 
square,  in  a  temperature  not  hotter  than  a  mild  summer's  day  at  home, 
exchanging  greetings  with  many  acquaintances,  almost  all  of  whom  are  habited 
in  such  clothes  as  they  would  wear  on  a  Sunday  in  Scotland.  Some  of  the  men 
turn  out  in  black  coats,  light  trousers,  top  hats,  patent  leather  boots,  white  spats 
and  brown  gloves;  and  the  ladies  are  wearing  silk  blouses  and  cloth  skirts,  with 
all  the  furbelows  and  puffs  and  pinchings  and  swellings  which  were  the  height 
of  the  fashion  in  London  not  more  than  four  months  ago,  for  there  is  an 
almost  pathetic  desire  on  the  part  of  the  Blantyre  settlers  to  keep  in  touch 
with  civilisation.1 

In  the  bare,  open  space  which  so  fittingly  surrounds  this  handsome  church, 
groups  of  mission  boys  are  standing,  respectably  clothed  in  not  badly-fitting 
European  garments  and  wearing  black  felt  hats.  They  are  conversing  in  low 
tones,  a  little  afraid  of  having  their  remarks  overheard  by  the  critical  Europeans. 
They  have  a  slight  tendency  to  giggle,  of  which  they  are  conscious  and  some- 
what ashamed.  A  long  file  of  mission  girls,  modestly  and  becomingly  clad  in 
scarlet  and  white,  crosses  the  square  to  the  native  quarters  of  the  mission  under 
the  guidance  of  a  lady  in  dove-grey  with  a  black  bonnet  and  a  grass-green 
parasol.  By  way  of  quaint  contrast  to  these  reclaimed  guardians  of  the  flock 
is  the  aboriginal  wolf  in  the  persons  of  some  Angoni  carriers  who,  forgetting  or 
ignoring  that  Sunday  was  a  day  of  rest  with  the  European,  are  bringing  up 
loads  from  the  Upper  Shire.  Stark  naked,  all  but  a  tiny  square  of  hide  or 
a  kilt  of  tiger-cat  tails,  with  supple,  lithe  bodies  of  glistening  chocolate  (shiny 
with  perspiration),  with  the  hair  of  their  heads  screwed  up  into  curious  little 
tufts  by  means  of  straw,  they  glide  past  the  church  with  their  burdens,  alter- 
nately shy  and  inquisitive — ready  to  drop  the  burden  and  dart  away  if  a 
European  should  address  them  roughly;  on  the  other  hand  gazing  with  all  their 
eyes  at  the  wonderfully  dressed  white  women,  and  the  obviously  powerful 
"  wafumo  " z  amongst  the  white  men.  A  smartly-uniformed  negro  policeman  in 
yellow  khaki  and  black  fez  hurries  them  off  the  scene,  shocked  at  their  nudity, 
which  was  his  own  condition  a  year  ago. 

A  good-looking  Sikh  soldier — over  on  a  day's  leave  from  the  neighbouring 
garrison,  or  else  accompanying  some  official  as  orderly — loiters  respectfully  on 
the  fringe  of  the  European  crowd.  He  is  in  undress  and  wears  a  huge  blush- 
rose  turban,  a  loose  snow-white  shirt,  a  fawn-coloured  waistcoat,  white  paijamas 

1  Blantyre  in  fact  is  like  an  Indian  Hill  Station.  -  Chiefs. 


(baggy  over  the  hips  but  tight-fitting  round  the  calves)  and  pointed  Persian 
shoes  of  crimson  leather.  His  long,  black  beard  has  been  rolled  up  after  the 
fashion  of  the  Sikhs,  so  that  it  makes  a  tidy  fringe  round  the  jaws  from  ear  to 
ear ;  and  the  black  moustache  is  fiercely  curled. 

\\\-  walk  away  home  over  a  smooth  road  that  is  vinous-red,  as  all  the  earth 
is  hereabout.  First  there  is  an  avenue  of  sombre  cypresses  mixed  with 
shimmering  eucalyptus  ;  then  the  road  will  be  bordered  by  bananas  or  by  the 
gardens  of  Europeans'  houses,  with  neat  fences.  In  all  directions  other  roads 
branch  off,  and  above  the  greenery  of  Indian  corn  patches,  of  banana-groves, 
of  plantations  of  conifers,  acacias,  and  eucalyptus,  or  clumps  of  Misuko  trees, 
can  be  seen  the  house-roofs  of  grey  corrugated  iron,  or  rose-pink,  where  that 
iron  has  been  coloured  with  anti-corrosive  paint. 

Bright  moonlight.  In  a  Hyphsene  palm  forest.  Out  of  the  shadow  of  the 
trees  it  is  almost  as  bright  as  day,  every  detail  can  be  seen  in  the  dry  grass- 
even  the  colours  of  some  few  flowers  blooming  in  spite  of  the  dry  weather. 
The  effect  is  that  of  a  photograph — a  little  too  much  devoid  of  half-tones,  being 
sharply  divided  into  bright  lights,  full  of  minute  detail  and  deep  grey  shadows, 
like  blots,  in  which  no  detail  can  be  descried.  It  is  clear  that  this  forest  lies  far 
from  the  haunts  of  man,  for  all  the  palm  stems  still  retain  the  jagged  stems  of 
withered  fronds.  This  gives  them  an  untidy  and  forbidding  aspect ;  for  these 
grey  mid-ribs  stick  out  at  an  angle  of  forty  degrees  from  the  main  trunk.  The 
faded  leaf  filaments  have  long  since  disappeared  from  the  extremities  of  the 
dead  fronds  which  themselves  are  so  dry  and  so  lightly  attached  to  the  stem 
that  a  few  blows  from  a  stout  pole  would  knock  them  off  and  the  palm  trunk 
would  be  left  bare  and  smooth.  This  is  the  condition  of  almost  all  palms  near 
a  native  village  in  Africa  because  the  natives  climb  them  for  the  fruit,  or  more 
often  for  the  sap  which  they  tap  at  the  summit  and  make  into  a  fermented 
drink.  Therefore  whenever  in  tropical  Africa  you  find  palms  in  a  forest 
retaining  their  old  fronds  from  the  ground  upwards  you  may  know  that 
indigenous  man  is  nowhere  near. 

Each  palm  is  surmounted  by  a  graceful  crown  of  fan-shaped  leaves  in  an 
almost  symmetrical  oval  mass,  radiating  from  the  summit  as  from  a  centre. 
The  fruit  which  is  clustered  thickly  on  racemes  is — seen  by  daylight — a  bright 
chestnut  brown  and  the  size  of  a  Jaffa  orange.  This  brown  husk  covering  an 
ivory  nut  is  faintly  sweet  to  the  taste  and  is  adored  by  elephants.  It  is  on  that 
account  that  I  have  brought  you  here  to  see  with  the  eye  of  the  spirit  a  herd 
of  these  survivors  of  past  geological  epochs. 

Somehow  or  other,  it  seems  more  fitting  that  we  should  see  the  wild  elephant 
by  moonlight  at  the  present  day.  He  is  like  a  ghost  revisiting  the  glimpses  of 
the  moon — this  huge  grey  bulk,  wrinkled  even  in  babyhood,  with  his  monstrous 
nose,  his  monstrous  ears  and  his  extravagant  incisor  teeth. 

There!  I  have  hypnotised  you,  and  having  suggested  the  idea  of  "elephants" 
you  declare  that  you  really  begin  to  see  huge  forms  assuming  definite  outline 
and  chiaro-scuro  from  out  of  the  shadows  of  the  palms.  Now  you  hear  the 
noise  they  make— an  occasional  reverberating  rattle  through  the  proboscis  as 
they  examine  objects  on  the  ground  half  seriously,  half  playfully  ;  and  the 
swishing  they  make  as  they  pass  through  the  herbage  ;  or  the  rustle  of  branches 
which  are  being  plucked  to  be  eaten.  But  they  are  chiefly  bent  on  the  ginger- 
bread nuts  of  the  palms  and  to  attain  this,  where  they  hang  out  of  reach,  they 
will  pause  occasionally  to  butt  the  palm  trees  with  their  flattened  foreheads. 


The  dried  stems  and  the  dead  fronds  crash  down  before  this  jarring  blow.  If 
the  fruit  does  not  fall  and  the  tree  is  not  tilted  over  at  an  angle  [its  crown  within 
reach  of  the  animal's  trunk],  then  the  great  beast  will  either  strive  to  drag  it 
down  with  his  proboscis  or  to  kneel  and  uproot  it  with  his  tusks  The  elephants 
pause  every  now  and  then  in  their  feasting,  the  mothers  to  suckle  the  little  ones 
from  the  two  great  paps  between  the  fore-legs,  a  huge  bull  to  caress  a  young 
female  amorously  with  his  twining  trunk,  or  the  childless  cows  to  make 
semblance  of  fighting,  and  the  half-grown  young  to  chase  each  other  with  shrill 

But  the  moon  is  dropping  over  to  the  west.  You  did  not  think  the  moon- 
light could  be  exceeded  in  brightness.  Yet  in  the  advent  of  day  it  is  only  after 
all  a  betterment  of  night.  Before  the  first  pale  pink  light  of  early  dawn  the 
moonlight  seems  an  unreality.  In  a  few  minutes  the  moon  is  no  more  luminous 
than  a  round  of  dirty  paper  and  with  the  yellow  radiance  of  day  the  elephants 
cease  their  gambollings  and  feasting,  form  into  line,  and  swing  into  one  of  those 
long  marches  which  will  carry  them  over  sixty  miles  of  forest,  plain  and 
mountain  to  the  next  halting  place  in  their  seeming-purposeful  journey. 

There  has  been  a  war.  The  black  man  trained  and  taught  by  the  Arab  has 
been  fighting  the  black  man  officered  and  directed  by  the  European  and,  not 
unnaturally,  has  got  the  worst  of  it.  But  the  fight  has  been  a  stiff  one.  We 
have  had  to  take  that  walled  town  in  the  red  plain,  behind  which  are  gleams  of 
water  and  stretches  of  green  swamp  interspersed  with  clumps  of  raphia  palms. 
There  has  been  the  preliminary  bombardment,  the  straw  huts  within  the  red 
walls  have  gone  up  in  orange  flame  and  mighty  columns  of  smoke  [transparent 
black  and  opaque  yellow  according  to  the  material  burning]  into  the  heavens 
above  and  are  now  falling  in  a  gentle  rain  of  black  wisps.  Here  and  there 
a  barrel  of  gunpowder  has  exploded,  or  the  bursting  of  a  shell  has  elicited 
a  terrible  cry  from  an  otherwise  stolid,  silent  enemy.  Then  there  has  been  the 
first  charge  up  to  the  clay  walls  and  the  inevitable  casualties  from  the  enemy's 
fusillade  directed  through  the  loop-holes.  A  white  officer  has  fallen  forward  on 
his  face,  revolver  in  hand,  biting  the  dust  literally.  He  is  not  dead,  he  announces 
cheerfully,  "Only  my  arm  smashed,  I  think"  ;  but  a  Sikh  who  is  attempting  to 
arrange  for  his  transport  to  the  doctor  out  of  the  range  of  the  enemy's  fire,  is 
shot  through  the  heart,  and  with  the  last  dying  instinct  swerves  his  fall  to  avoid 
falling  on  the  officer's  shattered  arm.  The  bulk  of  the  small  force  of  white 
men,  Sikhs,  and  negro  soldiers  in  khaki  uniforms  and  black  fezzes,  has  either 
scaled  the  clay  rampart  or  has  shattered  a  gateway  and  burst  into  the  strong- 
hold, and  the  officer  can  now  swoon  away  comfortably  without  much  risk  of 
dying,  as  the  doctor  can  be  seen  in  the  distance  hurrying  up  his  little  band 
of  native  hospital  assistants  and  a  couple  of  hammocks  for  the  transport 
of  wounded  men.  A  tremendous  rattle  of  musketry  is  going  on.  The  native 
guns  go  off  seldom  now,  but  make  a  loud  reverberating  boom  from  the  quantity 
of  powder  with  which  they  are  charged  ;  the  Snider  rifles,  on  the  other  hand, 
give  short  cracks.  From  some  of  the  unburnt  housetops  in  the  more  distant 
part  of  the  town  the  enemy  is  still  keeping  up  a  dropping  fire,  and  in  fact  as  we 
stand  in  imagination  over  the  wounded  officer  we  can  hear  overhead  that  curious 
"  ping,"  that  singing  sound  of  bullets  travelling  high  above  our  heads.  We  are 
not  out  of  but  under  the  enemy's  range.  Gradually  the  gun  fire  ceases,  though 
every  now  and  then  a  few  more  cracking  shots  will  be  heard,  until  the  victory  is 
complete  and  absolute,  and  the  place  is  wholly  taken. 


\Yhen  there  is  no  longer  any  doubt  about  the  result  the  native  allies,  who 
have  hung  on  the  outskirts  of  the  white  man's  camp,  dash  forward  in  skirmish- 
ing order  to  cut  off  the  fugitives.  They  are  a  motley  crowd,  these  "  friendlies," 
armed  with  flint-locks,  muzzle-loading  guns,  old  pistols,  or  with  spear  and 
assegai,  bow  and  arrow.  It  would  be  difficult  to  tell  them  from  the  opposing 
force — for  the  auxiliaries  of  the  Arab  are  often  own  brothers  to  the  white  man's 
helpers — but  that  each  "  friendly  "  has  a  large  piece  of  white  cloth  tied  round 
the  upper  part  of  his  left  arm.  The  chief  efforts  of  the  Europeans  and  the 
Sikhs  are  now  directed  towards  restraining  these  inconvenient  allies  who  would 
seek  to  perpetrate  on  the  flying  enemy,  or  on  his  wounded,  the  same  barbarities 
that  the  Arabs  and  their  followers  recently  inflicted  on  the  tribes  allied  with  the 
European — which  barbarities  are  the  cause  of  the  white  man's  presence  here 
to-day  with  a  country  at  his  back  to  help  him. 

War  is  always  horrible,  even  if  it  be  waged  in  a  righteous  cause,  and 
nowhere  so  horrible  as  in  savage  Africa.  Let  us,  as  a  useful  lesson,  pick  our 
way  through  this  bombarded  town  as  far  as  the  heat  of  the  still  burning  houses 
will  permit.  Here  amongst  the  black  ashes  of  a  hut  is  a  poor,  domestic  cat 
frizzled  into  a  ghastly  mummy  and  close  to  her  are  numerous  broiled  rats  :  all 
alike  were  unable  to  escape  in  time  from  the  burning  building.  High  above 
our  heads— for  some  reason  I  think  the  saddest  sight  of  all— are  the  homeless 
pigeons,  circling  round  and  round  unable  to  settle  on  the  burning  roof  trees, 
dazed  and  stupefied  with  the  smoke  and  occasionally  falling  down  into  the 
flames  to  die.  Shrieking  fowls  are  flying  in  all  directions  and  after  them 
excited  "  friendlies  "  or  porters  of  the  expedition  in  pursuit,  heedless  of  the  hot 
ashes  under  foot.  Our  first  dead  body:  a  negro  soldier  of  the  Administration, 
neatly  clad,  spick  and  span  in  spite  of  his  scramble  over  the  eight-foot  wall. 
Soon  after  entering  the  town  he  must  have  been  shot  dead  and  he  has  fallen 
on  his  back  still  grasping  his  rifle  and,  strange  to  say,  with  a  faint  smile  of 
triumph  and  no  look  of  pain  whatever  on  the  face.  A  little  distance  beyond 
him  lies  a  wretched  savage  who  has  been  killed  by  a  shell.  His  stomach  has 
been  torn  out  and  his  head  split  in  two.  Here  and  there  a  black  arm  or  leg 
or  a  dead  face  with  wide-open  eyes  may  be  descried  amongst  the  debris  of  the 
huts,  indicating  the  presence  of  others  who  have  fallen  in  the  fight.  The  doctor 
will  presently  come  and  search  the  shattered  huts  in  case  there  may  be  any 
wounded  and  living  requiring  attention. 

We  have  now  reached  the  centremost  stronghold  of  the  town,  and  it  is  seen 
that  great  as  the  conflagration  appeared  from  the  outside  it  has  destroyed 
but  a  small  portion  of  the  town.  The  Sikhs  are  now  busily  engaged  in 
isolating  the  burning  huts  and  putting  out  the  fire.  The  officers  have  been 
examining  the  large  houses  around  the  Sultan's  compound  and  have  brought 
to  light  an  extraordinary  number  of  wretched  women  and  children  most  of 
them  slaves — the  adults  both  men  and  women — still  weighted  with  the  slave 

Many  of  these  slaves  are  entirely  naked  and  utterly  barbarous,  and  all  are 
whimpering,  not  with  joy  at  the  prospect  of  freedom  but  in  the  imminent  dread 
that  they  will  be  immediately  killed  and  eaten  by  the  white  men,  that  being  the 
idea  implanted  in  their  minds  by  the  Arab.  A  little  apart  from  the  great  mass 

1  The  slave  stick  is  usually  a  young  tree  of  heavy  wood  barked  and  all  the  branches  removed  \\ith 
the  exception  of  a  bifurcation  at  the  end.  Into  this  bifurcation  the  slave's  neck  is  thrust  and  the  two  ends 
of  the  stick  are  united  by  an  iron  band  at  the  back  of  his  neck  so  that  this  heavy  log  is  attached  to  the 
front  of  the  man's  body.  In  this  condition  he  is  quite  unable  to  run  away. 


of  still  fettered  slaves  is  an  Arab  prisoner,  his  hands  tied  behind  his  back, 
kneeling  or  reclining  with  his  ankles  also  fastened.  There  is  a  slight  wound  on 
his  forehead;  his  face  bears  the  expression  of  a  caged  wolf,  his  pale  yellow  skin 
is  livid  with  pain,  fear,  and  hatred.  He  has  lost  his  round,  white  cap  or  fez, 
or  turban,  and  his  bald  head  looks  mean  and  out  of  keeping  with  his  careful 
clothes,  which  though  soiled  in  warfare  are  still  neat  and  presentable.  Round 
his  neck  in  a  dirty  cloth  bag  hangs  a  copy  of  the  Koran. 

From  such  a  scene  as  this  I  walked  away  once  over  the  battlefield.  The 
fight  was  ended,  but  we  were  only  just  starting  to  look  for  the  wounded.  It  was 
early  afternoon;  a  lovely  day,  bright  sunshine,  pale  blue  sky.  A  cool  breeze 
had  blown  away  the  smoke ;  apart  from  the  scene  of  the  chief  struggle  in  the 
captured  town  there  was  no  indication  that  war  was  being  waged.  In  a  secluded 
part  of  the  precincts  amid  the  scattered  vegetation  of  the  village  outskirts 
I  suddenly  came  across  the  body  of  a  fine-looking  Angoni,  not  many  minutes 
dead.  He  might  have  been  fighting  on  our  side;  he  might  have  been  hired  by 
the  Arabs  as  one  of  their  raiders,  but  someone  had  killed  him  with  a  bullet 
through  the  head  and  he  had  fallen  in  his  tracks,  in  all  his  panoply  of  war, 
scarcely  conscious  of  the  object  for  which  he  fought.  His  right  hand  still 
grasped  the  stabbing  spear,  his  left  still  held  the  ox-hide  shield.  His  throw- 
ing spears  had  flown  from  his  hand  and  were  scattered  on  the  ground. 
Grimmest  sight  of  all  —  four  vultures  had  already  arrived  on  the  scene  to 
examine  him.  Two  birds  promenaded  up  and  down  with  a  watchful  eye, 
ready  on  noting  any  sign  of  returning  consciousness  to  take  their  departure; 
another  bird,  somewhat  bolder,  stood  on  one  leg  and  inspected  him  as  might 
a  thoughtful  surgeon;  and  the  fourth  whirled  in  circles  on  out-spread  pinions 
round  the  body,  wishing  to  settle  but  frightened,  in  case  after  all  it  was  a  swoon 
and  not  a  death. 




IX    looking   through   the   pictures    I    have   tried   to   paint   in   the    preceding 
chapter  to  illustrate  the  scenery  of  British  Central  Africa,  it  will  be  noticed 
that  I  have  made  no  mention  of  any  desert,  of  any  open  sandy  tract  or 
stony  region  devoid  of  vegetation.    The  fact  is  that  so  far  as  my  own  researches 
and  those  of  other  explorers  go,  British  Central  Africa,  east  of  the  Kafue  river, 
holds  no  desert,  no  stretch  of  country  that  is  not  more  or  less  covered  with 
abundant   vegetation.       Here 
and    there    on     the    line    of 
water    parting    between    the 
river  systems  there  may  be  a 
little  harsh  scenery  where  the 
trees  are  poor  and  scrubby  and 
the  plants  grow  in  scattered 
tufts.    But,  take  it  as  a  whole, 
the   eastern    half    of    British 
Central    Africa   is    very    well 


clothed  with  vegetation, 
pecially  in  the  Xyasa  province. 
There  is  nowhere  any  large 
continuous  area  of  thick  tropi- 
cal forest  such  as  one  sees 
in  Western  Africa,  but  in 
favoured  districts  where  the 
soil  is  permeated  with  many 
springs  there  may  be  an 
occasional  patch  of  woodland 
quite  West  African  in  char- 
acter, and  not  only  containing 
oil  palms,  of  the  genus  Ehch 
'which  are  usually  thought  to 
be  peculiarly  characteristic  of 
West  Africa),  but  also  not 
a  few  birds  and  mammals 
hitherto  considered  to  be  con- 
fined in  their  range  to  the 
\\  est  African  region.  From 
this  and  other  facts,  I  am 
sometimes  led  to  believe  that 



the  whole  of  Africa  was  once  covered  with  more  or  less  dense  forest,  but  that 
the  climate  in  the  eastern  half  of  the  continent  being  drier  than  in  the  west, 
the  ravages  of  the  bush  fires  started  by  man  have  made  greater  headway 
than  the  reparatory  influence  of  nature.  Only  in  specially  favoured  tracts 
enjoying  exceptional  rainfall  or  else  provided  with  underground  springs  could 
the  forest  remain  always  green  and  full  of  sap  all  the  year  round,  and  thus  be 
able  to  choke  out  the  fire  or,  in  the  wet  season,  to  make  sufficient  growth 
to  repair  the  ravages  sustained  by  bush  fires. 

We  have  therefore  a  well  clothed  country  to  deal  with  ;  but  our  abundant 
vegetation  is  undoubtedly  the  cause  of  malarial  fever.     The  essentially  health}7 


portions  of  tropical  Africa  are  those  like  Somaliland,  much  of  the  Sudan,  a  good 
deal  of  East  Africa  and  all  South  West  Africa,  where  the  rainfall  is  trifling  and 
vegetation  is  mainly  confined  to  the  banks  of  rivers. 

From  observations  made  and  records  kept  by  various  officials  throughout 
the  Protectorate  proper  and  the  adjoining  regions  under  the  sway  of  the  British 
South  Africa  Company  I  should  compute  the  average  rainfall  of  the  greater 
part  of  British  Central  Africa  at  50  inches  per  annum.  But  this  average 
fluctuates  somewhat  (according  to  the  remembrances  of  white  men  longest 
in  the  country  and  the  traditions  of  the  natives) ;  and  I  should  say  that  the 
rainfall  ranged  from  35  inches  in  years  of  extreme  drought  to  60  inches  in  years 
of  excessive  rainfall.  There  are  certainly  traces  of  a  larger  rainfall  having  once 
prevailed  in  these  countries  in  past  ages.  In  travelling  about  British  Central 



Africa  one  is  constantly  encountering  marshes  which  even  in  native  tradition  (to 
say  nothing  of  the  geographical  evidence)  were  once  large  lakes.  Again,  there 
are  fertile  depressions  which  are  no  longer  marshes.  Dry  stream  valleys  mark 
the  courses  of  once  powerful  torrents.  This  tendency  towards  decreased 
rainfall  is  undoubtedly  due,  in  my  opinion,  to  the  action  of  man.  It  is  scarcely 
exaggeration  to  say  that  had  British  Central  Africa  been  left  for  another  couple 
of  hundred  years  simply  and  solely  to  the  black  itlan  and  the  black  man  had 
continued  to  exist  without  thought  for  the  future  as  he  does  at  present,  this 
country  would  have  become  treeless,  as  many  portions  of  it  were  becoming 
when  we  embarked  on  its  administration.  Livingstone  describes  in  his  Last 
Journals  the  process  that  is  going  on  in  Manyema,  to  the  west  of  Tanganyika,  a 
country  once  covered  with  the  densest  forest.  The  natives  make  clearings  for 


their  plantations.  They  cut  down  the  trees,  leave  them  to  dry  and  then  set  fire 
to  them  and  sow  their  crops  amongst  the  fertilising  ashes.  The  same  type  of 
forest  never  grows  up  again.  It  is  replaced  by  grass  or  by  a  growth  of  scrubby 
trees — trees  of  a  kind  which  can  to  a  greater  extent  resist  the  annual  scorching 
of  the  bush  fires.  Besides  this  wanton  destruction  of  forest  for  the  growing  of 
food  crops  (and  as  a  rule  the  native  merely  grows  one  crop  of  corn  and  then 
moves  off  to  another  patch  of  virgin  soil,  leaving  the  old  plantation  to  be 
covered  with  grass  and  weeds)  the  annual  bush  fires  play  a  considerable  and  (if 
unchecked)  an  increasing  part  in  the  disforesting  of  the  country.  Even  where 
large  continuous  areas  of  dense  forest  remain,  so  evergreen  and  full  of  sap  as 
not  to  burn  easily,  each  year  the  raging  fire  will  sere  and  dry  and  kill  those  trees 
which  are  on  the  forest  outskirts.  The  next  year  these  dead  trees  are  consumed 
by  the  fire  which  again  dries  up  and  kills  another  rank  ;  so  year  by  year  the 
forest  diminishes  in  area  to  extinction,  unless  protected  by  happening  to  grow  in 


a  deep  valley  with  abrupt  cliffs  ;  though  this  condition  of  course  restricts  its 
area  of  growth. 

Still,  although  we  must,  I  think,  admit  a  certain  diminution  in  rainfall  owing 
to  the  decrease  of  forest  or  other  causes,  the  rate  at  which  this  decrease  is  going 
on  has  been  exaggerated,  and  as  we  come  to  know  the  country  better  and  our 
records  grow  with  years  of  occupation,  we  see  that  there  are  signs  of  cycles  of 
greater  and  less  rain  dependent  on  atmospheric  conditions  which  we  have  not  yet 
realised.  The  marks  on  the  rocks  show  that  during  some  ages  there  has  been  a 
slight — but  a  very  slight — fall  in  Lake  Nyasa,  varied  by  periods  of  extraordinary 
diminution  as  for  instance  some  seventy  years  ago  when  according  to  the  natives' 
traditions  the  north  end  of  the  lake  became  so  shallow  between  Deep  Bay 
and  Amelia  Bay  that  a  chief  and  his  men  waded  across  where  it  is  now  man}' 
fathoms  deep.  The  highest  watermark  on  these  polished  rocks  is  perhaps  at 
most  six  feet  above  the  present  high  levels  of  the  lake  in  good  rainy  seasons. 
In  years  of  relative  drought  Lake  Nyasa  may  be  as  much  as  six  feet  below  its 
best  rainy  season  average.  This  means,  of  course,  that  instead  of  there  being 
nine  feet  of  water  on  the  bar  of  the  Shire  where  that  river  quits  the  lake  there 
are  only  three  feet ;  consequently  the  navigability  of  the  Shire  in  the  dry 
season  becomes  much  embarrassed  and  in  these  bad  years  it  can  only  be 

navigated  all  the  year  round 
by  vessels  not  drawing  more 
than  one  and  a  half  feet. 
Yet  we  know  that  in  the  later 
"  fifties  "  and  early  "  sixties  " 
Livingstone  constantly  travelled 
up  and  down  the  Shire  on  a 
vessel  drawing  five  feet.  Even 
in  the  year  1889  the  James 
Stevenson  which  draws  about 
three  feet  of  water  was  able  to 
navigate  the  Shire  through  al- 
most all  the  year  up  to  the 
Murchison  falls,  while  vessels 
of  five  feet  draught  have  in  like 
manner  navigated  the  Upper 
Shire  above  the  falls.  But  from 
1891  till  1896  the  Shire  fell 
lower  and  lower  until  at  last 
not  even  Chiromo  was  the  limit 
of  navigation  from  the  sea, 
but  the  Pinda  rapids  near  the 
Zambezi,  while  the  Upper  Shire 
was  practically  divided  into  a 
few  navigable  stretches  with 
very  shallow  water  in  between. 
But  after  the  rainy  season  of 
1 895-96  Lake  Nyasa  rose  to  a 
height  which  had  not  been 

reached  for  man}-  years  and  is  apparently  still  continuing  to  rise.  The  result  is 
that  the  Lower  Shire  is  now  as  navigable  as  it  was  in  Livingstone's  da}-,  while 
on  the  Upper  Shire  main-  of  our  low-lying  stations  are  threatened  by  the  flood 



Similar  fluctuations  are  recorded  of  Tanganyika ;  while  in  the  case  of 
Bangvveolo  and  M \veru  fluctuations  of  level  would  also  seem  to  occur  in  cycles. 
The  differences  between  Livingstone's  map  of  Bangweolo  and  the  map  made  by 
Giraud,  the  observations  of  Mr.  Joseph  Thomson,  Mr.  Alfred  Sharpe,  and 
Mr.  Poulett  Weatherley  of  the  same  lake  may  all  be  reconciled  by  this  theory 
of  a  few  feet  fluctuation  in  its  rise  and  fall.  A  few  feet,  more  or  less,  would 
make  the  vast  lake  of  M.  Giraud  the  "  restricted  open  water"  of  Livingstone,  and 
the  wide  marsh  with  a  few  open  pools  conjectured  by  Sharpe  and  Thomson.1 

Of  course  the  average  rainfall  I  have  quoted  must  not  be  taken  as  the 
rainfall  of  each  part  of  British  Central  Africa.  So  far  as  our  observations 
go  some  districts  receive  no  more  than  35  inches  per  annum.'2  These  again, 
especially  if  they  contain  mountains  of  great  height  like  Mianje,  may  record 
a  rainfall  exceeding  100  inches.  A  rainfall  of  60  inches  is  common. 


In  consequence  of  this  fairly  good  supply  of  rain  the  country  is  well  watered 
by  perennial  streams  and  rivers.  At  the  extreme  end  of  the  dry  season  there 
are  streams  which  dry  up  though  water  can  almost  always  be  found  a  short 
distance  below  the  surface.  Still  compared  to  other  parts  of  East  Central 
Africa  the  bulk  of  our  rivers  and  rivulets  may  be  described  as  perennial,  that  is 
to  say  containing  running  water  all  the  year  round.  This  is  not  suprising  as  so 
much  of  the  country  is  mountainous  and  in  these  highlands  the  rain  is  spread  a 
little  less  unequally  over  the  area.  It  may  safely  be  said  that  above  altitudes 
of  4000  feet  (and  a  large  proportion  of  the  land  is  above  4000  feet)  no  month 
passes  without  a  fall  of  rain.  Even  at  Zomba  where  the  altitude  is  only  3000 
feet  it  is  a  rare  occurrence  for  no  rain  to  fall  in  any  given  month. 

But  the  year  is  clearly  divided  into  seasons  of  rain  and  drought.  The 
rainy  season  generally  begins  at  the  end  of  the  month  of  November  and  heavy 
rains  fall  in  December.  There  is  often  a  short  lull  about  Christmas  time,  but 

1  Since  this  passage  was  penned  Mr.  Poulett  Weatherley,  the  explorer  and  sportsman,  has  thoroughly 
circumnavigated  and  mapped  it.     His  observations  concur  rather  with  those  of  Livingstone  than  of  Giraud. 

2  A  small  patch  at  the  south  end   of  Lake  Xyasa  in  one  year  only  received  a6-62  inches  of  rain. 


earh-  in  January  the  rains  recommence  and  become  torrential,  continuing  to  fall 
very  heavily  until  the  end  of  March.  April  is  a  delightful  month  as  it  is  in 
Europe,  of  alternate  showers  and  sunshine.  A  little  rain  falls  in  May  and  an 
occasional  shower  in  June.  July  is  the  height  of  the  winter— cold,  dry,  spark- 
ling— but  is  never  without  a  few  drops  of  rain.  In  August  there  will  sometimes 
be  a  week's  rain  of  a  decided  character,  especially  in  the  highlands.  A  shower 


or  two  will  follow  in  September.  October  is  quite  the  driest  month  and  in  low- 
lands passes  without  a  drop  of  rain,  though  in  the  highlands  there  may  be  an 
occasional  thunder  storm.  Towards  the  close  of  November  (the  first  half  being 
terribly  hot  and  dry)  the  big  rains  recommence. 

As  regards  temperature  there  is  considerable  variation  also  dependent  on 
altitude.  In  the  valley  of  the  Shire,  on  the  south  coast  of  Lake  Nyasa,  in  the 
great  Luangwa  Valley  and  on  the  Central  Zambezi,  the  heat  is  frightful  just 

\     j;e     ;j 
"i   I  \ 

I  "    • 

:,,    "Ife: 

fi  ^ 




before  the  rains,  registering  occasionally  temperatures  as  high  as  n8D  in  the 
shade,  though  at  night  time  falling  to  85°,  thus  rendering  it  possible  to  live.  In 
the  height  of  the  rainy  season  the  range  of  the  thermometer  is  not  so  high,  but 
the  heat  is  often  more  unbearable  owing  to  its  greater  uniformity  and  the  moist- 
ness  of  the  temperature.  In  the  months  of  January,  February,  and  March  the 
thermometer  may  be  100°  in  the  daytime  and  only  fall  to  85°  or  90°  at  night. 


But  on  the  high  plateaux  and  amongst  the  mountains — and  these  high  districts 
after  all  represent  the  bulk  of  our  territory — the  temperature  is  at  all  times 
much  more  tolerable.  Such  a  place  as  Zomba1  for  instance  may  be  taken  as  a 
fair  sample  of  the  British  Central  Africa  climate.  Here  during  the  cold  season 
from  May  till  September  we  have  a  day  temperature  not  exceeding  75°  and 
a  night  temperature  ranging  from  40°  to  60°.  In  the  months  of  September, 

1  Altitude  3000  feet  above  the  sea. 


October,  November  the  day  temperature  may  rise  to  98°  and  fall  at  night  to  65°. 
During  the  height  of  the  rainy  season  the  day  temperature  ranges  from  75°  to 
95°  and  the  night  from  65°  to  80°. 

In  the  rainy  season  the  wind  usually  blows  from  a  northerly  direction  and  is 
what  one  may  call  a  benign  wind,  being  warm  and  wet.  During  the  dry  season 
the  cursed  south-easter  prevails.  This  hated  wind  comes  up  from  the  South  Pole 
and  is  cold  and  dry.  It  is  the  equivalent  of  our  east  wind  in  England  and 
produces  much  the  same  effects  on  health  when  it  blows  strongly.  In  the 
excessively  dry  months  of  September,  October,  and  November  this  wind  blow- 
ing across  large  areas  of  burnt  plain — where  the  bush  fires  have  destroyed  the 
vegetation  and  the  sun  has  baked  the  soil— has  a  bad  effect  on  cultivated  crops. 
It  seres  the  leaves  and  causes  many  delicate  plants  to  wither.  -Happily  it  soon 
loses  its  effect  by  passing  over  the  mountains  which  are  always  attended  by 
watery  vapour.  When  the  south  wind  prevails  there  is  a  curious  mistiness  in 
the  atmosphere.  This  is  partly  caused  by  the  diffused  smoke  of  the  bush  fires, 
but  it  is  also  due  to  some  other  causes  not  yet  explained.  At  this  time  of  the 
year  mists  often  prevail  to  a  striking  extent  in  the  early  morning.  These  are 
similar  to  the  "  smokes  "  which  are  so  marked  a  feature  in  the  dry  season  on  the 


West  Coast  of  Africa.  One  understands  how  these  dense  fogs  occur  on  any 
large  river  or  lake,  for  instance.  The  temperature  of  the  water  is  much  higher 
than  that  of  the  air  in  the  early  morning,  and  so  one  may  see  clouds  and  vapour 
rising  from  the  water  surface,  just  as  though  it  were  boiling,  and  these  gradually 
form  low  dense  fogs  which,  minus  the  addition  of  smoke,  are  quite  as  thick  as 
those  we  are  accustomed  to  in  the  Thames  Valley,  which  no  doubt  arise  from 
the  same  cause. 

One  of  the  accompanying  maps  will  give  some  idea  of  the  distribution  of 
the  rainfall,  and  the  names,  length,  and  navigability  of  the  more  important 
streams.  It  might  be  mentioned  that  almost  all  the  streams  given  in  this  map 
are  perennial  as  far  as  our  knowledge  of  them  goes.  Another  map  gives  the 
relative  height  of  the  land  and  the  names  and  altitudes  of  the  principal 
mountain  ranges.  Only  a  few  of  these  latter  require  special  mention.  So  far 
as  we  yet  know  the  highest  mountain  in  British  Central  Africa  is  Mlanje,  at  its 
extreme  south-eastern  corner.  Mlanje  consists  of  a  huge  plateau  from  which 
again  rise  mountain  peaks  representing  ancient  volcanoes.  It  reaches  at  its 
highest  point  an  altitude  of  9683  feet.  The  summit  was  scaled  by  Mr  Sharpe 
and  Captain  Manning  in  1895.  Much  of  the  up-reared  mass,  which  is  about 
200  square  miles  in  area,  exceeds  an  altitude  of  6oco  feet  and  is  eminently 
habitable.  The  Shire  Highlands — or  the  district  between  the  Ruo,  the  Shire 



^     A    ^ 

ON    I'm-:  rri  KR  RT 



and  Lake  Chihva— are  a  mass  of  beautiful  hills  ranging  from  3000  feet  to 
nearly  7000  feet  in  height.  The  highest  mountain  in  the  Shire  Highlands 
is  Mount  Zomba.  This  is  a  smaller  mass  than  Mlanje  but  very  similar  to  it 
in  shape  and  arrangement.  Like  Mlanje  it  is  a  large  plateau  but  its  higher 
peaks  are  rather  the  up-reared  edges  of  the  plateau  (like  the  rim  of  a  dish) 
than  independent  cones  that  rise  from  the  centre.  The  highest  point  of 
Zomba  is  computed  to  attain  an  altitude  of  6900  odd  feet.  It  may  turn  out 
on  more  careful  investigation  to  actually  reach  7000  feet.  In  Southern 
Angoniland,  in  the  south-western  portion  of  the  Protectorate,  Mount  Dedza 
is  computed  at  7000  feet  and  other  high  mountains  like  Chongoni  are  not  far 
off  in  altitude.  In  the  mountains  to  the  west  of  Lake  Nyasa  the  higher  peaks 
of  the  lofty  Nyika  plateau  reach  to  over  8000  feet  in  height.  The  average 
altitude  of  the  Nyika  plateau  is  7000  feet.  One  or  two  points  on  the  Nyasl- 
Tanganyika  plateau  may  touch  7000  feet  and  likewise  in  the  northern  part 
of  the  Muchinga  (Lukinga)  mountains  west  of  the  river  Luangwa.  Elsewhere 



in  British  Central  Africa,  in  the  basin  of  the  Kafue  and  Lunsefwa  rivers,  and 
to  the  west  of  Lake  Bangweolo  there  is  probably  no  greater  altitude  'than 
6000  feet. 

Although  they  are  not  in  British  territory  and  therefore  not  within  the 
scope  of  this  book,  a  passing  mention  should  be  made  of  the  Livingstone 
Mountains  which  border  the  north-east  coast  of  Lake  Nyasa  and  extend 
under  various  names  to  the  south  end  of  Lake  Rukwa.  They  reach  to 
altitudes  which  possibly  slightly  exceed  that  of  Mlanje  and  come  very  near 
to  10,000  -feet. 

This  is  pre-eminently  a  country  of  great  lakes.  Lake  Tanganyika  is  over  400 
miles  in  length  with  a  breadth  varying  from  60  to  30  miles.  "Lake  Nyasa  is  360 
miles  long  with  a  greatest  breadth  of  40  miles  and  a  least  breadth  of  15.  Lake 
Bangweolo1  is  of  such  uncertain  area  that  it  is  useless  to  give  any  guess  at  the 

The    name    of   Bangweolo    is    quite    unknown    to    the    natives,   and    must    have   been    given    by 
Livingstone  under  some  misapprehension.      By  the  surrounding  peoples   it   is  known   as   "  Liemlni 

Mweru,'    o^  "Nyanja":    more   often   as   "Mweru."     .Mr.    Alfred  Sharpe  conjectures   that   the   nanu 

^Bangweplo      may   have   arisen    from    the    combination   of   "  Pa-mweru  "   or    "Pa-nmehr'   ("r"   and 

"1"  are  interchangeable  in  most  African  dialects)  meaning  "at  Mweru."     The  natives  are  verv  much 

addicted  to   prefixing   the   locative   prefix    "Pa"    to    names    of  places.     In    the   same    wav    Livingston- 



mileage  of  its  open  surface  but  it  must  contain  at  least  1500  square  miles  of 
navigable  water.  Lake  Mweru  is  about  68  miles  long  by  24  broad.  Lake 
I'hihva  in  the  extreme  south-east  is  also  of  varying  extent  according  to  the 
rainy  season  or  dry  season  ;  but  it  is  as  a  rule  about  50  miles  long  by  1 5 
broad.  The  salt  lake  Mweru  which  lies  between  the  great  Mweru  Lake  and 
Tanganyika  is  chiefly  a  marsh  with  a  few  open  pools  about  35  miles  long 
by  20  broad.  North  of  Lake  Chilwa  and  separated  from  it  by  only  a  few 
miles  of  sandy  ridge  is  Lake  Chiuta,  the  source  of  the  river  Lujenda. 
Chiuta  is  about  40  miles  long  with  a  breadth  which  nowhere  exceeds  eight 
miles  and  sometimes  shrinks  to  two.  In  the  Lubisa  country  to  the  west  of  the 


Luangwa  there  is  a  small  mountain  lakelet  about  40  square  miles  in  area,  which 
was  called  Lake  Moir  by  its  discoverer,  Mr.  Joseph  Thomson.  Lastly,  may  be 
mentioned  Lake  Malombe  through  which  the  Upper  Shire  flows.  This  lake  had 
an  area  in  1893  of  about  100  square  miles  ;  but  in  1894  and  in  the  succeeding 
years  a  large  sand  island  grew  up  in  the  centre  which  became  covered  with  reeds, 
and  the  lake  as  I  last  saw  it  was  little  more  than  a  broad  channel  of  the  Shire 
divided  by  an  enormous,  flat,  reed-covered  island  from  a  narrower  channel  or 
back-water  to  the  west.  There  is  every  sign  that  in  spite  of  the  great  rise  in 
Lake  Xyasa  this  island  will  hold  its  own.  We  shall  then  witness  the  remarkable 

himself  called    the   lakelet    Malombe,    "  Pa-  Malombe."     The    root    "-(•'//,''   or    " -e/u"   is   a   very   old 
Bantu   word   for  "open  water."     With   a   different    prefix    it  reappears   far   to   the   North   as   "  Rueru, 
one    of   the    native    names    of   the    Albert    Nvanza.      It    would    seem    to    be   connected   with   the    root 
"white."     It  might  be  mentioned,  however,  that  Mr.  I'oulett  Weatherley  appears  to  have  heard  the  name 
il  Bangweulu  "  in  use. 


0          f          E         .A          N 


fact  that  in  a  little  more  than  a  year  a  lake  which  has  existed  beyond  the 
memory  of  man  has  suddenly  been  resolved  into  a  sandy  marsh  and  a  broad 
rivrer  channel. 

I  think  I  have  enumerated  all  the  known  permanent  lakes  of  the  country, 
though  I  should  not  be  surprised  if  travellers  who  read  this  book  came  forward 
and  said,  "You  have  forgotten  such  and  such  a  lake  in  the  Chambezi  Valley,  or 
the  small  lakelet  bet\veen  Chilwa  and  Mlanje,  or  the  great  sheet  of  open  water 
on  the  Upper  Tuchila,  or  such  and  such  a  lake  in  the  Luangwa  Basin."  None 
of  these  sheets  of  water,  however,  as  far  as  is  yet  known,  have  any  permanent 
existence.  They  are  only  the  creation  of  the  rainy  season  floods.  Seen  at  that 
time,  of  course,  their  existence  is  recorded  ;  in  the  dry  season  they  would  be 
found  either  not  to  exist  at  all  or  to  be  confined  to  a  patch  of  marsh.  There 
were  lakes  atone  time,  undoubtedly,  near  the  junction  of  the  Ruo  and  the  Shire 
(the  Elephant  Marsh)  and  at  the  junction  of  the  Shire  and  Zambezi  (Morambala 
Marsh) ;  but  in  the  course  of  time  the  alluvium  of  the  rivers,  together,  even, 


•i  HE  i.iKunn.A  I,ORI;K.    MI.ANJE 

with  a  slight  upheaval  of  the  ground,  or  more  probably  still  the  deeper  cutting 
of  the  river-channel  have  turned  these  former  lakes  into  marshes  or  vast  extents 
of  dry  alluvial  soil.  In  like  manner  Xyasa  was  evidently  united  not  many 
centuries  ago  with  Lake  Malombe  ;  and  it  may  be,  also,  that  Lake  Chilwa  was 
joined  writh  Lake  Chiuta  and  was  then  the  head  waters  of  the  great  Lujenda- 
Ruvuma  river.  Much  of  the  decrease  in  volume  of  the  great  lakes  must  be 
attributed  to  a  slow  and  slight  process  of  upheaval  which  has  caused  their 
\vaters  to  more  rapidly  drain  away  ;  but  the  disappearance  of  these  shallow  lakes 
along  the  courses  of  the  rivers  is  chiefly  due  to  the  rivers  having  in  course  of 
time  cut  their  channels  deeper,  so  that  the  lakes  which  formerly  represented 
their  overflow  have  their  bottoms  now  removed  even  above  flood  limit. 

The  geology  of  British  Central  Africa  would  appear  to  be  relatively  simple. 
The  commonest  formation,  perhaps,  is  a  mixture  of  metamorphic  rocks, 
grauisackc,  clay -slates,  gneiss  and  schists.  This  prevails  over  much  of  the 
country  lying  between  the  west  of  Lake  Nyasa  and  the  Luapula  River,  on  the 
Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  in  parts  of  the  Shire  Highlands,  and  north  of  the 
Zambezi.  The  valleys  of  the  great  and  sluggish  rivers,  however,  (the  Shire, 


the  Chambezi,  the  Luangvva)  contain  an  upper  stratum  of  alluvial  deposit  where 
the  valleys  are  broad  and  the  rocks  do  not  strike  through.  The  principal 
mountain  ranges  are  mostly  granite ;  and  granite  with  its  upper  layers  often 
rotten  and  even  turned  into  red  ferruginous  clay  constitutes  the  formation  of 
much  of  the  Shire  Highlands.  There  is  an  outcrop  of  sandstone  on  the  north- 
west and  north-east  coasts  of  Lake  Nyasa  (Mount  Waller  and  the  hills  of 
Amelia  Bay  are  examples) ;  a  little  way  back  from  the  lake  shore  at  the  north 
end  (in  German  territory) ;  to  the  west  of  the  River  Shire  near  the  Portuguese 
frontier  ;  at  the  south  end  of  Tanganyika  ;  and  all  round  about  Lake  Mweru 
and  in  the  countries  adjoining  the  River  Luapula.  Volcanic  lavas  and  tuffs  are 
present  on  parts  of  the  upper  plateau  of  Mlanje  and  at  the  north  end  of  Lake 


Xyasa.  There  is  a  good  deal  of  quartz  in  the  mountains  to  the  west  of  Lake 
Nyasa,  especially  to  the  south-west,  and  in  parts  of  the  Shire  Highlands  (such 
as  Mlanje).  The  low  flat  hills  in  the  Upper  Shire  district  are  composed  of 
marble  which  yields  a  very  good  building  lime.  Much  the  same  lime  is  also 
obtained  from  places  on  the  west  coast  of  Lake  Nyasa,  where  there  must  be 
likewise  a  kind  of  limestone  amongst  the  low  hills  near  the  lake  shore.  The 
surface  of  much  of  the  low-lying  country  on  the  banks  of  the  Upper  Shire  is 
little  else  than  a  deposit  of  the  shells  of  molluscs  mixed  with  black  vegetable 

This  black  "cotton  "  soil,  which  is  usually  extremely  rich  for  cultivation,  and 
is  so  much  valued  in  India,  is  found  plentifully  in  many  stream  valleys  and 
depressions,  especially  in  the  Nyasaland  provinces,  and  is  classed  by  me  as 

On  the  east  coast  of  Lake  Nyasa,  a  few  miles  inland  from  Msumbo  and 
Chisanga  (Stations  of  the  Universities  Mission),  a  soap  stone  has  been  found  by 



Commander  Cullen,  R.N.R.,1  who  had  noticed  that  the  natives  made  use  of  this 
stone  in  building  the  mission  church  at  Chisanga.  This  soap  stone,  according  to 
Commander  Cullen,  is  the  same  as  that  found  in  parts  of  Europe  and  used  as  a 
lubricant  packing  by  engineers.  When  prepared  for  this  purpose  it  is  worth  £8 
a  ton.  It  is  quite  easily  worked,  can  be  cut  with  a  knife,  and  is  not  much — if  at 
all — affected  by  weather. 

In  the  sandstone  formation  of  the  West  Shire  district  and  round  the  northern 
half  of  Lake  Xyasa,  coal  is  found.     On  the  surface  it  is  a  little  shaley,  but  there 


is  evidence  that  good  combustible  coal  lies  underneath.  In  the  Marimba  and 
Central  Angoniland  districts,  also  in  the  mountains  of  the  West  Nyasa  coast 
region,  and  in  parts  of  the  Shire  Highlands,  a  gold-bearing  quartz  exists.2 
Alluvial  gold  is  reported  to  exist  on  the  Northern  Angoni  plateau,  in  the  West 
Nyasa  district,  and  at  the  head-waters  of  the  River  Bua  (Central  Angoniland), 
just  within  the  Protectorate.  In  the  valleys  of  the  rivers  flowing  south  to  the 
Zambezi  (in  Mpezeni's  country)  gold  really  does  exist,  and  was  worked  at 
Alisale  by  the  half-caste  Portuguese  in  the  last,  and  in  part  of  the  present 
century.  Although  there  are  many  reports  that  payable  gold  has  been  found  in 

^  Senior  Naval  Officer  in  the  service  of  the  B.C.  A.  Administration. 

-  Between  Xkata  Bay  and  Sisya.     The  reef  here  is  >aid  to  have  slate  walls. 



the  rock,  which  only  needs  the  requisite  machinery  to  crush  out,  at  anything 
from  10  dvvts.  to  I  oz.  per  ton,  no  conclusive  evidence  has  yet  been  offered  to 
support  these  statements  by  specimens  which  can  be  submitted  to  analysis.  In 
1889,  however,  long  before  Europeans  turned  their  eyes  in  this  direction,  the  old 
Jumbe  of  Kotakota  told  me  that  the  quartz  in  his  country  contained  gold,  and 


soon  afterwards  he  entered  into  an  agreement  with  the  African  Lakes  Company 
that  this  gold  should  be  worked.  The  Lakes  Company  turned  over  their 
agreement  to  the  British  South  Africa  Company,  on  whose  account  prospectors 
have  entered  the  Marimba  district. 

Specimens  of  something  very  like  cinnabar  were  once  submitted  to  Mr. 
Sharpe  and  myself  for  examination.  They  came  from  the  country  to  the  west 
of  the  Lower  Shire.  We  attempted  an  analysis  but  although  there  seemed  to 
be  traces  of  mercury  in  the  pan  we  could  not  authoritatively  state  that  the 


substance  was  cinnabar.  Since  that  time  no  further  specimens  have  reached  us. 
It  is  beyond  dispute  that  the  country  of  Katanga  is  rich  in  copper  and  also 
possesses  gold.  The  copper  of  Katanga,  however,  is  widely  spread  in  a  currency 
of  ingots  over  South  Central  Africa.  Malachite  also  comes  from  that  region. 
There  is  no  reason  why  this  copper  should  not  also  be  found  in  the  same 
formation  to  the  east  of  the  river  Luapula  and  Lake  Mweru. 

Specimens  of  lead  and  of  graphite  have  been  shown  to  me,  but  I  was 
unable  to  identify  the  districts  from  which  they  were  obtained,  though  I 
understood  that  some  specimens  of  graphite  came  from  the  hills  to  the  west 
of  the  Lower  Shire. 

Iron  ore  is  nearly  everywhere  abundant.  Excellent  haematite  iron  comes 
from  the  Upper  Shire  district.  We  have  actually  used  some  of  this  iron — have 
had  it  smelted  and  worked  by  native  blacksmiths— for  making  the  parts  of  a 
gun  and  such  other  relatively  simple  things  which  were  within  the  scope  of 
native  blacksmiths  or  Sikh  artizans. 

Garnets  are  found  in  the  stream  valleys  of  Mlanje.  On  the  same  mountain 
beautiful  quartz  crystals  are  met  with  and  persons  seeing  them  for  the  first 
time  are  often  deluded  into  the  belief  that  they  have  obtained  diamonds.  Xo 
trace  of  the  blue  diamond  clay  has  ever  yet  been  met  with  in  Central  Africa.1 

There  are  no  deposits  of  rock-salt,  so  far  as  I  am  aware,  but  salt  is  obtained 
from  the  brackish  marsh  called  by  the  name  of  Mweru  which  lies  between  the 
great  lake  M \veru  and  Tanganyika  ;  also  from  the  marsh  country  in  the  West 
Shire  district,  and  from  the  brackish  Lake  Chilwa.2 

But  salt  is  also  obtained  both  good  and  abundant — though  rather  dark  in 
colour — from  the  ashes  of  grasses  and  other  plants  growing  on  the  mountain 
plateaux  and  in  the  vicinity  of  rivers  and  lakes.  On  the  whole,  in  one  way  or 
another  British  Central  Africa  may  be  considered  to  be  well  supplied  with  salt 
manufactured  by  the  natives,  which  is  a  favourite  article  of  commerce  and  is 
even  a  good  deal  used  by  Europeans,  who  in  their  cooking,  if  not  on  their  tables, 
at  any  rate  in  their  kitchens,  use  it  in  preference  to  the  imported  article. 

1  Commander  Cullen  supplies  the  following  note  :— "  In  the  upper  waters  of  the  Lintipe  river 
(Central  Angomland)  the  formation  is  the  same  as  that  of  the  Vaal  River  Valley  :  and  as  garnets  and 
crystals  are  found  in  it,  if  it  were  properly  worked  it  seems  probable  it  might  prove  diamondiferous." 

Mr.  ^Sharpe  describes  as  follows  the  way  in  which  the  natives  extract  salt  from  the  Mweru 
swamp  :-  The  natives  dwelling  round  the  great  Mweru  salt  swamp  take  the  salt-impregnated  earth 
ound  the  lake  shore  and  put  it  into  funnels  made  of  closely  woven  grass  rope.  They  then  pour  in 
water  and  stir  up  the  salt  earth.  The  water  takes  up  the  salt  and  filtering  through  the  grass  funnel 
carries  the  salt  m  solution  into  pots  placed  below.  The  water  is  then  evaporated  and  cakes  of  pure 
salt  are  left.  ' 


Report  by  the  Director  of  the  Scientific  Department  of  the  Imperial  Institute  on  two  samples  of  coal  from 

Nyasaland,  received  through  Mr.  P.  L.  Sclater,  F.R.S.,  from  Mr.  Alfred  Sharpe,  Acting  Commissioner 

and  Consul-General  for  British  Central  Africa  :— 

SPECIMEN  A.—  Coal  from  North  Nyasaland—  Fixed  carbon,  57-63  %  ;  ash,  15-57  %  ;  volatile  matter 
26 -bo  %  ;  sulphur,  o'io  %  ;  coke,  73-20  %  ;  calorific  value,  5520  units,     this  is  a  non-caking  coal  of  very 
hue  quality,  which  is  likely  to  be  useful  for  most  purposes  for  which  coal  is  employed.      The  percentage  of 
ash  is  rather  high,  but  the  coal  is  remarkably  free  from  sulphur. 

SPECIMEN  B.— Supposed  Coal  from  the  Son^u;-  AYrv;-— Fixed  carbon,  47-46  %  ;  ash,  8 '4  %  •  volatile 
matter,  44-54;  sulphur,  0-52;  coke,  55-5  ;  calorific  value,  6050  units.  This  also  is  a  non-caking  coal  of 
good  quality,  yielding  very  little  ash,  and  containing  but  little  sulphur.  This  coal  would  be  serviceable 
either  lor  heating  or  for  metallurgical  purposes.  (Signed)  WYNDIIAM  R.  DUNSTAN. 


BRITISH  CENTRAL  AFRICA  only  comes  within  the  domain  of  written 
history  quite  recently,  Tanganyika  and  much  of  Nyasa  scarcely  forty 
years  ago.  It  is  just  barely  possible  that  the  south  end  of  Lake 
Nyasa,  and  it  is  certain  that  a  portion  of  the  river  Shire  which  flows  from 
it,  were  known  to  the  Portuguese  explorers  at  the  latter  end  of  the  sixteenth 
century.  The  unwritten  history,  the  history  which  can  be  deduced  from 
researches  into  language,  examinations  of  racial  type,  native  traditions,  and 
archaeological  researches,  extends  back  into  the  usual  remoteness  connected 
with  the  movements  of  the  human  genus,  though  in  no  part  of  the  world 
is  it  so  indefinite  or  is  there  such  scanty  and  slight  material  on  which  to 
construct  theories. 

It  may  be  that  something  of  this  kind  occurred.  Until  further  facts 
come  to  light,  the  tendency  of  such  little  knowledge  as  we  at  present  possess 
of  the  past  history  of  the  evolution  of  man  is  to  lead  us  to  believe  that  he 
was  developed  from  the  pithecoid  type  somewhere  in  Asia,  not  improbably  in 
India.1  It  would  seem,  at  any  rate,  as  if  the  earliest  known  race  of  man, 
inhabiting  what  is  now  British  Central  Africa,  was  akin  to  the  Bushman- 
Hottentot  type  of  negro.  Rounded  stones,  with  a  hole  through  the  centre,  similar 
to  those  which  are  used  by  the  Bushmen  in  the  south  for  weighting  their 
digging  sticks,  have  been  found  at  the  south  end  of  Lake  Tanganyika,  and 
specimens  of  them  were  brought  home  thence  by  me  and  given  to  the  British 
Museum.  I  have  heard  that  other  examples  of  these  "  Bushman  "  stones  have 
been  found  nearer  to  Lake  Nyasa,  but  I  have  not  seen  the  alleged  specimens. 
In  one  instance  I  alighted  on  a  curious  tradition,  which  would  make  it  appear 

1  At  any  moment  this  theory,  which  at  present  holds  the  field,  may  be  upset  by  unlooked-for 
discoveries  in  African  palaeontology.  Quite  recently  a  discovery  of  the  most  extraordinary  importance 
and  interest  has  been  made  by  Dr.  Forsyth  Major  in  Madagascar,  an  island  which  was  united  to  Africa 
in  the  early  part  of  the  tertiary  epoch.  This  consists  of  the  fossil  remains  of  a  monkey-like  form  called 
Nesopii 'heats,  a  form  intermediate  between  the  Cebidoe  and  the  Old  World  monkeys.  The  Cebidre  are  the 
American  monkeys,  a  type  which  is  connected  with  the  Lemuroids  by  transitional  forms.  Mr.  R.  Lydekker 
deduces  from  these  discoveries  that  the  primal  stock  of  the  monkeys  had  its  home  in  Africa ;  that  from 
the  African  continent  branched  off  the  Cebidae,  which  found  their  way  to  America,  and  there  lingered, 
while  they  became  extinguished  in  the  Old  World;  and  the  Simiidse,  or  Old  World  monkeys,  which 
in  turn  gave  rise  to  the  anthropoid  apes  and  man.  So  far  as  we  yet  know  evidence  preponderates  in 
favour  of  the  anthropoid  apes  having  arisen  in  Southern  Asia,  whence  they  penetrated  Africa;  and  the 
famous  discovery  by  Dr.  Dubois,  in  Java,  of  Pithecanthropus  erectus,  a  form  almost  intermediate  between 
the  anthropoid  ape  and  the  human  species,  would  lead  us  to  imagine  that  man  likewise  originated  in  the 
Asiatic  continent,  which  served  as  a  distributing  centre.  The  lowest  known  forms  of  man  living 
at  the  present  time,  or  only  recently  extinct,  are  found  in  Tasmania,  Australia,  South  Eastern  Asia, 
and  Central  and  Southern  Africa.  At  the  same  time  further  discoveries  may  equally  well  show  that  the 
development  of  the  anthropoid  ape  into  man  took  place  in  Africa,  a  guess  once  hazarded  by  Darwin. 




that  until  recently  the  Bushman  type  was  lingering  on  the  upper  plateau  of  the 
Mlanje  mountain  mass  at  the  south-east  corner  of  the  Protectorate.  The 
Mananja  natives  of  that  district  assert  positively  that  there  used  to  live  on  the 
upper  part  of  the  mountain,  a  dwarf  race  of  light  yellow  complexion  with  hair 
growing  in  scattered  tufts,  and  with  that  large  development  of  the  buttocks 
characteristic  of  the  Bushman -Hottentot  type.  They  gave  these  people  a 
specific  name,  "  Arungu,"  but  I  confess  that  this  term  inspired  me  with  some 
distrust  of  the  value  of  their  tradition,  as 
it  was  identical  with  the  word  for  "gods."1 
The  resemblance,  however,  may  have  been 
accidental.  They  declare  this  people  to 
have  been  found  on  the  top  of  Mlanje 
until  quite  recently.  Similar  rumours  were 
collected  by  a  Portuguese  officer  stationed 
at  Mlanje,  and  by  him  communicated  to 
me,  quite  independently  of  my  own  re- 
searches, and  the  same  idea  occurred  to 
him  as  to  myself,  that  the  traditions 
referred  to  a  Bushman  type.  I  have  at 
different  times  exhaustively  searched,  or 
caused  to  be  searched,  the  upper  parts  of 
the  Mlanje  mountain  ;  but  although  traces 
of  human  residence  in  some  of  the  caves 
have  been  reported,  no  definite  proof  of 
the  existence  of  any  people  differing  from 
the  modern  type  was  discovered.  That  is 
to  say,  traces  of  human  habitation  in  those 
caves  and  hollows  consisted  chiefly  of 
fragments  of  pottery,  which  is  certain!}- 
not  a  characteristic  sign  of  Bushman 
habitation.  It  is  probably  known  to  my 
readers,  however,  that  real  undisputed 
Bushmen  are  found  (I  have  seen  them 
myself)  in  South  Western  Africa,  in  the  same  latitudes  as  the  southern 
part  of  the  British  Protectorate  under  review.  Bushman  tribes  were  discovered 
by  Serpa  Pinto  and  other  explorers  as  far  north  almost  as  the  I4th  parallel 
south  latitude,  in  the  countries  near  the  Upper  Kunene  river. 

Here  and  there,  in  Nyasaland,  one  meets  with  faces  and  forms  amongst  the 
natives  which  suggest  a  cropping  out  of  the  Hottentot  type,  as  though  the 
present  Bantu  races  had,  on  their  first  invasion  of  these  countries,  absorbed 
their  Bushman  predecessors  by  intermarriage.  This  Bushman -Hottentot 
mixture,  however,  is  not  nearly  so  apparent  as  it  is  in  the  Basuto  and 
certain  Kafir  tribes  of  South  Africa.  Indeed  when  South  African  negroes 
come  to  Nyasaland  for  work  and  one  is  able  to  contrast  them  with  the 
local  natives,  one  is  struck  at  once  by  the  resemblance  they  offer  to 
Hottentots,  in  their  paler  skins,  more  prominent  cheek  bones,  deep  set  eyes 
and  flattened  nose.  It  is  evident  that  the  Basuto  -  Bechuana  people 
especially  have  much  mingled  with  the  Hottentots  in  times  past.  It  would 
seem  from  the  researches  of  Mr.  Theodore  Bent  in  the  ruined  cities  of 

1  Murungu=a  god.  A-rungu  =  gods.  Yet  this  is  not  the  ordinary  plural  which  is  Mi-lungu  or 
Mi-rungu,  though  it  is  A-rungu  in  the  more  northern  dialects. 



Mashonaland  that  those  earlier  settlers  from  Southern  Arabia,  who  mined 
for  gold  some  two  thousand  years  ago  and  less,  in  South  Central  Africa, 
\vere  only  acquainted  with  native  inhabitants  of  a  Bushman-Hottentot  type, 
to  judge  by  the  drawings,  engravings  and  models  they  have  left,  intended  to 
depict  natives  engaged  in  the  chase. 

The  evidence  which  I  have  quoted  at  length  in  my  book  on  Kilimanjaro,1 
and  in  the  prefatory  chapters  to  the  Life  of  Livingstone,  derived  from  a  com- 
parative study  of  the  Bantu  languages,  leads  me  to  believe  that  the  invasion 
of  the  southern  half  of  Africa  by  big  black  negro  races,  nowadays  so  familiar 
to  us,  was  relatively  recent  in  the  history  of  man — perhaps  not  much  more  than 
2oco  years  ago.  Some  cause,  such  as  the  dense  forests  of  the  Congo  Basin, 
must  have  checked  their  descent  of  the  continent  from  the  Sudan.  They 
may  also  have  been  held  back  for  a  long  time — especially  on  the  eastern  side 
of  the  continent  where  the  forests  could  never  have  been  in  recent  times  a 
serious  obstacle— by  the  sturdy  opposition  of  the  prior  inhabitants  of  Bushman- 
Hottentot  type.  Be  that  as  it  may,  I  do  not  think  the  black  negroes,  the 
present  inhabitants  of  South  Central  Africa,  have  been  in  possession  of  those 
countries  from  time  immemorial,  and  in  their  own  traditions  they  vaguely  recall 
a  descent  from  the  North. 

It  is  possible  that  when  the  Sabaeans  and  Arabs  traded  with  South-east 
Africa,  during  the  first  half  of  the  Christian  era,  one  or  another  of  them  may 
have  penetrated  into  the  countries  round  Lake  Nyasa.  With  this  proviso, 
however,  as  to  the  possibility  of  such  a  journey  having  taken  place,  it  must 
be  stated  that  as  far  as  we  know,  the  Arabs  did  little  more  in  regard  to  British 
Central  Africa  than  to  settle  on  the  coast  of  the  Indian  Ocean,  or  to  establish 
a  trading  depot  at  Sena,  on  the  Lower  Zambezi. 

It  would  seem  to  me  as  though  3000  years  ago  the  distribution  of  races 
in  Africa  had  stood  thus.  The  southern  half  of  the  continent,  from  a  little 
north  of  the  Equator  to  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  was  very  sparsely  populated 
with  a  low  Negroid  type,  of  which  the  Bushmen  and  Hottentots,  and  possibly 
the  pigmy  tribes  of  the  Congo  forests,2  are  the  descendants.  The  North  and 
Xorth-east  of  Africa,  from  Morocco  to  Egypt  and  Egypt  to  Somaliland,  was 
peopled  mainly  by  the  Hamites,  a  race  akin  in  origin  and  language  to  the 
Semitic  type,  which  latter  was  certainly  a  higher  development  from  a  parent 
Hamitic  stock.  The  Hamites  themselves,  however,  obviously  originated  as  a 
superior  ascending  variety  of  the  Negritic  species,  from  which  basal  stock 
had  been  derived  in  still  earlier  times  the  Bushman-Hottentot  group,  whose 
languages — especially  that  of  the  Hottentot — are  thought  by  some  authorities 
to  show  remote  affinities  in  structure  to  the  Hamitic  tongues.  Westward  of 
the  Hamites,  and  an  earlier  divergence  from  the  original  Negritic  group,  were 
the  true  black  negroes,  more  closely  allied  in  origin  perhaps  to  the  Bushmen- 
Hottentots  than  to  the  more  divergent  Hamites.  But  3000  years  ago,  I  am 
inclined  to  believe  that  the  true  negroes  were  bounded  in  their  distribution 
by  the  northern  limits  of  the  Sahara  Desert,  the  Atlantic  Ocean,  the  great 
forests  of  the  Congo  Basin,  and  either  the  Nile  Valley  or  the  Abyssinian 
Highlands  on  the  East.  Here  and  there  these  different  sections  of  the  Negritic 
stock  mingled,  producing  races  superior  to  the  pure  negro,  like  the  Nubians, 
the  Somalis,  and  the  Fulbe,  which  dwell  more  or  less  on  the  borderland  between 
the  negro  and  the  Hamite.  When  the  true  negroes  invaded  the  southern  half 

1  The  Kilimanjaro  Expedition,  pp.  478-483. 

2  These  latter  much  mixed  I  am  sure  with  the  black  negroes. 


of  the  African  continent,  some  2000  to  3000  years  ago,  they  carried  with  them 
such  culture,  domestic  animals,  and  cultivated  plants  as  they  had  derived 
indirectly  from  Egypt.  I  should  think  that  in  Nyasaland  and  along  the  shores 
of  Lake  Tanganyika,  the  history  of  negro  culture  has  been  retrograde,  until 
the  coming  of  the  Arab  and  the  European.  In  one  or  two  places  on  the  shores 
of  Lake  Xyasa  old  pottery  has  been  dug  up  at  a  considerable  depth  below  the 
surface,  with  trees  of  great  girth  and  age  growing  over  these  remains.  The 
pottery  has  been  found  imbedded  in  the  sand  of  an  ancient  shore-line  of 
Xyasa,  now  covered  by  about  5  feet  of  humus,  in  which  baobab  trees  are 
strongly  rooted.  From  the  approximate  age  of  the  trees,  and  the  time  it 
should  have  taken  to  accumulate  this  vegetable  soil,  some  of  this  pottery  must 
have  been  500  or  600  years  old.  One  large  pot  thus  found  has  been  deposited 
by  me  in  the  British  Museum.  These  few  remains  exhibit  evidences  of  greater 
skill  and  taste  than  is  shown  by  the  pottery  at  the  present  time  in  the  same 
districts.  Researches  founded  on  the  study  of  languages,  of  religions,  of 
traditions,  and  on  the  records  of  Portuguese  explorers  in  West  Africa,  would 
also  seem  to  show  that  in  Western  Africa  many  of  the  negro  States  were  in 
a  far  higher  state  of  culture  500  years  ago  than  they  are  now. 

The  line  of  the  migration  of  the  Bantu  negroes  in  British  Central  Africa 
will  be  treated  of  in  Chapter  XL,  which  describes  their  languages.  It  will  be 
sufficient  to  say,  as  regards  history,  that  we  may  presume  them  to  have  entered 
into  possession  of  these  countries — driving  out  or  absorbing  the  antecedent 
Bushman  race — about  1000  years  ago. 

With  the  doubtful  exception  of  the  visit  of  an  occasional  Arab  slave 
dealer,  they  had  no  contact  with  the  outer  world  until  the  arrival  of  the 
Portuguese  on  the  East  Coast  of  Africa,  which  is  the  first  definite  landmark 
in  the  history  of  this  portion  of  the  continent.  Vasco  da  Gama,  after  rounding 
the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  in  1495,  stopped  at  the  Arab  settlements  of  Sofala 
near  the  modern  Beira)  and  Mozambique,  and  thence  passed  onwards  to 
Malindi  'near  Mombasa)  and  India.  On  his  return  from  India  he  further 
explored  the  South-east  Coast  of  Africa,  and  (probably  from  information 
given  by  Arab  pilots)  entered  with  his  little  fleet  the  Quelimane  River,1  which 
was  connected  intermittently  with  the  main  Zambezi,  and  which,  until  the  other 
day,  was  thought  to  be  the  only  certain  means  of  reaching  the  Zambezi  above 
its  delta.  This  river  he  called  the  "  Rio  dos  Bons  Signaes,"  or  the  "  River  of 
Good  Indications."  The  name  "  Quelimane,"  which  he  applied  to  a  small 
village  12  miles  inland  from  the  mouth  of  the  river  (the  origin  of  the  now 
important  town  of  Quelimane,  the  capital  of  Portuguese  Zambezia)  is  stated 
by  the  Portuguese  to  have  the  following  etymology.  This  village  belonged 
to  a  certain  individual  who  acted  as  interpreter  between  the  Portuguese  and 
the  natives.  He  appears  to  have  been  an  Arab,  or  a  half  Arab.  In  those 
days  Portuguese  navigators  seem  to  have  been  acquainted  with  Arabic,  a 
language  which  probably  still  lingered  in  the  southern  part  of  Portugal,  where 
Moorish  kingdoms  existed  till  the  twelfth  century.  The  name  which  the 
Portuguese  applied  to  this  individual  was  "Quelimane"  (pronounced  Keliman). 
Xow  in  the  corrupt  Coast  Arabic  "  Kaliman "  is  the  word  for  "Interpreter."'- 
Consequently  the  name  of  the  modern  town  Quelimane3  is  simply  derived 

1  On  Jan.  22nd,  1498.  -  In  Svvahili  this  becomes  Mkaliinani. 

:i  I  have  taken  the  opportunity  to  give  this  bit  of  etymology  as  there  lias  long  been  a  misapprehension 
as  to  the  correct  spelling  of  Quelimane,  which  was  thought  wrongly  to  be  derived  from  "  Kilimani," 
which  means  in  Svvahili  "  on  the  hill."  But  there  is  no  hill  within  eighty  miles  of  Ouelimane.  The  true 
native  name  of  this  place  is  "  Chuabo." 


from  the  term  "  Interpreter,"  applied  to  this  guide  and  go-between  of  Vasco 
da  Gama. 

For  some  five  centuries  before  the  Portuguese  arrived  the  Arabs  of 
Southern  and  Eastern  Arabia  had  formed  or  re-formed  settlements  along  the 
East  Coast  of  Africa  from  Somaliland  to  Sofala.1  In  the  direction  of  British 
Central  Africa  they  were  chiefly  established  at  Mozambique,  Ngoji  (Angoche), 
and  Sena  on  the  Zambezi.  They  apparently  found  no  direct  entrance  into  the 
Zambezi  River  which  could  be  easily  navigated  by  their  daus,  and  preferred 
to  use  the  Quelimane  River.  This  in  exceptional  rainy  seasons  at  the  present 
day  becomes  connected  with  the  Zambezi  river,  by  overflow  creeks ;  and 
possibly  some  centuries  ago  was  the  most  northern  branch  of  the  delta.  The 
Arabs  would  seem,  therefore,  to  have  gone  up  this  river  past  Quelimane,  and 
then  to  have  travelled  either  by  water  when  the  river  was  full,  or  overland 
at  other  seasons,  to  Sena,  a  settlement  not  far  from  the  junction  of  the  Zambezi 
and  the  Shire.  From  Sena  again  they  had  overland  communication  to  their 
settlements  at  Sofala,  near  the  modern  town  of  Beira.2 

At  first  the  Portuguese  were  received  by  the  Arabs  in  a  friendly  fashion,  and 
several  of  the  Portuguese  were  taken  up  by  Arab  guides  from  Quelimane  to 
Sena.  Before  many  years3  were  over  the  Portuguese  had  dispossessed  the 
Arabs,  and  driven  them  away.  From  Sofala  to  Mozambique  they  replaced 
them  so  completely,  with  the  exception  of  their  settlements  at  Angoche,4  that 
they  disappeared  entirely  and  never  returned,  even  after  the  temporary  decay 
of  the  Portuguese  power  which  enabled  the  Arabs  to  reconquer  the  East  Coast 
of  Africa  as  far  south  as  Kilwa. 

At  first  Sena,  on  the  Lower  Zambezi,  was  the  headquarters  of  the  Portu- 
guese Administration,  and  from  hence  various  expeditions,  during  the  sixteenth 
century,  were  sent  southwards  to  discover  the  gold  mines  of  Manika — expedi- 
tions which  were  mostly  unsuccessful,  owing  to  the  unhealthiness  of  the  climate 
and  the  presence  of  the  Tsetse  fly.  Another  obstacle  in  the  way  of  Portuguese 
enterprise  was  the  kingdom  of  Monomotapa,5  a  powerful  empire  of  Bantu 
negroes,  probably  related  in  stock  to  the  Zulus.  The  influence  of  Monomotapa 
must  have  ranged  from  the  vicinity  of  the  south  end  of  Lake  Nyasa  to  the 
Limpopo  River.  Simultaneously  with  the  first  Portuguese  "  Conquistadores  " 

1  I  say  "re-formed"  because  we  are  now  practically  certain  that  some  races  of  Southern  Arabia  had 
founded  their  ancient  settlements— possibly  in  connection  with  the  Phoenicians— in  South-eastern  Africa, 
not  only  on  the  East  Coast  but  far  in  the  interior  of  Mashonaland.    These  settlements  were,  it  is  supposed, 
destroyed  by  the  advent  of  the  Bantu  tribes  from  the  North,  who  were  far  more  formidable  enemies  to 
tackle  than  the  feeble  Bushmen  and  Hottentots.     It  is  possible  that  the  natives  of  Arabia  did  not  entirely 
give  up  their  African  trade,  though  they  had  to  quit  the  interior  and  confine  their  settlements  to  the  coast. 
I  Jut  whether  or  no  there  was  a  gap  in  Arab  enterprise  in  the  early  part  of  the  Christian  era,  there  was  a 
great  revival  in  the  tenth  century,  and  in  the  eleventh  century  a  strong  Arab  kingdom  was  formed  at 
Kilwa  (midway  between  Zan/.ibar  and  Mo9ambique)  which  exercised  a  kind  of  suzerainty  over  the  other 
settlements  or  Sultanates.      Mosques  were  built  at  this  period,  the  remains  of  which  may  be  seen  at  the 
present  day. 

2  Beira  was  the  name  given  to  this  place  not  many  y.ears  ago  by  the   Portuguese,   when  it  was 
first  founded,  after  Col.  Paiva  d'Andrada's  explorations  of  the  Pungwe  river.      "Beira"  is  the  name  of 

national  peculiarities  to  devote  all  our  best  energy  to  a  mispronunciation  of  foreign  words. 

3  I  believe  the  Arabs  remained  in  possession  of  Sena  until  near  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century. 

4  Which  really  remain  unconquered  to  this  day. 

5  This  name  was  derived  from  the  native  appellation  of  the  Makaranga  chief,  and  is  apparently  a 
corruption    of   "  Mwene    Mutapa  "  =  "  Lord    Hippopotamus";    or    "  Mwana-Mutapa"-  -"  Child    of   the 
Hippopotamus."     The  hippopotamus  was  much  reverenced  by  the  tribes  of  the  Central  Zambezi,  and 
is  so,  to  some  extent,  still. 



and  mining  adventurers  came  lion-hearted  Jesuit  Missionaries,  resolved  on 
repeating  in  the  Zambezi  countries  the  successes  they  had  obtained  in 
Christianising  the  kingdom  of  the  Congo.  Several  of  these  men  were 
martyred  by  the  orders  of  the  Emperor  of  Monomotapa ;  but  eventually 
they  established  themselves  at  Zumbo,  on  the  Central  Zambezi,  at  the  con- 
fluence of  the  great  Luangwa  River. 

The  modern  capital  of  Tete,1  which  is  the  most  important  town  on  the 
Zambezi,  was  not  founded  until  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  century,  and  was 
merely  a  station  of  Jesuit  Missionaries  originally,  though  afterwards  taken  over 
by  the  Portuguese  Government.  At  first,  however,  the  principal  towns  were 
Zumbo  and  Sena. 


The  Portuguese  soon  penetrated  northward  of  the  Zambezi,  in  the  direction 
of  the  Maravi  country  and  the  watershed  of  Lake  Xyasa.  Here  they  dis- 
covered, or  re-discovered,  from  hints  given  by  Arabs  or  natives,  the  gold 
deposits  of  Misale,2  and  for  some  century  or  so  afterwards  these  gold  mines 
were  extensively  worked.  Curiously  enough,  however,  the  chief  mineral  dis- 
coveries of  the  Portuguese  at  this  time  lay  in  the  direction  of  silver,  though 
at  the  present  time  we  have  no  knowledge  of  any  existing  silver  mines  in  the 
Zambezi  countries. 

In  1616  a  Portuguese,  named  Jaspar  Bocarro,  offered  to  carry  samples  of 
Zambezi  silver  overland  from  the  Central  Zambezi  to  Malindi,  a  Portuguese 
settlement  to  the  north  of  Mombasa,  without  going  near  Mozambique.  The 

1  Tete  is  the  name  for  a  reed.     The  plural  "  Matete"  means  "a  reed-bed."     It  is  possible  that  this 
was  the  etymology  of   the  name,  as  the  shore  is  very  reedy  about  that  part  of   the  Zambezi.      But  the 
native  name  of  Tete  is  "  Nyungwi." 

2  Nowadays  Misale  lies  within  the  British  sphere  of  influence,  and  a  British  company  is  attempting 
to  work  its  gold. 



motive  of  this  offer  lay  in  the  fact  that  considerable  friction  existed  between 
the  Central  Government  of  Mogambique,  which  was  under  the  Viceroys  of 
India,  and  the  Portuguese  adventurers  on  the  Zambezi,  who  strongly  objected 
to  the  grinding  monopolies  which  the  Mogambique  Government  sought  to 
establish.  Jaspar  Bocarro  apparently  journeyed  from  where  the  town  of  Tete 
now  stands  to  the  Upper  Shire  River,  crossing  that  stream  near  its  junction 
with  the  Ruo  ;  and  then,  passing  through  the  Anguru  country  in  the  vicinity 
of  Lake  Chilvva,  he  entered  the  Lujenda  Valley,  and  so  travelled  on  to  the 
Ruvuma  River,  and  thence  to  the  coast  at  Mikindani.  ^  From  Mikindani  he 
continued  his  journey  to  Malindi  by  sea.  So  far  as  reliable  records  go,  this  was 
the  first  European  to  enter  what  is  now  styled  "  British  Central  Africa." 

The  Jesuit  priests  from  Zumbo  had  journeyed  westward  into  the  country 
of   the   Batonga  or  Batoka,1  and  northwards  up  the   Luangwa  River.     They 

1  Sir  John  Kirk,  when  travelling  with  Livingstone,  in  1859,  discovered  groves  of  fruit  trees  in  the 
Batoka  country  which  may  have  been  introduced  by  the  Jesuits. 



transmitted  rumours  of  a  great  lake  (Nyasa),  which  they  styled  Lake  "  Maravi." 
This  really  meant  "  a  lake  in  the  country  of  the  Maravi,"  Maravi  being  an  old 
name  (now  nearly  extinct)  of  the  Nyanja  tribes  in  the  south-west  of  Xyasa- 
land.  But  in  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century  the  Jesuits  were  expelled 
from  all  the  Portuguese  Dominions  by  order  of  the  Marquez  de  Pombal ;  and 
after  their  departure  from  the  Central  Zambezi  there  was  a  temporary  diminu- 
tion of  Portuguese  activity.  At  the  very  end  of  the  last  century,  however,  the 
interest  of  the  Portuguese  Government  in  its  East  African  possessions  was 
revived  by  the  British  Government  having  taken  possession  of  the  Cape  of 
Good  Hope  at  the  outbreak  of  the  war  with  France.  In  the  year  following 
the  seizure  of  Cape  Town1  by  an  English  force,  Dr.  Francisco  Jose  Maria  de 
Lacerda  e  Almeida,  a  distinguished  scientific  man  who  was  a  native  of  Brazil, 
and  a  Doctor  of  Mathematics  at  Coimbra  University  (Portugal),  addressed  a  very 
remarkable  letter  to  the  Portuguese  Government,  setting  forth  that  the  results 
of  the  English  invasion  of  Capetown  would  be  the  creation  of  a  great  British 
South  African  Empire,  which  wrould,  if  not  counteracted  in  time,  spread  north- 
wards across  the  Zambezi,  and  separate  the  Portuguese  Dominions  of  Angola 
and  Mozambique.  This,  I  think,  at  the  period  and  with  the  limited 
geographical  knowledge  then  possessed  by  even  a  Portuguese  University, 
was  one  of  the  most  remarkable  instances  of  political  foresight  which  can 
be  quoted.  The  Portuguese  Government  was  so  struck  with  Dr.  Lacerda's 
arguments  that  it  appointed  him  Governor  of  the  Rios  de  Sena,'2  and 
authorised  him  to  conduct  an  expedition  "a  contra-costa " — across  Africa  from 
the  Zambezi  countries  to  Angola,  establishing  Portuguese  Suzerainty  along  his 

It  should  be  stated  at  this  juncture  that  not  nearly  so  many  white  Portuguese 
had  assisted  in  opening  up  the  East  African  territories,  as  had  settled  in  Angola, 
and  on  the  West  Coast  of  Africa.  In  those  days  the  Portuguese  East  African 
possessions  were  generally  knit  up  with  their  Viceroyalty  of  India,  and  the 
pure-blooded  Portuguese  in  the  Zambezi  countries  were  few  in  number 
compared  to  the  "  Canarins "  or  Canarese.  These  people  were  half-caste 
natives  of  Goa,  with  more  or  less  Indian  blood  in  their  veins,  and  constituted 
the  principal  element  in  the  Portuguese  Zambezi  settlements.  They  were  very 
enterprising  men,  though  they  relapsed  into  semi-savagery,  and  as  slave-traders 
and  robbers  had  a  record  almost  more  evil  than  that  of  the  Arabs.  Nevertheless 
the  European  blood  in  their  veins  sharply  distinguished  these  Goanese  from 
the  unlettered  black  people,  and  of  some  of  their  journeys  they  kept  more 
or  less  intelligent  records.  Two  Goanese  of  the  name  of  Pereira,  father  and 
son,  had  gone  gold  hunting  to  the  north  of  the  Zambezi,  and  had  eventually 
pushed  on  with  their  armed  slaves  till  they  reached  the  Kazembe's  country, 
near  Lake  Mweru.  The  reports  which  they  gave  of  the  Kazembe  (a  lieutenant 
or  satrap  of  the  Muata  Yanvo  of  Lunda)  decided  Dr.  Lacerda  to  proceed 
thither  on  his  way  across  to  Angola.  His  expedition  numbered  about  75 
white  Portuguese,  and  the  two  Pereiras  accompanied  it  as  guides.  Dr.  Lacerda, 
however,  only  succeeded  in  reaching  Kazembe's  capital,  near  the  south  end  of 
Lake  Mweru,  and  eventually  died  there  on  the  iSth  October,  1798.  After  his 
death  the  expedition  became  so  disorganised  that  instead  of  continuing  the 
journey  to  Angola  it  returned  to  Tete. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  present  century  two  half-caste  Portuguese,  named 
Baptista  and  Amaro  Jose,  crossed  from  the  Kwango  River  in  the  interior 

1  Which  took  place  in  1795.  -  The  old  name  for  the  Xanibe/i. 


of  Angola  to  the  Kazembe's  country,  near  Lake  Mvveru,  and  thence  to  Tete 
on  the  Zambezi.  In  1831  Major  Monteiro  and  Captain  Gamitto  conducted 
a  mission  from  Tete  to  the  Kazembe,  and  some  years  subsequently  Silva  Porto, 
a  Portuguese  colonist,  of  Bihe,  in  the  interior  of  Benguela,  is  also  said  to  have 
rambled  over  much  of  South  Central  Africa  ;  further,  a  certain  Candido  de 
Costa  Cardoso  claimed  that  he  sighted  the  south-west  corner  of  Lake  Nyasa 
in  1846;  but  none  of  these  explorers,  \vith  the  exception  of  Dr.  Lacerda, 
possessed  any  scientific  qualifications,  and  their  journeys  led  to  little  or  no 
geographical  information  or  political  ascendancy.  Indeed,  what  is  remarkable 
about  Dr.  Lacerda,  to  say  nothing  of  the  other  explorers,  was  the  extraordinary 
bad  luck  which  prevented  him  from  sighting  any  important  river  or  lake.  He 
reached  a  point  within  a  few  miles  of  the  large  Lake  Mweru,  and  yet  either 
never  saw  it,  or  thought  it  not  worth  mention.  He  heard  vague  rumours  of 
Tanganyika  and  of  Nyasa,  but  did  not  direct  his  steps  in  either  direction  ; 
and,  stranger  still,  he  missed  the  recognition  of  the  remarkable  Luapula,  which 
we  now  know  to  be  the  Upper  Congo,  though  he  must  have  actually  been 
within  sight  of  it. 

The  real  history  of  British  Central  Africa  begins  with  the  advent  of 
Livingstone.  This  intrepid  missionary  had  gradually  pushed  his  explorations 
northwards  from  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  until  he  reached  the  Central  Zambezi 
in  1851,  accompanied  by  the  celebrated  sportsman  Mr.  Oswell.  Impressed 
with  the  importance  of  his  discovery  Livingstone  returned  to  Cape  Town, 
and  with  the  generous  assistance  of  Mr.  Oswell,  was  enabled  not  only  to  send 
his  wife  and  children  out  of  harm's  way,  but  to  equip  himself  for  the  tremendous 
exploration  of  South  Central  Africa,  which  he  had  determined  to  accomplish. 
Having  perfected  himself  in  astronomical  observations,  under  the  tuition  of  the 
Astronomer-Royal  of  Cape  Town,  Livingstone  started  for  the  North  and  once 
more  reached  the  Zambezi,  near  its  confluence  with  the  Chobe.  Thence  he 
travelled  up  the  Zambezi  to  its  source,  and  across  to  Angola  and  again  back 
from  Angola  and  down  the  Zambezi  to  its  mouth,  or  more  correctly  speaking 
to  Quelimane,  on  the  Indian  Ocean.  This  epoch-making  journey  had  important 
and  far-reaching  results.  Livingstone  was  sent  back  by  the  British  Government 
at  the  head  of  a  well-equipped  expedition,  and  was  accompanied  amongst 
others  by  Dr.,  now  Sir  John,  Kirk,  who,  besides  being  medical  officer,  was 
the  naturalist  of  the  expedition. 

After  a  journey  to  Tete  and  visits  to  the  "  Quebrabaco  "  Rapids  for  the 
purpose  of  determining  the  navigability  of  the  Zambezi  above  Tete,  Livingstone 
determined  to  search  for  and  find  the  reported  great  lake  out  of  which  the  Shire1 
flowed  to  join  the  Zambezi.  At  this  date  the  Portuguese  knew  scarcely  anything 
of  the  Shire  beyond  its  confluence  with  the  Zambezi.  They  seem  to  have 
lost  all  remembrance  of  the  one  or  two  earlier  journeys  in  that  direction  of 
Portuguese  explorers.  Consequently,  before  Livingstone  and  his  party  had 
ascended  the  Shire  very  far  they  found  themselves  in  a  country  absolutely 
new  to  the  white  man.  After  several  futile  attempts  to  reach  Lake  Nyasa, 
in  the  course  of  one  of  which  they  discovered  the  brackish  Lake  Chilwa, 
which  lies  to  the  south-east  of  the  greater  lake,  and  Lake  Malombe,  which 

1  The  name  of  the  "Shire"  river  \vas  formerly  written  by  the  Portuguese  "  Cherim "  (pronounce, 
"Shering");  this  was  later  still  written  "Chire,"  which  if  the  "  ch  "  be  pronounced  as  in  "church" 
fairly  represents  the  native  pronunciation.  But  the  Portuguese  pronounce  "  ch "  like  "sh,"  therefore 
Livingstone  heard  them  speak  of  this  river  as  the  "  Shire,"  and  thus  transcribed  it  in  English.  The 
correct  native  pronunciation  is  "  Chiri  "  (Cheeree),  and  the  word  means  in  Chinyanja  "a  steep  bank ''- 
Nyanja  ya  chiri,  "the  river  with  the  steep  banks." 



is  a  widening  of  the  Upper  Shire,  Livingstone  and  his  companions  finally 
reached  the  southern  extremity  of  Nyasa,  near  the  site  of  the  modern  settle- 
ment of  Fort  Johnston,  on  the  i6th  of  September,  1859,  tne  first  white  men, 
as  far  as  we  know  with  any  certainty,  who  stood  on  the  shores  of  Lake  Nyasa. 
As  the  district  in  which  Livingstone  discovered  this  third  greatest  of  the  lakes 
of  Africa  was  under  Yao  domination,  he  recorded  its  name  as  pronounced 
by  the  Yao,  i.e.  Nyasa;  but  its  most  common  appellation  is  Nyanja.  This  is 
the  same  word  as  Nyanza  farther  north,  and  Nyasa,  Nyanja,  and  Nyanxa 
are  derived  from  an  archaic  and  widespread  Bantu  root  -anza,  which  means 
"a  broad  water."1 

Livingstone  and  his  party  extended  their  explorations  of  the  western  coast 
of  Lake  Nyasa  as  far  north  as  about   11-30  south  latitude,  a  little  more  than 

THE    POINT    ON    THF.    S.  >UTH    MK.RK    OF    I.AKF.    SYASA    \VHK.\CF.    THF    I.AKF.    WAS    FIRST    SKF.N 
BY    DR.    LIVINKSTONK.    AND    SIR   JOHN    KIRK    IN     1859 

half-way  up  the  lake.  Subsequently  Livingstone  travelled  inland  west  of  Lake 
Nyasa  till  he  reached  the  watershed  of  the  great  Luangwa  River  and  it 
was  upon  hearing  at  that  point  of  a  not  far  distant  lake  that  he  resolved 
on  his  succeeding  journey,  to  proceed  along  the  same  route,  and  thus  discovered 
the  south  end  of  Lake  Tanganyika,  Lake  Mweru,  the  Luapula  River,  and  Lake 
Bangweolo.  Whilst  Livingstone  and  Kirk  were  exploring  Lake  Nyasa  and 
the  Shire  Highlands,  however,  they  were  joined  by  a  Christian  Mission  under 
Bishop  Mackenzie,  which  had  been  sent  out  from  the  two  great  English 
Universities,  and  which  exists  to  this  day  under  the  name  of  the  "  Universities 
Mission  to  Central  Africa."  These  missionaries  settled  in  the  eastern  part 
of  the  Shire  Highlands,  just  as  the  invasions  of  the  Muhammadan  Yao  slave 
raiders  were  beginning. 

\  This  root  is  found  even  among  the  more  corrupt  Bantu  tongues  of  Western  Equatorial  \frica 
For  instance,  the  broad  estuary  of  the  Cameroons  River  is  called  in  the  Duala  tonlnie  "Muanza" 
and  the  same  name  is  given  to  the  Lower  Congo. 


Following  on  the  Portuguese  expeditions  at  the  end  of  the  i8th  century 
to  Kazembe's  country,  a  great  intercourse  had  sprung  up  between  the  Babisa 
tribe,  which  inhabits  the  district  to  the  west  of  the  great  Luangwa  River  and 
the  Zanzibar  coast.  The  Babisa  had  acquired  guns  from  the  Portuguese,  and, 
armed  in  this  way,  had  asserted  themselves  effectually  against  tribes  still  armed 
with  the  bow  and  spear.  They  became  an  enterprising  people  and  resolved 
to  trade  directly  with  the  Coast.  Not  liking  the  Portuguese,  however,  they 
preferred  to  journey  farther  north,  and  trafficked  with  the  Arabs  of  Zanzibar. 
About  this  time  the  Zanzibar  Sultanate  was  increasing  gradually  in  power. 
It  was  an  appanage  of  the  Imamate  of  Maskat  ('Oman),  and  already  the 
Maskat  Arabs  (who  had  replaced  the  Portuguese  in  all  the  trading  settlements 
of  Eastern  Africa,  between  the  Ruvuma  River  and  Somaliland)  had  begun  to 
push  their  slave  and  ivory  trading  enterprises  into  the  interior  of  Eastern 
Africa,  especially  in  the  direction  of  Tanganyika.  Attracted,  however,  by  the 
accounts  which  the  Babisa  caravans  gave  of  the  fertile  country  in  which  they 
dwelt,  and  struck  with  the  docility  of  the  slaves  brought  down  by  the  Babisa 
from  the  Nyasa  countries,  certain  Arabs  accompanied  the  Babisa  caravans 
back  to  their  place  of  origin,  which  was,  as  I  have  said,  the  countries  lying  to 
the  west  of  the  great  Luangwa  River.  The  route  they  followed  was  from  ports 
like  Kilwa  on  the  East  Coast  to  Lake  Nyasa  thence  across  Nyasa  and  south- 
west or  due  west  to  the  Lubisa  country. 

In  the  course  of  these  journeys  the  Arabs  became  acquainted  with  that  race 
of  fine  physical  development  and  stubborn  character,  the  Yao,  who  inhabit 
much  of  the  high  country  lying  between  the  Indian  Ocean  and  Lake  Nyasa. 
In  the  Yao  they  found  willing  confederates  in  the  slave  trade,  and  a  people 
much  inclined  to  Muhammadanism.  Eventually  the  poor  Babisa  were  attacked 
and  enslaved  by  neighbouring  tribes  who  had  been  armed  by  the  Arabs,  and 
their  importance  passed  awav.  The  Arabs  and  Yao  between  them  began  to 
dominate  Nyasaland.  Now  the  inhabitants  of  the  bulk  of  Nyasaland  proper, 
with  the  exception  of  its  north-west  portion,  belonged  in  the  main  to  what  may- 
be called  the  A-nyanja  stock.  These  people  who  are  referred  to  by  Portuguese 
of  an  earlier  date  as  the  Amaravi,  and  who  are  of  the  same  race  as  the  indigenous 
inhabitants  of  the  Zambezi  Valley  between  Tete  and  Sena  and  of  the  whole 
course  of  the  Shire,  are  of  a  singularly  docile  and  peaceful  disposition,  devoted 
to  agriculture  and  timid  in  warfare — a  race  consequently  that  is  always  falling 
under  the  domination  of  more  powerful  and  energetic  tribes.  Before  what  may 
be  called  the  Yao  invasion  of  the  Shire  Highlands  the  Nyanja  people  had  been 
oppressed  by  Zulu  invaders  coming  from  the  south-west.  The  convulsions 
which  had  been  taking  place  in  Zululand  in  the  early  part  of  this  century  had 
resulted  in  a  most  curious  recoil  of  the  Zulu  race  on  Central  Africa.  It  is 
probably  not  many  centuries  since  the  forerunners  of  the  Zulus  swept  down 
from  Central  Africa,  from  the  region  of  the  great  lakes,  across  the  Zambezi, 
into  Southern  Africa,  driving  themselves  like  a  wedge  through  the  earlier  Bantu 
invaders,  the  ancestors  of  the  Basuto-Bechuana,  and  further  displacing  and 
destroying  the  feebler  Hottentot  people.  Now,  however,  with  the  Indian  Ocean 
in  front  of  them,  and  internal  commotions  and  increase  of  population  com- 
pelling them  to  find  more  space  for  settlement,  sections  of  them  began  to  turn 
their  faces  back  towards  the  Zambezi.  The  foundations  of  the  Matabele : 
kingdom  were  laid,  and  band  after  band  of  Zulus  crossed  the  Zambezi  about 


1  Or  Amandabele,  as  it  ought  to  be  written  but  that  we  English  love  inaccuracy  in  pronunciation 
and  spelling  for  its  own  sake.  Matabele  is  the  Se-chuana  corruption  of  the  Zulu  "  Amandabele.  ' 


1825-6,  and  in  their  raids  and  conquests  almost  penetrated  as  far  as  the  southern 
shores  of  the  Victoria  Xyanxa,  whilst  they  were  constantly  heard  of  on  the  east 
coast  of  Tanganyika.  In  the  west  and  south-west  of  Nyasaland  they  had 
founded  kingdoms  and  enslaved  the  local  inhabitants,  when  the  Yao  from  the 
north-east  hurled  themselves  on  the  fertile  Shire  districts.  So  that  the  unfor- 
tunate Xyanja  people  were  caught  between  Zulu  and  Yao,  and  suffered  greatly. 
The  British  missionaries  and  explorers,  however,  saw  little  of  the  Zulu  raiders 
in  those  earlier  days.1  At  the  beginning  of  the  "sixties"  they  were  chiefly 
concerned  with  the  Yao  invasion.  After  in  vain  attempting  to  defend  their 
Xyanja  converts  from  the  attacks  of  the  Yao,  the  Universities  Mission  lost  so 
many  of  its  members  from  sickness,  and  was  additionally  so  discouraged 
by  the  abandonment  of  Dr.  Livingstone's  schemes,  that  it  withdrew  from  the 
country  for  a  time.  Livingstone  and  his  Expedition  were  recalled  by  the 
British  Government  at  the  end  of  1863,  and  quitted  Zambezia  in  1864. 

The  fact  was  that  the  British  Government  was  at  that  time  discouraged 
from  any  further  work  in  the  Zambezi  countries  by  the  following  obstacles  : 
the  political  opposition  shown  by' the  Portuguese;2  the  acknowledged  sway 
of  the  Portuguese  over  the  coast  line  which  made  it  impossible  to  communicate 
with  any  British  Possessions  which  might  be  founded  in  the  interior;  the 
unhealthiness  of  the  coast  lands  ;  and  the  seeming  absence  of  any  easy  way 
into  the  Zambezi  River,  all  the  known  mouths  of  which  were  cursed  with 
dangerous  and  shallow  bars.  The  discovery  of  the  Chinde  mouth,  which 
afterwards  revolutionised  the  whole  question,  had  not  then  been  made ;  or. 
it  may  be,  the  Chinde  branch  of  the  Zambezi  as  an  easily  navigated  river  did 
not  then  exist,  for  there  have  evidently  been  great  fluctuations  in  the  Zambezi 
Delta  with  regard  to  the  course  taken  by  the  principal  body  of  its  water. 

Following  on  Livingstone's  first  journey  across  South  Central  Africa,  a  great 
interest  had  sprung  up  in  France  and  Germany  regarding  the  existence  of  the 
reported  Central  African  lakes.  The  German  Missionaries  in  the  pay  of  the 
Church  Missionary  Society  in  East  Africa,  had  discovered  the  snow  mountains 
of  Kenia  and  Kilimanjaro  and  had  reported,  from  native  information,  the 
existence  of  the  Victoria  Xyanza,  of  Tanganyika  and  of  Lake  Xyasa.  Fore- 
most amongst  the  African  explorers  of  that  day,  and,  at  the  time,  second  in 
importance  to  Livingstone  only,  was  a  young  lieutenant  in  the  Indian  Army- 
Richard  Francis  Burton — who,  stationed  at  Aden,  had  attempted  the  exploration 
of  Somaliland  with  a  brother- officer  named  Speke.  After  some  difficulty 
Burton  had  induced  the  Geographical  Society  and  Her  Majesty's  Government 
to  provide  him  with  the  funds  for  an  expedition  which  would  start  from 
opposite  Zanzibar  to  discover  the  great  Central  African  lake  or  lakes.  He 
chose  Lieut.  Speke  as  his  companion,  and  together  they  discovered  Lake 
Tanganyika,  Speke  afterwards  being  dispatched  by  Burton  to  look  for  the 
great  lake  of  Ukerewe,  which  Speke  declared  with  truth  to  be  the  main  source 
of  the  Xile  and  which  he  named  the  Victoria  Xyanza.  Burton  and  Speke 
were  the  first  Europeans  to  arrive  on  the  shores  of  Lake  Tanganyika.  They 
explored  its  northern  half,  but  not  very  much  work  was  done  in  the  way  of 

1  Livingstone  however  came  in  contact  with  them  when  he  explored  the  western  shores  of    Lake 


2  But  it  must  be  distinctly  stated  that  throughout  the  whole  course  of  Livingstone's  first  and  second 
Zambezi  expeditions  though   the    Portuguese   (Jovernment  may  have   viewed   with   distaste  the   interest 
evinced  by  England  in  the  Zambezi  and  the  interior  of  East  Central  Africa,  the  courtesy  and  kindness 
shown  by  the  Portuguese  authorities  to   Livingstone  and   the  rest  of  his  expedition  were  praiseworthv 
in  the  extreme.      Eor  particulars  of  this  sec  my  /,//,"•  of  l.irin^tone. 


mapping  beyond  visiting  the  western  shore  and  making  a  rough  outline  of  the 
northern  portion  of  the  lake.  Prior  to  Burton's  journey,  a  young  Frenchman 
started  from  Zanzibar  for  the  same  purpose,  but  had  been  murdered  on  the  way 
to  Tanganyika,  and  after  Burton's  expedition  a  German  doctor,  named  Ernst 
Roscher,  had  set  out  for  Lake  Xyasa  in  the  disguise  of  an  Arab.  He  reached 
the  eastern  shore  of  the  lake  at  a  place  called  Lusewa,  on  the  iQth  November, 
1859,  two  months  after  Livingstone's  discovery.  On  his  attempted  return  to 
the  coast,  however,  he  was  murdered  by  the  Yao,  a  murder  which  was  to  some 
extent  avenged  by  the  Sultan  of  Zanzibar,  who  brought  influence  to  bear 
on  the  Yao  chiefs  to  send  the  ostensible  murderers  to  Zanzibar  to  be  executed. 
Another  German  traveller  of  some  celebrity,  Baron  von  der  Decken,  who  was 
the  first  systematic  explorer  of  Kilimanjaro,  had  attempted  to  reach  Lake 
Xyasa,  but  scarcely  got  half  way. 

Meantime  Livingstone,  after  a  year's  sojourn  in  England,  had  managed  to 
scrape  together  funds  for  another  Central  Africa  exploration.  He  was  very 
desirous  of  resuming  his  journeys  in  search  of  other  lakes  to 'the  west  of  Lake 
Xyasa.  Travelling  by  Bombay  and  Zanzibar  he  landed  at  Mikindani  at  the 
end  of  March,  1866.  He  was,  I  believe,  the  first  explorer  to  attempt  taking 
with  him  natives  of  India  as  guards  or  soldiers  ;  but  it  must  be  confessed  that 
although  the  employment  of  Indians  in  Central  Africa  has  since  proved  very 
successful,  the  Muhammadan  Sepoys  who  accompanied  Livingstone  turned  out 
utter  failures,  and  were  eventually  sent  back  from  Mataka's,  a  town  in  the  Yao 
country.  Livingstone  also  tried  to  introduce  the  Indian  buffalo,  an  experiment 
not  repeated  until  my  reintroduction  of  this  animal  from  India  in  1895.  It 
is  interesting  to  note  that  Livingstone's  buffalos  passed  through  the  tsetse  fly 
country,  and,  seemingly,  were  not  affected  by  the  bites  of  that  insect,  though 
they  all  subsequently  died  as  the  result  of  maltreatment  at  the  hands  of  the 

Livingstone  again  reached  the  shores  of  Lake  Nyasa,  at  its  south-eastern  gulf, 
on  the  8th  of  August,  1866 ;  but  being  unable  to  cross  without  a  dan  he  walked 
right  round  the  southern  end,  and  thence  turned  his  steps  northwards.  At 
Marenga's  town,  near  the  south-west  corner  of  Lake  Xyasa,  there  were  rumours 
of  Angoni-Zulu  raids,  which  greatly  scared  the  coast -men  of  Livingstone's 
caravan,  who  consequently  abandoned  him  here ;  and  to  excuse  themselves 
at  Zanzibar  for  their  act  of  bad  faith,  they  reported,  with  much  corroborative 
detail,  the  death  of  Livingstone  at  the  hands  of  the  Angoni. 

Livingstone,  after  the  desertion  of  these  coast-men  (who  were  natives  of 
the  Comoro  Islands)  pursued  his  way  northwards,  and  reached  the  great 
Luangwa  river  in  December,  1866;  on  the  28th  of  January,  1867,  he  crossed 
the  Chambezi  river,  which  issues  from  the  Bangweolo  marshes,  under  the  name 
of  the  Luapula,  and  is  in  reality  the  extreme  Upper  Congo.  On  the  1st  of 
April  he  reached  the  south  end  of  Lake  Tanganyika,  and  for  the  time  being, 
believed  it  to  be  a  separate  lake  under  the  name  of  Liemba  ;  on  the  8th  of 
Xovember,  1867,  he  discovered  Lake  Mweru  ;  on  the  i8th  of  July,  1868,  Lake 
Bangweolo.  Returning  from  Bangweolo,  he  journeyed  with  an  Arab  caravan 
from  Kazembe's  town  near  the  south  end  of  Lake  Mweru,  to  the  west  shore 
of  Tanganyika,  which  he  crossed  to  Ujiji,  reaching  that  place  in  March,  iSU). 
After  attempting  in  vain  to  organize  a  caravan  for  a  journey  round  the  north 
end  of  Lake  Tanganyika  he  recrossed  the  lake  to  the  opposite  side  in  July, 
and  having  joined  a  large  party  of  Arabs  and  Swahilis,  he  wandered  with  them 
in  the  Manyema  country  for  many  months.  His  object  was  the  Lualaba  river 


(the  Upper  Congo)  of  which  he  had  heard  much  to  excite  his  curiosity,  and 
which  river,  he  believed,  with  occasional  misgivings,  to  be  the  Upper  Nile. 
But  so  erratic  were  the  wanderings  of  the  Arabs  to  and  fro  in  the  Manyema 
country  that  Livingstone  did  not  actually  reach  the  banks  of  the  Lualaba  until 
March,  1871.  Resolved  to  devote  himself  now  to  the  tracing  of  what  he 
believed  to  be  the  Upper  Nile  from  its  source  on  the  Nyasa-Tanganyika 
plateau  to  its  entrance  into  the  Albert  Nyanza,  Livingstone  decided  to  return 
to  Ujiji  and  renew  his  stock  of  trade  goods  and  provisions.  His  journey  from 
the  Lualaba  to  Ujiji  was  accompanied  by  indescribable  hardships,  which 
produced  such  an  effect  on  his  constitution  that  they  eventually  led  to  his 
•death  two  years  later.  Soon  after  returning  to  Ujiji  he  met  Henry  M.  Stanley, 
who  had  been  sent  by  the  New  York  Herald  to  "  find  Dr.  Livingstone,  living 
or  dead." 

Stanley's  arrival  certainly  added  two  years  more  to  Livingstone's  life,  as 
by  a  series  of  accidents  and  frauds  he  found  himself  absolutely  destitute 
of  resources  after  his  return  to  Ujiji.  Together  the  two  men  made  an  ex- 
ploration of  the  north  end  of  Lake  Tanganyika,  and  then  journeyed  eastwards 
to  Unyanyembe,  half  way  to  Zanzibar.  Here  Livingstone  insisted  on  parting 
company  with  Stanley,  though  the  latter  earnestly  entreated  him  to  return 
to  Europe  ;  but  with  Livingstone  the  idea  of  finding  the  ultimate  sources  of 
the  Nile  had  become  almost  a  monomania,  and  he  was  resolved  not  to  return 
to  Europe  until  he  had  mapped  the  upper  waters  of  the  Chambezi  and  the 
Luapula,  together  with  the  river  Lualaba,  which  took  its  rise  in  the  Katanga 
Highlands  to  the  West.  So  he  started  off  once  more  for  Lake  Bangweolo  in 
August,  1872,  passing  round  the  south  end  of  Lake  Tanganyika,  and  reaching 
the  eastern  shores  of  Lake  Bangweolo  in  the  month  of  April,  1873.  But  his 
race  was  run,  and  he  died  at  a  village  near  the  south  end  of  that  marshy  lake 
on  or  about  the  1st  of  May,  1873. 

Meantime  Nyasaland  had  not  long  remained  without  English  visitors.  In 
1867  Lieut.  Young  conducted  an  expedition  to  the  south  end  of  Lake  Nyasa 
to  examine  into  the  reports  as  to  the  murder  of  Livingstone  by  the  Angoni. 
Young  (who  only  died  a  few  months  ago)  conducted  this  expedition  in  a  most 
remarkably  successful  manner.  He  left  England  in  the  middle  of  May,  1867, 
reached  the  Zambezi  with  three  European  companions  and  a  steel  boat  on  the 
25th  of  July,  journeyed  with  his  baggage  in  the  steel  boat  (which  was  named 
The  Search'1}  and  in  a  flotilla  of  smaller  boats  and  canoes  up  the  Zambezi  and 
the  Shire  to  the  Murchison  cataracts;  conveyed  the  steel  boat  overland  to  the 
Upper  Shire;  reached  Mponda's  town  at  the  south  end  of  Lake  Nyasa; 
collected  a  mass  of  information  which  conclusively  proved  that  Livingstone 
was  not  killed  but  had  started  unmolested  on  his  way  to  the  West;  returned 
to  the  Zambezi,  and  reached  England  at  the  beginning  of  1868  after  only  eight 
months'  absence. 

Young  had  been  greatly  helped  in  his  transit  of  the  Shire  Highlands  by 
the  Makololo  whom  Livingstone  had  left  behind  in  that  district  after  his 
withdrawal  from  the  Zambezi  in  1864.  Those  who  have  read  the  well-known 
works  dealing  with  Dr.  Livingstone's  explorations  will  remember  that  on 
his  first  journey  of  discovery  up  and  down  the  Zambezi  he  had  been  accom- 
panied by  certain  faithful  Makololo  porters  who  had  followed  him  from  the 
Barutse  country,  on  the  Upper  Zambezi.  The  so-called  Makololo  were  a 
-section  of  the  Bechuana  people  who,  leaving  Basutoland  after  tribal 

1  And  is  still  plying  on  the  Shire. 


disturbances,  journeyed  across  the  Kalahari  Desert,  and  established  themselves 
in  the  Barutse  country.1  When  Livingstone  reached  Tete  on  his  journey  back 
to  the  East  Coast  in  1856  he  left  behind  at  that  place  the  so-called  Makololo 
(about  25  in  number),  who  had  followed  him  from  the  Upper  Zambezi.  On 
his  return  in  1858  he  picked  them  up  again  and  added  to  their  numbers  several 
others  who  followed  him  of  their  own  free  will  on  his  second  visit  to  the 
Barutse  country. 

These  men  were  very  useful  to  his  expedition  in  exploring  the  River 
Shire,  and  were  of  a  masterful  nature,  easily  imposing  themselves  as  superior 
beings  on  the  timid  Mananja  people  of  the  Central  Shire.  When  Dr. 
Livingstone  had  to  leave  the  country,  anxious  to  put  a  check  on  the 
depredations  of  the  Yao  coming  from  the  east,  and  the  Angoni  coming  from 
the  west,  he  armed  these  Makololo,  and  left  them  behind  to  protect  the 
Mananja  natives.  The  result  was  that  they  very  soon  constituted  themselves 
the  chiefs  of  that  country,  and  they  subsequently  played  a  most  important 
part  in  checking  the  advances  of  the  Yao  and  the  Angoni,  and  in  sturdily 
resisting  any  attempts  on  the  part  of  the  Portuguese  to  conquer  the  Shire- 

In  1874  Mr.  Faulkner,  who  was  one  of  the  party  accompanying  Lieut. 
Young,  R.N.,  returned  to  the  Shire  as  a  hunter  of  big  game.  He  was,  I 
believe,  eventually  killed  by  the  natives.  He  had  a  son  by  a  native  wife 
who  now  bears  his  name,  and  who  was  the  first  half-caste,  so  far  as  we  know, 
born  in  the  Protectorate. 

Livingstone's  death  caused  a  tremendous  enthusiasm  to  spring  up  for  the 
continuation  of  his  work  as  a  Missionary  and  as  an  Explorer.  Cameron 
completed  Burton's  and  Livingstone's  map  of  Lake  Tanganyika ;  Stanley,  at 
the  expense  of  the  Daily  Telegraph,  continued  the  exploration  of  the  Congo 
from  Nyangwe,  where  Livingstone  had  left  it,  to  the  Atlantic  Ocean  ;  but  in 
Nyasaland  proper  Livingstone's  work  was  immediately  continued  by  the  Scotch 
Missionaries.  The  Livingstonia  Free  Church  Mission  was  founded  in  1874 
and  sent  out  its  first  party  of  Missionaries  with  a  small  steamer  in  sections, 
for  Lake  Nyasa,  in  1875.  They  were  joined,  in  1876,  by  the  Pioneers  of 
the  Church  of  Scotland  Mission,  who  chose  the  site  of  the  present  town  of 
Blantyre,  and  established  themselves  in  the  Shire  Highlands,  while  the  Free 
Church  applied  itself  to  the  evangelisation  of  Lake  Nyasa.  It  is  interesting 
to  note  that  the  leader  of  the  first  Missionary  expedition  —  Dr.  Laws — who 
went  out  in  1875,  and  the  engineer  of  the  first  Mission  steamer  placed  on 
Lake  Nyasa  (the  Ilala,  which  is  still  plying),  Mr.  A.  C.  Simpson,  are  still  alive 
and  well,  and  hard  at  work  in  Nyasaland,  the  one  as  a  senior  member  of  the 
Mission  he  has  served  so  devotedly  for  twenty-one  years,  and  the  other  as  a 
prosperous  planter  at  Mlanje. 

Shortly  after  the  Church  of  Scotland  Mission  had  established  itself  at 
Blantyre,  a  young  gardener,  named  John  Buchanan,  was  sent  from  Scotland  to 
assist  the  Mission  in  horticulture. 2 

In  1878  Captain  Frederick  Elton  had  been  appointed  Consul  at  Mozambique, 
and  had  obtained  permission  to  conduct  an  expedition  to  Lake  Nyasa  to  report 

1  Barutse  is  stated  to  be  derived  from  ' '  Bahurutse "  the  name  of  another  of  the  Bechuana  septs 
These  Bechuana  emigrants  who  sometimes  called  themselves  the  Makololo  had  conquered  the  15am! s, 
country,  from  its  native  chiefs  of  Baloi  race.      But  as  a  matter  of  fact  these  famous  Makololo  porters  who 
have  played  such  a  part  in  the  history  of  Nyasaland  were  very  few  of  them  of  Bechuana  blood.      Many  of 
them  were  slaves  of  Baloi.  or  kindred  races  of  the  Upper  Zambezi. 

-  He  was  the  means  of  introducing- and  planting  the  coffee  shrub  in  Central  Africa. 


on  the  slave  trade.  He  was  accompanied  by  Mr.  H.  B.  Cotterill,  Mr.  Herbert 
Rhodes,1  and  Captain  Hoste. 

With  the  aid  of  the  little  Mission  steamer  Ilala  Consul  Elton  explored  the 
north  end  of  Lake  Nyasa,  which  he  was  able  to  show  extended  much  farther 
northwards  than  had  been  supposed  by  Livingstone  and  Kirk.  This  northward 
extension  of  the  Lake  was  further  verified  a  few  years  afterwards  by  numerous 
observations  for  Latitude  taken  by  Mr.  James  Stewart,  an  engineer  in  the 
employ  of  the  African  Lakes  Company.  Consul  Elton  first  made  known  to  us 
the  remarkable  Livingstone  or  Ukinga  Mountains,  at  the  end  of  Lake  Nyasa, 
which  attain  an  altitude,  in  parts,  of  nearly  10,000  feet.  Unhappily  Consul 
Elton  died  in  Wunyamwezi  on  his  way  to  Zanzibar. 

The  Missions  had  not  been  long  established  when  they  found  it  impossible 


to  conduct  the  necessary  trade  with  the  natives  (for  provisions  could  only 
be  obtained  by  barter)  and  the  transport  service  between  the  coast  and  Lake 
Xyasa,  in  addition  to  the  ordinary  Missionary  work  ;  so  it  was  resolved,  in 
Scotland,  to  found  a  small  Company  for  trade  and  transport,  subsequently 
styled  "The  African  Lakes  Company,"  which  would  be  affiliated  to  the 
Missions  (in  so  far  that  its  employes  should  be  required  to  do  a  certain  amount 
of  missionary  work),  but  be  conducted  independently  and  on  a  commercial 
basis.  Two  brothers,  John  William  Moir  and  Frederick  Maitland  Moir,  were 
sent  to  Nyasaland  as  joint  managers.  They  had  been  previously  at  work  in 
the  employ  of  the  late  Sir  William  Mackinnon,  on  a  road  to  Lake  Tanganyika 
which  that  philanthropist  intended  to  construct  inland  from  Dar-es-Salam, 
opposite  Zanzibar.  The  headquarters  of  the  Lakes  Company  were  fixed  at 

1  Mr.  Herbert  Rhodes  was  a  brother  of  Mr.  (now  the  Right  Honourable)  Cecil  (.  Rhodes,  and  had 
come  to  Nyasaland  to  shoot  big  game.  He  accompanied  Consul  hlton  as  far  as  the"  north  end  of  Lake 
.Nyasa,  and  then  returned  to  the  Upper  Shire,  where  he  established  himself  for  some  time  shooting 
elephants,  lie  gained  a  great  reputation  amongst  the  natives  for  bravery  ami  fair  dealing,  and  i'*. 
still  spoken  of  by  the  older  men  at  the  present  day  under  the  name  of  '•  RoxsJ'  lie  was  burned  to  death 
m  iHbo  by  the  accidental  setting  on  lire  of  his  hut. 


"  Mandala"  (now  a  suburb  of  Blantyre),  about  one  mile  from  the  headquarters 
of  the  Church  of  Scotland  Mission.  Mr.  John  Moir  built  a  substantial  house 
there,  which  still  endures ;  and  as  he  wore  spectacles  he  was  called  by  the 
natives  "  Mandala,"  a  name  meaning  "  glass."  This  nickname  was  soon  applied 
to  his  residence,  and  gradually  came  to  mean  both  the  African  Lakes  Company, 
and  the  place  where  they  settled  near  Blantyre.  Mandala  is  now  the  official 
name  of  the  headquarters  of  the  African  Lakes  Company  and  of  an  important 
suburb  of  Blantyre. 

The  Church  of  Scotland  Mission  in  those  days — that  is  to  say  at  the  end  of 
the  seventies — was  under  the  direction  of  two  able  men,  the  Rev.  Alexander 
Duff  and  the  late  Mr.  Henry  Henderson,  the  latter  being  the  business  manager 
and  the  principal  lay  member ;  but  it  had  attached  to  it  also  certain  lay 
members  who  were  either  badly  chosen,  or  who  developed  into  bad  characters 
when  they  came  into  contact  with  African  savagery.  It  is  only  necessary  to 
specify  one  of  these — George  Fenwick — whose  name  cannot  bs  ignored  in  the 
history  of  this  Protectorate.  These  men  soon  began  to  treat  the  natives  with 
great  harshness,  and  taking  advantage  of  the  dread  in  which  white  men  were 
held,  to  bully  and  extort,  and  raise  themselves  almost  to  the  position  of  petty 
chiefs.  Indeed,  in  reviewing  all  that  has  happened  since  Europeans  settled 
in  this  part  of  Africa,  I  have  been  increasingly  struck  with  the  rapidity  with 
which  such  members  of  the  white  race  as  are  not  of  the  best  class,  can  throw 
over  the  restraints  of  civilisation  and  develop  into  savages  of  unbridled  lust  and 
abominable  cruelty.  These  lay  members  of  the  Mission  attempted  to  exercise 
a  kind  of  jurisdiction  over  the  natives  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Mission  stations, 
and  so  severe  were  their  punishments  that  one  native  was  sentenced  to  death 
and  was  shot,  while  other  natives  actually  died  from  the  awful  floggings 
they  received.  Two  English  sportsmen,  returning  from  Nyasaland,  conveyed 
the  news  of  these  outrages  to  the  consular  authorities  in  Portuguese  East 
Africa ;  the  Foreign  Office  took  up  the  matter,  and  eventually  the  Church 
of  Scotland  Mission  sent  out  commissioners  to  hold  an  enquiry  into  the 
charges.  Mr.  Nunes,  H.  M.  Vice-Consul  at  Quelimane,  represented  Her 
Majesty's  Government  on  this  enquiry,  which  resulted  in  the  charges  being 
in  great  measure  proved.1  The  ordained  minister  who  was  at  the  head  of  the 
Mission  at  Blantyre  resigned  ;  though  no  blame  was  imputed  to  him,  as  he  did 
not  possess  the  means  of  controlling  the  actions  of  his  subordinates.  But  after 
what  had  occurred  he  preferred  to  withdraw  from  the  Mission-  Mr.  John 
Buchanan  also  at  this  time  left  the  Mission,  and  set  up  for  himself  in- 
dependently, as  a  coffee  planter.  George  Fenwick  and  other  lay  members 
of  the  Mission,  who  were  implicated  in  the  deeds  referred  to,  were  dismissed, 
and  the  first-mentioned  went  to  live  among  the  natives  as  an  elephant  hunter. 
In  1 88 1  the  Revs.  D.  C.  Scott  and  Alexander  Hetherwick  came  out  to  Africa 
and  took  charge  of  the  Church  of  Scotland  Mission,  implanting  on-  its  work 
a  very  different  character  to  the  ill-fame  which  had  temporarily  clouded  its 
earlier  days  owing  to  the  misdeeds  of  its  lay  assistants.  The  indirect  result, 
however,  of  the  increasing  British  settlement  in  Nyasaland3  was  to  induce  Her 
Majesty's  Government  to  establish  a  British  Consul  for  Nyasa,  and  in  1883 

1  The  evidence  gathered  by  this  commission  makes  very  painful  reading,  and  further  expatiation  on 
this  subject  i:s  neither  necessary  nor  desirable. 

2  See  an  excellently  written  book  called  Afritana,  by  the  Rev.  Alexander  Duff  (Sampson  Low  &  Co. ) 
— one  of  the  best  books  ever  written  on  Africa. 

:i  By  this  time  the  African  Lakes  Company  had  placed  their  small  steamer,  The  Lady  Nyasa,  on  the 


Capt.  Foot,  R.N.,  went  to  Blantyre  with  his  wife  and  children,  taking  with  him 
Mr.  D.  Ran  kin  as  private  secretary. 

During  all  these  years  the  Makololo  chiefs  had  become  increasingly  powerful. 
At  first  they  had  seemed  disposed  to  welcome  the  British,  but  there  were  times 
when  they  became  arrogant  and  exacting  in  their  demands.  Still,  on  the 
whole,  they  were  a  valuable  counterpoise  to  the  aggressive  Yao,  some  of  whom 
became  highway  robbers  and  rifled  the  Mission  and  African  Lakes  Company's 
caravans.  There  were  two  of  the  Makololo  chiefs  specially  prominent — 
Ramakukane  and  Chipatula.  Ramakukane  was  seemingly  of  real  Makololo 
origin,  and  had  been  the  son  of  a  chief  or  headman  in  the  Barutse  country, 
who  had  accompanied  Livingstone  back  to  Nyasaland,  after  his  second  visit 
to  the  Barutse  country.  Chipatula  was  one  of  Livingstone's  old  porters. 
Ramakukane  was  established  at  Katunga  on  the  Central  Shire,  and  Chipatula 
at  or  near  the  modern  Chiromo,  where  the  river  Ruo  joins  the  Shire,  and  where 
the  present  Anglo-Portuguese  boundary  runs.  Ramakukane  was,  on  the  whole, 
friendly  to  the  Europeans.  Chipatula  chiefly  concerned  himself  in  repelling 
the  attempts  of  the  black  Portuguese  from  the  Zambezi  to  establish  themselves 
as  slave  traders  on  the  Shire.  He  not  only  kept  these  half-castes  at  bay,  but 
even  extended  his  rule  far  down  the  Shire  towards  the  Zambezi.  The  George 
Fenwick  of  whom  I  have  made  mention,  after  leaving  the  service  of  the 
Mission  had  set  up  for  himself  as  a  trader  and  elephant  hunter.  He  was  a 
headstrong,  lawless  man,  who  inspired  fear  and  admiration  alternately,  in  the 
minds  of  the  natives.  He  had  had  several  commercial  transactions  in  selling 
ivory  for  Chipatula,  and  visited  that  chief  at  Chiromo  in  1884  to  settle  accounts 
with  him.  Both  men  had  been  drinking  spirits  ;  Chipatula  refused  to  accept 
Fenwick's  version  of  accounts  and  applied  opprobrious  terms  to  him.  Fenwick 
started  up  in  a  rage  and  shot  Chipatula  dead.  Before  the  chief's  astonished 
followers  could  take  any  action  he  rushed  out  of  the  hut  towards  the  river 
shore,  and  shouted  to  them,  "  Your  chief  is  dead,  I  am  your  chief  now,"  but 
seeing  that  the  natives  were  rather  more  inclined  to  avenge  Chipatula's  death 
than  to  adopt  his  slayer  as  his  successor,  he  got  into  a  canoe  at  the  river  side, 
and  paddled  across  the  river  to  Malo  Island.  Here  for  three  days  he  led  a 
wretched  existence  attempting  to  defend  himself  from  the  attacks  of  the 
natives.  He  was  at  last  overcome  and  killed,  and  his  head  was  cut  off.  The 
Makololo  chiefs  then  became  quite  inimical  to  the  white  settlers.  They  shot 
at  and  sunk  the  little  steamer  Lady  Nyasa,  and  they  sent  an  insolent  message 
to  Blantyre,  demanding  that  Mrs.  Fenwick,  the  wife  of  the  adventurer,  should 
be  delivered  over  to  them,  together  with  an  enormous  sum  as  compensation 
for  the  death  of  Chipatula.  Consul  Foot  finally  succeeded,  with  the  help  of 
Ramakukane,  in  restoring  peace,  and  Mr.  John  Moir  recovered  the  Lady  Nyasa. 
Consul  Foot,  however,  died  not  long  afterwards  from  the  effects  of  the  fatigue 
and  anxiety  he  had  undergone.  Chipatula  was  succeeded  by  a  man  named 
Mlauri,  also  one  of  Livingstone's  men,  but  not  friendly  to  the  British  ;  and  old 
Ramakukane  died.  The  demeanour  of  the  Makololo  as  the  years  went  by 
became  increasingly  insolent  and  hostile  towards  the  Europeans,  English  as 
well  as  Portuguese. 

In  1 88 1  a  fresh  element  of  British  influence  had  appeared  on  the  shores 
of  Lake  Nyasa,  in  the  arrival  of  the  Rev.  W.  P.  Johnson  and  Mr.  Charles 
Janson,  of  the  Universities  Mission  to  Central  Africa— that  Mission  whose  first 
bishop,  Mackenzie,  had  died  near  Chiromo  on  the  Shire  in  1862.  It  will  be 
remembered  that  the  Universities  Mission  had  been  founded  at  the  instance 


of  Livingstone,  but  after  establishing  itself  in  the  Shire  highlands  in  1862  had 
been  obliged  to  quit  that  country  owing  to  the  hostilities  shown  by  the  Yao. 
Since  that  time  the  Mission  had  concentrated  itself  at  Zanzibar,  and  had 
founded  stations  on  the  East  Coast  of  Africa.  That  really  great  man,  Bishop 
Steere,  the  third  of  the  Missionary  bishops  to  Central  Africa,  had  set  his  heart 
on  reopening  work  in  Nyasaland.  He  walked  overland  from  the  Indian 
Ocean  to  the  east  coast  of  the  lake.  Subsequently  Lake  Nyasa  was  reached 
by  the  Rev.  W.  P.  Johnson,  accompanied  by  Mr.  Charles  Janson.  The  latter 
fell  ill,  and  died  on  the  shores  of  Lake  Nyasa  In  his  will  he  bequeathed  a 
sum  of  money  for  the  construction  of  a  Mission  steamer  to  be  placed  on  the 
lake.  Other  subscriptions  were  raised,  and  eventually  the  Charles  Janson  was 
launched  on  Lake  Nyasa,  where  she  still  exists.  The  Rev.  Chauncey  Maples 
and  other  recruits  from  the  Mission  had  meantime  joined  Mr.  Johnson.  Bishop 
Steere  had  been  succeeded  by  Bishop  Smythies,1  who  if  anything  took  an 
increased  interest  in  the  establishment  of  his  Mission  on  Lake  Nyasa,  to  which 
lake  he  paid  repeated  visits.  The  Rev.  Chauncey  Maples  was  made  Arch- 
deacon of  Nyasa.2  Seeing  the  troublous  condition  of  the  Yao  countries,  and 
the  shores  of  Lake  Nyasa,  where  the  unfortunate  A-nyanja  inhabitants  were 
alternately  raided  by  Magwangwara,3  Arabs  and  Yao,  the  Universities  Mission 
resolved  to  establish  its  headquarters  on  the  Island  of  Likoma,  which  is  distant 
about  eight  miles  from  the  east  coast  of  Lake  Nyasa,  and  consequently  is  not 
so  subject  to  the  attacks  of  the  Magwangwara  or  Yao. 

The  Livingstonia  Mission  under  the  able  guidance  of  Dr.  Robert  Laws,  M.IJ. 
had  been  for  years  making  steady  progress  on  the  west  coast  of  Lake  Nyasa. 
Their  first  experiments  at  Cape  Maclear,4  a  promontory  which  divides  the 
southern  end  of  the  lake  into  two  gulfs,  were  not  very  successful.  The  settle- 
ment of  Livingstonia, — which  still  exists  but  where  only  native  adherents  of 
the  Mission  dwell  at  the  present  time, — proved  to  be  extremely  unhealthy  for 
Europeans,  and  many  missionaries  died  there.  Dr.  Laws  decided,  therefore, 
to  transfer  the  headquarters  of  the  Mission  to  Bandawe,  about  midway  up  the 
west  coast  of  the  lake,  a  place  in  the  middle  of  the  A  tonga  country.  Here  the 
Free  Church  Mission  was  confronted  with  an  immediate  difficulty  in  the  shape 
of  the  Angoni-Zulu  of  the  interior,  who  were  gradually  exterminating  and 
enslaving  the  indigenous  people  of  the  lake-coast,  known  as  the  Atonga,  who 
were  related  in  origin  to  the  A-nyanja  stock.  The  Free  Church  Mission, 
therefore,  set  itself  to  work  to  conciliate  the  Angoni,  and  obtained  such 
influence  over  them,  after  some  years,  that  they  stopped  to  a  great  extent  their 
raids  over  the  coast  people.  At  any  rate  the  Mission  stations  served  as  a 
harbour  of  refuge  for  the  harried  Atonga,  who  were  eventually  able  to  recover 
their  position  and  assert  themselves  against  the  invaders. 

About  the  end  of  the  seventies  the  London  Missionary  Society  resolved 
to  take  up  Tanganyika  as  a  sphere  of  work.  Their  journeys  thither  were  made 
overland  from  Zanzibar ;  but  when  they  decided  to  have  a  steamer  placed 
on  Tanganyika  they  found  it  easier  to  send  its  sections  by  the  Lake  Nyasa 
route.  The  explorer,  Joseph  Thomson,  had  reached  the  north  end  of  Lake 
Nyasa  in  1880,  and  had  journeyed  thence  to  Tanganyika.  This  exploration 

1  Died  at  sea  on  his  way  back  to  England  in  1894,  worn  out  by  ten  years  of  incessant  toil  and  physical 

2  Became  Bishop  of  Likoma  in  1895,  and  was  drowned  in  Lake  Nyasa  a  few  months  afterwards  by 
the  capsizing  of  his  boat  in  a  storm. 

:i  A  section  of  the  Angoni-Zulu.  established  east  of  Lake  Nyasa. 

4  Named  by  Livingstone  after  the  Astronomer- Royal  of  Cape  Town. 


had  assisted  in  fixing  the  relative  position  of  the  two  lakes  and  showing  that 
the  land  transit  between  them  did  not  much  exceed  200  miles.  The  African 
Lakes  Company  were  entrusted  with  the  contract  for  conveying  the  London 
Missionary  Society's  steamer  from  Nyasa  to  Tanganyika,  an  enterprise  success- 
fully accomplished  in  1885.  Mr.  James  Stevenson,  a  director  of  the  Lakes 
Company,  was  struck  with  the  idea  of  making  a  permanent  road  from  lake 
to  lake,  and  subscribed  a  sum  of,  I  believe,  £2000  or  £3000,  for  the  purpose 
of  making  preliminary  surveys.  The  Stevenson  road,  however,  was  never 
completed,  but  the  route  it  was  to  follow  was  roughly  cleared  for  about  sixty 
miles  from  Lake  Nyasa.  The  engineers  concerned  in  this  work  died  of  fever, 
and  further  operations  were  checked  by  the  outbreak  of  war  with  the  Arabs. 
The  London  Missionary  Society  did  not,  at  first,  think  much  of  the  Lake 
Nyasa  route  to  Tanganyika,  but  preferred  the  overland  journey  from  Zanzibar. 
They  therefore  devoted  their  attention  more  to  the  middle  portion  of  the  lake, 
especially  the  west  coast  opposite  to  Ujiji,  and  established  themselves  here 
on  the  island  of  Kavala.  The  unhealthiness  of  this  place,  however,  and  the 
troubles  which  began  to  arise  on  Tanganyika  after  the  first  Belgian  expeditions, 
and  from  the  subsequent  uprising  against  the  Germans,  obliged  the  London 
Missionary  Society's  agents  to  alter  their  plans.  They  transferred  their 
establishments  to  the  south  end  of  the  lake,  in  order  to  be  brought  into  more 
direct  communication  with  the  British  settlements  in  Nyasaland. 

The  first  serious  danger  which  may  be  said  to  have  menaced  the  infant 
settlements  in  Nyasaland,  was  the  trouble  with  the  Makololo  chiefs,  to  which  I 
have  already  referred.  The  next  danger,  and  a  much  more  serious  one, 
arose  from  the  conflict  with  the  Arabs  who  had  settled  at  the  north  end  of 
Lake  Nyasa.  When  Livingstone  and  Kirk  first  explored  Lake  Nyasa  they 
practically  only  found  the  Arabs  established  in  a  few  places — at  one  or  other 
of  the  ports  on  what  is  now  the  Portuguese  coast  of  Lake  Nyasa,  and  at 
Kotakota  on  the  western  shore  of  the  lake ; l  at  which  latter  place  Livingstone 
visited  an  Arab  settlement  under  the  control  of  a  person  called  "Jumbe," 
who  was  a  coast  Arab,  and  a  representative  or  wait  of  the  Sultan  of  Zanzibar. 
Jumbe  means  "prince"  on  the  mainland  opposite  Zanzibar,  and  the  Sultan  had 
no  doubt  chosen  as  his  representative  a  man  who  went  to  Nyasa  for  trade 
purposes  principally,  but  who  was  of  sufficiently  good  standing  to  exercise 
some  show  of  authority,  in  the  Sultan's  name,  over  the  Arabs  wandering  in 
those  regions.  When  I  use  the  term  "  Arabs  "  I  mean  both  Arabs  with  white 
skins  of  pure  blood  (and  usually  natives  of  'Oman  or  of  Southern  Arabia) 
and  every  degree  of  intermixture  and  type  between  the  Arab  and  the  negro, 
so  that  some  of  our  so-called  Arabs  in  Nyasaland  are  quite  black,  though  in 
the  shape  of  their  features  or  in  their  beards,  they  may  retain  traces  of  the 
intermixture  of  a  superior  race.  But  all  these  so-called  Arabs  are  sharply 
distinguished  from  the  ordinary  negroes  by  dressing  in  Arab  costume,  using  the 
Arabic  language,  and  by  being  stricter  and  more  intelligent  in  their  practices 
of  the  Muhammadan  religion. 

The  first  interference  of  the  Arabs  with  Nyasaland  was  merely  to  secure 
a  passage  across  the  lake  in  their  caravan  journeys  to  the  countries  of  Senga, 
Lubisa,  and  Luwemba,  which  journeys  were  undertaken  for  ivory,  or  slaves,  and 
had  commenced,  as  I  have  already  related,  by  their  following  back  into  South 
Central  Africa  the  Babisa  caravans  that  formerly  traded  with  Zanzibar.  The 

1   "  Xgotangota" — as  the  natives  call  it,  the  Arabs  having  corrupted  the  name  into  the  easier  pronun- 
ciation of  Kotakota.  ' 



Arabs,  however,  soon  established  themselves  in  strong  stockades  in  the  Senga 
country,  through  which  the  great  Luangwa  River  flows.  Then  they  began 
to  adopt,  as  an  alternative  route  to  the  journey  across  Lake  Nyasa,  the  direct 
journey  from  Zanzibar  overland  across  the  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau  ;  and 
gradually  the  strong  Arab  dominion  on  Lake  Tanganyika  became  connected 
with  the  settlements  in  the  Senga  country  and  on  Lake  Nyasa.  The  Arabs 

had  also  found  a  friend  and  ally  in  Merere,  an 
intelligent  and  enterprising  chief  of  the  Wa-sango 
people,  who  had  his  capital  in  the  high  mountainous 
region  to  the  north  of  Lake  Nyasa.  In  their  journeys 
to  and  fro  between  Senga  and  the  sea  coast,  by  way 
of  the  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  the  Arabs  became 
struck  with  the  magnificent  fertility  and  the  wealth 
in  cattle  of  the  Nkonde  country  at  the  north  end  of 
Lake  Nyasa.  A  certain  Zanzibar  Arab,  named  Mlozi,1 
appears  to  have  commenced  by  trading  in  the  country, 
and  gradually  proceeded  to  surround  his  trade  estab- 
lishments with  stockades  and  by  degrees  take  forcible 
possession  of  this  delectable  land.  Mlozi  had,  with 
several  other  Arabs,  established  strong  trading  stations 
in  the  Senga  country,  and  was  almost  a  prince  among 
slave  traders.  But  Mlozi's  schemes  were  not  to  be  so 
easily  accomplished.  Prior  to  his  settlement  in  the 

Nkonde  country,  or  simultaneous  with  it  at  any  rate,  the  Lakes  Company  had 
obtained  a  footing  at  Karonga  for  the  purpose  of  opening  up  communication 
with  Lake  Tanganyika. 

The  Lakes  Company  had  employed  amongst  other  Europeans  two  notable 
men  to  conduct  the  expeditions  which  transported  the  London  Missionary 
Society's  steamer  in  sections  from  Nyasa  to  Tanganyika.  These  men  were 
Low  Monteith  Fotheringham  and  John  Lowe  Nicoll.  Mr.  Fotheringham  had 
become  finally  their  agent  at  Karonga,  on  the  north- 
west coast  of  Lake  Nyasa,  while  Mr.  Nicoll  was  chiefly  ^•••••K 
employed  on  Tanganyika  and  in  going  backwards  and 
forwards  between  Nyasa  and  Tanganyika.  Fothering- 
ham was  a  man  of  very  strong  character  and  upright 
disposition,  severe  occasionally  with  the  natives  in 
maintaining  the  laws  which  he  laid  down  for  the 
maintenance  of  order,  but  of  great  bravery,  and 
absolutely  just  in  his  dealings.  No  qualities  ensure 
a  man  greater  favour  amongst  the  negroes  than 
mingled  firmness  and  justice  ;  and  the  natives  of  the 
north  end  of  Lake  Nyasa,  the  Mambwe  of  the  Nyasa- 
Tanganyika  plateau,  and  the  Atonga  of  West  Nyasa, 
came  by  degrees  to  look  upon  Mr.  Fotheringham2  as 
their  natural  leader  and  champion.  The  Arabs  under 
Mlozi  began  to  press  their  rule  on  the  Nkonde  people. 

The  Wankonde  looked  to  Fotheringham  for  advice  and  protection.  Fothering- 
ham was  at  first  disinclined  to  interfere  in  the  quarrels,  as  he  feared  that  the 

1  Mlozi  means  in  Swahili   "an  almond  tree";  but   I  expect  the  real  derivation  of   the  word   is 
from  Mulozi  (=  a  sorcerer)  in  the  dialects  spoken  in  the  Senga  and  Bisa  countries. 

2  Whom  they  called  Montisi,  from  an  Africanising  of  his  second  name. 




results  of  a  fight  with  the  Arabs  might  seriously  prejudice  the  Lakes  Company's 
position,  and  cut  off  communication  with  Lake  Tanganyika  ;  but  he  was  not 
long  left  the  choice  of  remaining  neutral,  for  the  Arabs  appear  to  have  come  to 
the  conclusion  that  the  conquest  of  all  the  Nkonde  country  was  impossible 
until  they  had  first  driven  out  the  British  traders  and  Missionaries  ;  for  two 
missionaries,  the  Rev.  Mr.  Bain  and  Dr.  Kerr  Cross,1  had  already  settled  at  the 
north  end  of  Lake  Xyasa  in  the  service  of  the  Free  Church  Mission.  Of 
course  much  of  the  friction  that  had  arisen  between  the  Arabs  and  the  Lakes 
Company's  agent  came  from  the  undoubted  sympathy  which  the  British  traders 
showed  for  the  YVankonde  in  their  hopeless  struggle  against  the  Arab  forces. 
One  fact  may  be  cited  in  particular  as  an  example  of  the  atrocious  way  in 


which  the  Arabs  conducted  this  war  of  conquest.  The  Wankonde,  who  were 
entirely  and  only  armed  with  spears,  had  been  defeated  in  an  engagement  with 
the  Arabs,  and  took  refuge  on  the  banks  of  the  Kambwe  lagoon,  on  the  shore 
of  Lake  Nyasa.  The  Arabs  surrounded  them,  set  fire  to  the  dry  reeds,  and 
compelled  the  wretched  Wankonde  to  enter  the  water,  where  hundreds  of  them 
were  devoured  by  crocodiles,  and  large  numbers  were  shot,  stabbed,  or 
drowned.2  Several  refugees  from  this  and  other  fights  found  their  way  into  the 
Lakes  Company's  station,  which  was  then  unfortified.  Mr.  Fotheringham's 
refusal  to  give  them  up  and  his  answering  the  Arab  threats  by  commencing  to 
fortify  Karonga  were  no  doubt  the  causes  which  decided  the  Arabs  to  make 
an  attack  on  the  Karonga  station.  Fortunately  before  this  attack  took  place 

1  Dr.  Kerr  Cross  is  still  serving  as  a  medical  missionary  in  this  part  of  Africa,  where  he  has  done 
great  good  amongst  the  natives,  as  well  as  having  nursed   into  recovery  many  sick   Europeans. 

2  Fora  faithful  description  of  these  horrors  see  pp.  80,  8l,  and  82  of  the  late  Mr.   Fotheringham's. 
book  Adventures  in  Nyasaland  (Sampson   Low). 




reinforcements  were  received.  Mr.  Nicoll  arrived  from  Tanganyika  and  the 
little  steamer  Ilala  returned  from  South  Nyasa  bringing  Consul  O'Neill,  of 
Mozambique,  and  Mr.  Alfred  Sharpe  and  two  other  gentlemen  who  had  decided 
to  come  to  the  rescue  of  the  Europeans  threatened  by  the  Arabs. 

Karonga   was   attacked   and   besieged    for   days    though   the    Arabs   were 
finally  repulsed  after  desperate  fighting;    but  eventually  the   British  position 

became  untenable,  and  after  communicating  the 

news  of  his  dangerous  situation  to  the  Manager 

at  Mandala,  Mr.  Fotheringham,  Mr.  Nicoll,  and 
the  others  who  had  joined  them,  decided  to  with- 
draw with  the  Wankonde  chiefs  into  a  part  of 
the  country  where  they  would  be  better  sheltered 
from  the  Arab  attack.  They  removed  most  of 
their  goods  in  canoes,  abandoned  the  station  at 
Karonga,  and  remained  in  the  country  at  the 
extreme  north  end  of  the  lake  until  reinforce- 
ments arrived.  Amongst  the  volunteers  who 
came  to  their  aid,  were  Mr.  Consul  Hawes  and 
Mr.  John  Moir.  The  arrival  of  these  slight 
reinforcements  and  the  aid  of  five  thousand 
natives  enabled  Mr.  Fotheringham  to  attack, 
enter,  and  partially  destroy  Mlozi's  stockade  at 
Mpata  (in  which  attack  both  Mr.  Alfred  Sharpe 
and  Mr.  John  Moir  were  wounded).  But  the  native  allies  abandoned  the 
stockade  after  having  loaded  themselves  with  loot  and  the  whites  had  to 
retreat  without  consummating  their  defeat  of  the  Arabs  by  the  destruction 
of  all  their  stockades.  After  this  all  the  volunteers  returned  to  South 
Nyasa  and  Messrs.  Fotheringham,  Nicoll,  and  Kerr  Cross  lived  for  a  time 
at  Chirenje,  to  the  north-west  of  Karonga,  while  the  Arabs  regained  to  some 
extent  their  former  position,  though  they  never  were  able  actively  to  assume  the 
offensive.  Early  in  March,  more  volunteers  returned  to  North  Nyasa.  With 
them  came  Mr.  John  Buchanan  (Acting  Consul)  and  Mr.  Fred  Moir,  joint 
manager  of  the  Lakes  Co.  Mr.  Buchanan  attempted 
to  negotiate  a  peace  with  the  Arabs,  but  the  negotia- 
tions had  no  result.  Hostilities  were  then  resumed, 
but  Mr.  Fred  Moir  was  severely  wounded,  and  again 
owing  to  the  vacillation  of  their  native  allies  the  British 
failed  to  score  any  great  success. 

When  the  news  of  this  fighting  at  the  north  end  of 
Lake  Nyasa  reached  the  outer  world,  several  gentlemen 
volunteered  to  assist  the  Lakes  Company,  the  principal 
among  these  being  Capt.  Lugard,1  who  was  constituted 
by  the  Lakes  Company  the  Commander  of  their  forces      im w,  ^^ 
in   North   Nyasa.      Capt.   Lugard   was  subsequently  re-      FREDERICK  MAITLAND  MOIR 
joined  by  Mr.  Alfred  Sharpe,2  by  Mr.  Richard  Crawshay 
(who  had  also  come  to  the  country  as  a  hunter),  by  Mr.  John  Moir,  and  others. 

1   Now   Major  Lugard,   C.B. 

*  Now  Her  Majesty's  Deputy  Commissioner  and  Consul.  Mr.  Sharpe  originally  came  to  Nyasaland 
to  hunt  elephants  and  big  game,  but  hearing  of  the  Lakes  Company's  distress  he  came  to  their  assistance 
with  Consul  O'Neill  in  the  manner  above  related.  After  being  wounded  and  proceeding  to  the 
south  to  recover  he  returned  with  Captain  Lugard  and  'fought  out  the  rest  of  the  campaign,  marching 
up  overland  at  the  head  of  a  large  number  of  Atonga. 



Mr.  Frederick  Moir,  whose  arm  had  been  severely  wounded,  had  returned  to 
Scotland  to  recover  his  health.  From  thence  he  succeeded  in  sending  out  a 
/-pounder  gun,  as  it  was  felt  the  Arabs  could  only  be  adequately  fought 
with  artillery.  But  unfortunately,  although  this  gun  ultimately  reached  its 
destination,  it  was  not  provided  with  the  right  kind  of  ammunition.  Its 

MR.    ALFRED    SHARPE    IN    1890 

shells  merely  drilled  round  holes  in  the  tough  stockades  which,  being  made  of 
withes  and  mud,  did  not  offer  sufficient  resistance  for  a  real  breach  to  be  made. 
A  good  deal  of  damage  was  done  to  the  Arabs  who  were  shut  up  in  their 
fortresses  and  much  inconvenienced  for  lack  of  food,  but  the  British,  on  the 
other  hand,  suffered  severely,  having  one  of  their  officers  killed  and  several 
more  or  less  severely  wounded,  besides  the  terrible  ill-health  which  resulted 
from  fighting  during  the  rainy  season.  Amongst  the  wounded  was  Captain 
Lugard  who  returned  to  Blantyre,  got  his  wound  partially  healed,  and  then 


once  more  took  command  at  Karonga.  Captain  Lugard  finally  quitted  Nyasa- 
land  in  the  spring  of  1889,  finding  it  impossible  to  bring  the  Arab  war  to 
a  conclusion  without  disciplined  troops  and  efficient  artillery. 

An  attempt  was  made  by  Sir  Charles  Euan-Smith,  Her  Majesty's  Consul- 
General  at  Zanzibar,  to  induce  the  Sultan  of  that  place  to  intervene,  and  to 
bring  the  war  to  a  conclusion  by  compelling  the  Arabs  to  come  to  terms 
with  the  British.  The  Sultan  accordingly  dispatched  an  envoy,  but  he 
commanded  very  little  weight  in  the  councils  of  the  Senga  Arabs,  who 
considered  themselves  quite  independent  of  the  Sultan's  authority. 

The  consequences  of  this  war  with  the  Arabs,  which  was  clearly  known 
by  the  natives  of  Xyasaland  to  be  a  war  for  the  suppression  of  the  slave 
trade,  aroused  a  good  many  expressions  of  ill-feeling  against  the  English  on 
the  part  of  the  Muhammadan  Vao  on  the  east  coast  of  Lake  Nyasa.  Mr. 
John  Buchanan,  who  had  been  Acting  Consul  since  the  departure  on  leave 
of  Mr.  Hawes,  attempted  to  open  up  friendly  relations  with  Makanjira,  the 
Yao  chief  on  the  south-east  coast  of  the  lake.  He  paid  him  a  visit  with  the 
Rev.  W.  P.  Johnson,  in  the  Mission  steamer,  the  Charles  Janson.  To  their 
surprise,  however,  they  had  no  sooner  landed  than  they  were  seized,  stripped 
of  their  clothes,  and  grossly  maltreated  They  wrere  imprisoned  in  huts, 
and  Makanjira  announced  his  intention  of  killing  them,  and  would  probably 
have  done  so,  but  for  the  persuasion  of  some  Zanzibar  Arabs,  who  represented 
that  their  deaths  would  certainly  be  avenged,  and  that  the  Sultan  of  Zanzibar 
would  hold  them — the  intercessors — responsible,  after  what  had  occurred,  if 
English  subjects  were  killed  in  their  presence,  and  without  remonstrance  on 
their  part.  Makanjira  accordingly  held  his  captives  up  to  ransom.  They 
were  obliged  to  write  to  the  engineer  of  their  steamer,  which  was  in  the 
offing,  to  send  on  shore  an  enormous  supply  of  trade  goods  and  ship's 
stores.  When  these  things  arrived  Makanjira  released  them,  though  he 
neither  restored  their  clothes  nor  the  personal  property  of  which  they  had 
been  robbed.  Mr.  Buchanan,  the  Acting  Consul,  had  even  been  whipped 
with  a  chikote1  by  Makanjira's  orders — not  severely,  but  just  with  two  or 
three  stripes  to  show  his  contempt  for  the  British. 

After  a  little  vacillation  the  Arabs  of  Tanganyika  had  decided  not  to  join 
with  their  fellow  countrymen  in  the  war  against  the  British,  and  indeed  after 
a  little  more  deliberation,  that  section  under  the  orders  of  Tiputipu2  had 
determined  to  protect  the  British  missionaries  on  Lake  Tanganyika  from 
violence  at  the  hands  of  any  other  Arabs  who  might,  in  consequence  of  their 
uprising  against  the  Germans,  have  resolved  to  assassinate  all  Europeans 
in  the  interior.  Likewise  the  Arab  settlement  at  Kotakota,  which  was  under 
the  third  in  succession  of  "  Jumbes,"  who  continued  to  be  the  wali  of  the 
Sultan  of  Zanzibar,  resolved  to  remain  neutral.  Generally  speaking,  it  may 
be  said  that  at  this  crisis  the  influence  of  the  Sultan  of  Zanzibar  was  exercised 
strongly  in  favour  of  the  British.  Had  he  not  compelled  peace  and  a  good 
understanding  with  them,  all  the  Arabs  of  Central  Africa  would  have  gladly 
united  in  a  war  to  drive  us  out  of  Lake  Nyasa,  and  would  have  doubtless 
succeeded  in  doing  so,  as  in  those  days  owing  to  difficulties  with  the  Portuguese, 
it  was  found  very  difficult  to  import  supplies  of  guns  and  ammunition. 

The  general  situation  in  British  Central  Africa,  before  I  was  personally 
connected  with  its  fortunes,  was  as  follows. 

1  A  whip  of  hippopotamus  hide. 

-  Whom,  of  course,  the  British  -will  call  "Tippoo-tib." 


In  the  Barutse  country,  a  strong  kingdom  of  large  extent,  existed  a  ruling 
caste  of  Bechuana  (who  had  first  organised  the  territories  on  the  Upper 
Zambezi  into  a  large  kingdom,  and  had  been  subsequently  dispossessed  of 
power  to  some  extent  by  revolution)  and  the  descendants  of  the  old  rulers, 
who  wrere  of  Baloi,  or  Balui,  stock.  These  latter  had  replaced  in  sovereign 
power  the  Bechuana1  kings.  But  otherwise  the  government  of  the  Upper 
Zambezi  countries  in  their  political  tendencies  remained  much  what  it  was 
in  the  days  when  Livingstone  first  discovered  Barutseland.  Eastwards  of  the 
Barutse  country,  the  lands  of  the  Bashikulombwe,  of  the  Batonga  and  Manika, 
remained  in  a  state  of  utter  barbarism,  fiercely  recalcitrant  to  European 
researches.  Little  was  known  of  the  country  since  the  explorations  of  Kirk 
and  Livingstone;  Dr.  Emil  Holub,  an  Austrian  explorer,  had  been  repulsed; 
Mr.  Selous,  who  had  penetrated  farthest  into  this  part  of  Central  Africa,  was 
attacked  and  obliged  to  fly  for  his  life;  and  Jesuit  Missionaries  had  either  been 
maltreated,  killed,  or  expelled,  in  their  attempts  to  penetrate  these  countries. 
On  the  lower  part  of  the  great  Luangwa  river,  the  country  was  harried  by  black 
chieftains  from  the  Zambezi,  who  called  themselves  "  Portuguese,"  on  the 
strength  of  remote  Goanese  descent.  In  the  Senga  and  Lubisa  countries, 
Arabs  and  Swahilis  were  carrying  on  the  slave  trade,  and  gradually  establishing 
themselves  in  the  land  by  means  of  building  stockaded  towns.  At  the  south 
end  of  Lake  Tanganyika  there  were  one  or  two  missionaries  settled  and 
building.  At  the  north  end  of  Lake  Nyasa  a  war  between  Arabs  and  Scotch 
traders  had  been  going  on  for  two  years.  Missionaries  were  peacefully  at  work 
in  West  Nyasaland,  but  on  the  east  coast  of  the  lake  their  work  was 
paralysed  by  the  hostility  of  Makanjira.  The  Yao,  who,  since  Livingstone's 
first  arrival  in  the  country,  had  gradually  conquered  much  of  the  Shire 
Highlands,  and  had  established  themselves  at  the  south  end,  and  along  the 
south-east  and  south-west  coasts  of  Lake  Nyasa,  were  engaged,  either  in 
incessant  civil  war  amongst  themselves,  in  attacks  on  their  weaker  neighbours, 
or  in  hostilities  against  the  British.  In  the  Shire  Highlands  coffee-planting  had 
already  begun  under  Mr.  Buchanan,  who  had  been  joined  by  two  of  his 
brothers,  and  under  Mr.  Sharrer,  a  British  subject  of  German  descent,  who 
had  established  himself  as  a  planter  and  trader  in  Nyasaland.  In  the  Shire 
Highlands  the  missionaries  of  the  Church  of  Scotland  Mission  had  acquired  a 
considerable  influence,  an  influence  justly  due  to  their  high  character  and  their 
devotion  to  the  interests  of  the  natives,  but  an  influence  which  at  that  time 
they  were  too  much  inclined  to  exercise  with  the  view  to  governing  the  country 
themselves,  independently  of  Consuls  or  other  representatives  of  Her  Majesty. 
The  rival  to  the  Scotch  Missionaries,  as  a  governing  body,  was  the  African 
Lakes  Company,  which  was  half  hoping  for  a  Charter,  and  was  striving  to 
obtain  from  the  native  chiefs  a  concession  of  governing  rights.  Sometimes 
the  interests  of  the  Lakes  Company  and  the  Mission  were  conflicting,  and 
not  infrequently  the  two  or  three  independent  planters  could  agree  with  neither. 
The  Universities  Mission  was  supposed  to  hold  the  opinion  that  the  war  with 
the  Arabs  was  unwise,  and  owing  to  its  friendly  relations  on  the  lake  with 
the  Arabs  more  or  less  attached  to  the  Sultan  of  Zanzibar,  that  Mission 
did  not  identify  itself  with  any  movement  for  the  expulsion  of  the  Arabs 
from  Nyasaland.  A  French  Evangelical  Mission  had  established  itself  in 
the  Barutse  country,  and  was  acquiring  a  very  great  influence  over  the  natives.- 
The  seat  of  this  Mission,  however,  lay  in  British  South  Africa,  and  so  far 

'   i.e.,  Makololo.  -  An  influence  always  used  for  disinterested  and  proper  ends. 


as  these  French  Missionaries  had  any  political  sentiments  at  all  they  were 
on  the  side  of  bringing  the  Barutse  under  British  influence.  The  history  of 
Barutseland  is  only  artificially  connected  with  the  rest  of  British  Central 
Africa,  by  the  fact  that  at  present  it  is  included  within  the  same  political 
sphere.  Otherwise  its  history  is  mainly  connected  in  the  past  with  that  of 
British  South  Africa,  and  in  the  future  it  will  unquestionably  become  an 
appanage  of  that  portion  of  the  Empire.1 

The  greatest  difficulty  which  at  that  time  hampered  the  development  of  the 
eastern  part  of  British  Central  Africa,  was  the  fact  that  it  could  only  be 
approached  from  the  outer  world  through  Portuguese  East  African  Possessions. 
In  those  days,  anyone  wishing  to  proceed  to  Lake  Nyasa,  and  shirking  the 
overland  journey  from  Zanzibar,  which  was  lengthy,  arduous,  and  often  full 
of  risk,  landed  at  Quelimane,  a  little  to  the  north  of  the  Zambezi  delta, 
journeyed  up  the  Kwakwa  River  in  small  boats  to  a  point  called  Mopeia,  then 
crossed  overland,  a  distance  of  three  or  four  miles,  to  Vicenti,  a  trading  station 
on  the  Zambezi.  At  Vicenti  one  was  met  by  either  of  the  African  Lakes 
Company's  two  steamers,  the  James  Stevenson  or  the  Lady  Nyasa,  and  so 
travelled  on  up  the  Zambezi  and  up  the  Shire,  as  far  as  the  season  of  the  year, 
and  consequent  depth  of  the  waters  would  permit,  and  thence  overland 
to  the  British  settlements.  This  route,  however,  compelled  travellers  to  land 
at  the  Portuguese  port  of  Quelimane ;  and  even  assuming  the  Kwakwa  to  be, 
like  the  Zambezi,  an  international  waterway,  a  fact  which  could  not  be  asserted 
and  maintained,  it  was  impossible  to  reach  the  waters  of  the  Zambezi  without 
crossing  a  mile  or  so  of  Portuguese  territory.  No  arrangement  existed  with 
Portugal  to  secure  us  exemption  from  Customs  duties  or  even  graver 
hindrances  that  might  be  placed  in  our  way  by  the  local  Portuguese  authorities, 
and  these  authorities — bearing  in  mind  that  the  boundaries  of  Portuguese  and 
British  influence  in  the  Hinterland  had  not  yet  been  settled — were  naturally 
very  jealous  of  this  immigration  of  British  subjects,  the  said  British  subjects 
being  never  too  careful  of  Portuguese  rights  and  susceptibilities.  It  was  this 
difficulty  with  the  Portuguese  which  had  caused  Her  Majesty's  Government 
in  1863  to  arrive  at  the  conclusion  that  the  Zambezi  expedition  of  Livingstone 
must  be  recalled.  It  was  again  this  difficulty  which  hampered  Her  Majesty's 
Government  in  the  "eighties,"  in  preventing  them  from  affording  active  assistance 
to  the  traders  on  Lake  Nyasa  in  their  war  with  the  Arabs,  and,  indeed,  in 
formulating  an}-  decisive  policy  in  regard  to  Nyasaland.  Had  it  been  possible 
for  vessels  of  fair  size  and  draught  to  enter  the  river  Zambezi  from  the  sea, 
all  these  difficulties  from  overland  transport  would  have  disappeared.  Her 
Majesty's  Government  had  for  some  time  past  maintained  the  principle  of  the 
freedom  of  navigation  of  the  Zambezi,  but  although  ships  did  occasionally 
succeed  in  getting  over  the  bar  of  the  Kongone  mouth — a  bar  on  which  at 
low  tide  there  was  only  a  depth  of  5  to  6  feet  of  water — the  enterprise  was  too 
uncertain  to  be  often  prosecuted,  and  the  best  proof  of  its  impracticability  lay 
in  the  fact  that  the  African  Lakes  Company  had  almost  abandoned  this  way 
into  the  Zambezi,  and  preferred  to  pay  the  heavy  Customs  duties  of  Quelimane 
and  submit  to  all  reasonable  restrictions  on  the  part  of  the  Portuguese,  rather 
than  attempt  to  communicate  with  the  Shire  by  means  of  the  Kongone  mouth 
of  the  Zambezi — an  attempt  indeed  which  they  could  only  make  at  fitful 

1  Whereas,  on  the  other  hand,  the  history  of  the  eastern  half  of  British  Central  Africa,  east  of  the 
Kafue  River,  has  always  been  mixed  up  with  that  of  Zanzibar  and  the  northern  half  of  Portuguese  I  as) 


intervals,  and  by  specially  chartering  ocean-going  steamers,  as  no  established 
Steamship  Line  \vould  hear  of  calling  in  at  the  Kongone  mouth  as  a  matter 
of  course. 

At  this  juncture  a  discovery  of  the  greatest  importance  was  made,  which 
completely  altered  the  political  aspect  of  the  question.  Mr.  Daniel  J.  Rankin, 
an  explorer  who  had  originally  proceeded  to  Nyasaland  as  private  secretary 
to  Consul  Foot,  and  who  had  also  acted  in  a  Consular  capacity  at  Mozambique, 
was  enabled  by  the  Royal  Scottish  Geographical  Society  to  institute  an 
exploration  of  the  Zambezi  delta.  In  the  course  of  his  journey  he  discovered 
the  Chinde  mouth  of  the  Zambezi,  which  apparently  was  quite  unknown  to  the 
Portuguese  Government,  though  it  had  probably  been  first  discovered  by  a 
Portuguese  planter  who  was  working  a  concession  in  the  delta.  This  planter's 
information  put  Mr.  Rankin  on  the  track  of  his  discovery,  which  he  announced 
to  the  world  in  the  spring  of  iSSQ.1  It  was  briefly  this,  that  the  Chinde  mouth 
of  the  Zambezi  possessed  a  bar  shorter  and  safer  and  simpler  than  that  of  any 
other  outlet  of  the  Zambezi,  and  with  a  minimum  depth  of  water  at  high  tide 
of  17  feet  (as  against,  say,  10  feet  at  the  Kongone).  At  the  time  Mr.  Rankin 
sounded  the  bar,  I  believe  he  found  a  depth  of  water  on  it  of  21  or  22  feet, 
a  depth  which  has  several  times  since  been  recorded,  but  chiefly  at  that  season 
of  the  year  when  the  river  was  visited  by  Mr.  Rankin,  namely  when  the 
Zambezi  is  in  full  flood.  Ordinarily  the  depth  of  water  at  high  spring-tides 
is  17  to  19  feet.  Not  only  was  the  Chinde  bar  a  far  less  serious  obstacle 
than  that  of  any  other  mouth  of  the  Zambezi,  but  its  channel  from  the  sea 
into  the  main  Zambezi  was  easier  of  navigation  than  the  other  branches  of 
that  river.  In  its  far-reaching  political  importance,  probably  no  greater 
discover}-  in  the  history  of  British  Central  Africa  has  been  made  than  that 
of  the  navigability  of  the  Chinde  River  from  the  Indian  Ocean  to  the  main 

1  In  the  Times  Newspaper. 



ANY   direct   personal   interest  which   I   may  have  taken   in   the   affairs   of 
Nyasaland  dates  from  the  commencement  of  1884. 
I  had  returned  from  a  prolonged  examination  of  the  western  basin 
of  the  River  Congo  and  my  opinion  was  invited  at  the  Foreign  Office  on  certain 
points  connected  with  the  proposed  treaty  with  Portugal  regulating  the  political 
and  commercial  affairs  of  the  Lower  Congo. 

This  treaty  contained  a  clause  providing  that  Portuguese  political  influence 
should  cease  in  the  direction  of  Nyasaland  at  the  junction  of  the  Ruo  and 
Shire  rivers.  Had  the  treaty  been  ratified  this  clause  would  have  obviated  any 
further  frontier  disputes  with  Portugal,  north  of  the  Zambezi  ;  but  owing  to 
unreasonable  opposition  in  certain  quarters  it  was  not  ratified,  and  then  the 
Berlin  Conference  was  called  to  deal  generally  with  questions  affecting  the 
Congo  and  the  Niger,  and  Zambezian  affairs  were  postponed  in  their  settlement. 
The  Portuguese  were  now  free  of  any  obligation  in  regard  to  Nyasaland,  and 
being  an  enterprising  and  ambitious  people,  determined  once  more  to  revive 
their  scheme  of  a  trans-continental  Empire  from  Angola  to  Mozambique, 
including  the  southern  part  of  what  is  now  Central  Africa.  They  were  aided 
in  these  assumptions  by  the  remarkable  journeys  of  their  explorers,  Capello 
and  Ivens. 

Lord  Salisbury's  Ministry,  however,  had  succeeded  to  power,  and  in  several 
speeches  in  the  House  of  Lords  the  Premier  could  not  conceal  the  interest  that 
he  felt  in  the  struggle  going  on  between  the  Arabs  and  the  African  Lakes 
Company,  or  his  resolve  to  maintain  Nyasaland  as  a  country  open  to  British 
enterprise  without  the  restrictions  which  would  result  from  its  transference 
to  any  other  European  Power.  Owing  to  the  difficulty  about  a  direct  water 
route  into  the  heart  of  South  Central  Africa  to  which  I  have  alluded  in  the 
last  chapter,  I  believe  it  was  not  the  object  of  Her  Majesty's  Ministers  in  1887 
to  establish  any  actual  Protectorate  over  Nyasaland  :  they  merely  wished  that 
it  should  become  neither  German  nor  Portuguese,  but  be  ruled  by  its  native 
chiefs,  under  the  advice,  it  might  be,  of  a  British  Consul,  but  in  any  case 
that  it  should  remain  open  to  the  British  traders,  planters  and  missionaries 
without  let  or  hindrance. 

In  1888  I  had  returned  from  three  years  of  Consular  work  in  the  Niger 
Coast  Protectorate,  and  in  the  summer  of  that  year  Lord  Salisbury  held  a  short 
conversation  with  me  at  Hatfield  in  which  he  developed  his  views  about 
Zambezia.  From  this  conversation  I  date,  to  a  great  extent,  my  own  concep- 



tion  of  the  policy  to  be  pursued.1  In  the  autumn  of  1888  I  was  offered  and 
accepted  the  post  of  Consul  to  Portuguese  East  Africa.  At  the  beginning 
of  1889  it  was  decided  by  the  Foreign  Office  that  I  should  travel  in  the  interior, 
and  report  on  the  troubles  which  had  arisen  with  the  Arabs,  and  above  all  with 
the  Portuguese ;  and  that  in  those  districts  admittedly  beyond  Portuguese 
jurisdiction  I  should  take  measures  to  secure  the  country  from  abrupt  seizure 
by  other  European  Powers,  by  concluding  treaties  of  friendship  with  the  native 
chiefs,  in  which  they  bound  themselves  not  to  transfer  their  governing  rights 
to  any  European  Power  without  the  consent  of  Her  Majesty's  Government. 
Before  starting  for  my  post,  however,  it  was  thought  by  Lord  Salisbury  that 
I  might,  by  personal  intercourse  with  the  Portuguese  Authorities  at  Lisbon, 
suggest  some  modus  vivcndi  with  regard  to  the  settlement  of  out  conflicting 
claims.  I,  accordingly,  spent  some  six  weeks  in  Portugal,  and  in  conjunction 
with  Her  Majesty's  Envoy,  Mr.,  now  Sir  George,  Petre,  discussed  the  subject 
of  Xyasaland  at  the  Portuguese  Foreign  Office.  A  draft  arrangement  was 
drawn  up,  which  after  some  modifications  was  shown  to  the  Portuguese  Minister 
for  Foreign  Affairs,  and  approved  by  him.  It  was  then  submitted  to  the 
English  Foreign  Office,  but  as  it  did  not  provide  for  the  exclusion  of  the  Shire 
Highlands  from  the  Portuguese  Sphere  it  was  not  deemed  acceptable  by  Her 
Majesty's  Government,  as  the  chief  object  of  any  such  arrangement  at  that 
time  was  to  secure  the  work  of  the  English  missionaries  and  planters  from 
interference.  This  arrangement  might,  however,  have  been  modified  in  that 
respect  without  difficulty  on  the  part  of  the  Portuguese,  but  the  fact  was  that 
the  Government  felt  reluctant  to  push  the  matter  to  an  immediate  conclusion 
in  the  face  of  two  obstacles,  one  being  the  want  of  direct  water  communication 
with  the  interior  beyond  the  Portuguese  Sphere,  and  the  other,  the  difficulty 
which  would  be  experienced  by  the  Imperial  Government  at  that  time,  in 
finding  funds  for  incurring  the  great  responsibility  of  administering  the  districts 
bordering  on  Lake  Nyasa,  a  territory  that  did  not  then  promise  much  or,  indeed, 
any  local  revenue  of  its  own.  Two  things  now  occurred  to  dispel  Government 
anxieties  on  these  accounts  :  Mr.  Rankin  announced  his  discovery  of  the  Chinde 
mouth,  and  Mr.  Cecil  Rhodes  arrived  in  England  to  obtain  a  Charter  for  his 
Company.  I  made  the  acquaintance  of  Mr.  Rhodes,  and  found  him  much 
disposed  to  interest  himself  in  the  extension  of  British  influence  across  the 
Zambezi.  As  the  result  of  several  conferences  Mr.  Rhodes  was  able  to  assure 
the  Foreign  Office  that  his  proposed  Chartered  Company  would  find  at  least 
,£10,000  a  year,  for  several  years,  for  the  development  and  administration 
of  Xyasaland.  Under  these  new  circumstances,  therefore,  the  Government 
felt  justified  in  attempting  to  secure  for  Great  Britain  a  reasonable  amount 
of  political  influence  over  those  countries  of  Central  Africa,  not  claimed  by 
Germany,  Portugal,  or  the  Congo  Free  State.  The  form  of  Treaty  that  was 
drawn  up  was  not,  however,  altered,  as  it  was  not  intended  to  proclaim  any 
Protectorate,  if  more  indirect  means  of  political  supremacy  could  be  attained. 

It  should,  perhaps,  be  stated  that  the  attention  of  Her  Majesty's  Government 
had  been  drawn  in  the  spring  of  1889  to  the  imposing  expedition  which  was  to 
be  commanded  by  Major  Serpa  Pinto  in  Portuguese  Zambezia. 

Explanations  had  been  asked  for  in  Lisbon  as  to  its  eventual  destination, 

1  Y\  hat  this  conception  was  may  be  found  in  an  article  in  the  Times  of  August  22nd,  i88S.  which  it 
may  be  interesting  for  some  persons  to  re-read  now  as  it  was  written  at  a  time  when  such  ideas  as  a  British 
dominion,  including  an  establishment  on  the  shores  of  Tanganyika  and  through  communication  between 
the  Cape  and  Kgypt  had  never  before  been  specifically  enunciated. 


but  the  Portuguese  Minister  for  Foreign  Affairs  assured  Her  Majesty's  Govern- 
ment that  Serpa  Pinto  would  merely  proceed  to  the  Portuguese  establishments 
on  the  Upper  Zambezi  and  on  the  Luangwa  River,  and  would  not  enter 
the  debatable  ground  of  the  Shire  Highlands.  Consequently,  as  the  Portuguese 
claim  to  Zumbo  and  to  the  Lower  Luangwa  had  not  been  contested— or 
indeed  their  claims  anywhere  where  occupation  or  political  supremacy  could 
shown— it  was  thought  that  if  the  Portuguese  did  not  attempt  to  impose  then- 
rule  on  any  new  lands  where  our  interests  might  be  affected,  no  such  direct  step 
as  the  establishment  of  a  Protectorate  on  our  part  should  be  undertaken  until 
negotiations  with  Germany  and  Portugal  had,  more  or  less  precisely,  fixed 
the  limits  of  our  political  influence. 

I   started  for  Mozambique  in  the  early   summer  of  1889.      On  my  arriva 
at  that  place  the  Foreign  Office,  at  my  request,  appointed  Mr.  W.  A.  Churchill, 
Vice-Consul,  so  that  I  might  be  free  to  start  on  my  journey  to  the  interior, 
without    leaving    Consular   matters    unattended    to.      Soon    after 
Mocambique   there   arrived    H.M.S.    Stork,    a    surveying    vessel    commanded 
by  Lieut-Commander  Balfour,  R.N.     The  Stork  had  just  returned  from  Chinde, 
where  it  had  been  sent  to  verify  Mr.  Rankin's  discoveries.     The  Commander 
informed  me  that  in  his  steam-launch  he  had  passed  up  into  the  Zambezi,  an 
had  found  the  channel  all  the  way  deep  enough  for  even  the  Stork  herself,  and 
the  Stork  was  a  vessel  drawing  I3|  feet.     I  felt  that  it  would  be  good  policy  to 
show   that    I    had  reached   these  regions  of  the  interior,  without  necessarily 
landino-  On  Portuguese  territory,  so  I  obtained  permission  from  the  Government 
to  use  the  Stork  for  the  conveyance  of  my  expedition.     At  the  same  time  the 
authorities  at  Mocambique  were  made  fully  aware  of  the  purposes  I  intended  to 
fulfil  namely  the  negotiation  of  a  peace  with  the  Arabs  and  the  conclusion  of 
treaties  of  friendship  with  the  local  chiefs,  who  were  not  under  Portuguese  juris- 
diction     The  Governor  asked  me  pointedly  if  I  intended  to  proclaim  a  British 
Protectorate,  and  I  told  him  I  was  authorised  to  do  nothing  of  the  kind,  so 
as  Major  Serpa  Pinto  or  other  Portuguese  explorers  took  no  political 
outside  Portuguese  territory.     No  difficulty  whatever  was  placed  in  my  way  by 
the  Portuguese,  whether  or  not  they  approved  of  my  expedition.        think  parti- 
cular stress  should  be  laid  on  this  fact,  as  had  Portugal  been  animated  by  really 
hostile  intentions  to  Great  Britain,  there  were  a  hundred  pretexts  by  whic 
might  have  stopped  my  journey.     So  little   need  was  there  to  preserve   any 
mystery  about  my  operations,  that   instead  of  proceeding  direct   to   Chiridt 
I   called  in  with  the   Stork  at  Quelimane,  and  there   visited   the   Portuguese 
officials,  and  communicated   with   the    African    Lakes  Company.      The  Stork 
crossed  the  bar  of  the  Chinde  mouth  without  difficulty,  on  the  28th  ot   J  u  y, 
1889    and  steamed   up    the    Chinde    River    into   the   main    Zambezi,   to   the 
unbounded  astonishment  of  such  few  inhabitants  as   were  on  the  banks,    K 
neither  they  nor  any  other  people  had  seen  so  large  a  vessel  enter  the  Zam 
before    A  short  distance  above  the  confluence  of  the  Chinde  with  the  mam  Zambezi 
the  Stork  came  to  anchor,  and  we  continued  our  journey  in  a  flotilla  ot  stean 
launches  and  boats,  by  which  means   we  finally  came  up  with  the  African 
I  akes  Company's  steamer,  the  fames  Stevenson,  near  Morambala,  a  very  r 
mountain  which  is  situated  some  twenty  miles  up  the  Shire  River.     My  expe 
tion  consisted  of  Mr.  J.  L.   Nicoll,  formerly  of  the  Lakes  Company  s  service,- 
whom  I  had  engaged  at  Quelimane  as  an  assistant ;  AH  Kiongwe,  my  Zanzibar! 
headman,  who  had  accompanied  me  on  my  journey  to  Kilimanjaro,  and  wh< 
1  Now  Consul  at  IVfogambique.  '-'  Just  returning  from  the  Aral.  War. 


had  re-engaged  at  Zanzibar  in  1889;  and  fifteen  Makua,  engaged  \vith  the  con- 
sent of  the  Portuguese  authorities  at  Mozambique.  T\IQ  James  Stevenson  was  a 
river  steamer  of  about  forty  tons  burden,  worked  by  a  stern  wheel,  and  wit'i 
fairly  comfortable  cabin  accommodation,  and  an  upper  deck.  In  this  steamer 
we  pursued  our  course  up  the  river,  until  we  reached  Serpa  Pinto's  camp, 
which  was  a  little  distance  below  the  confluence  of  the  Ruo  and  the  Shire.  I 
had  been  startled,  on  reaching  Quelimane,  to  learn  from  the  Portuguese  officials 
there,  that  Major  Serpa  Pinto,  after  journeying  to  Sena  on  the  Lower  Zambezi 
with  his  expedition,  had  suddenly,  and  abruptly,  deflected  his  course  northwards 
to  the  Shire,  and  was  apparently  making  for  the  Makololo  country,  and  the 
Shire  Highlands.  Major  Serpa  Pinto  had  been 
apprised  of  my  coming,  and  when  the  James 
Stevenson  drew  near  he  dispatched  an  officer  and 
a  boat,  so  that  I  might  land  and  see  him.  I  found 
Serpa  Pinto  surrounded  by  a  staff  of  white  officers, 
and  was  informed  that  he  had  with  him  over  seven 
hundred  Zulu  soldiers.1 

The  Major  received  me  in  a  little  hut,  and  after 
insisting  on  my  sharing  his  afternoon  tea,  we  began 
to  discuss  the  political  situation.  He  informed  me 
that  he  sought  my  intervention  with  the  Makololo 
people,  to  persuade  them  to  allow  him  to  pass  un- 
hindered through  their  country,  as  he  was  on  his 
way  to  Lake  Nyasa  in  charge  of  a  Scientific  Expedi- 
tion. "  We  go,"  he  said,  "  to  visit  that  Portuguese 
subject,  Mponda,  at  the  south  end  of  Lake  Nyasa." 2 
I  replied  to  Major  Serpa  Pinto,  "If  you  are  only  in 
charge  of  a  Scientific  Expedition,  you  need,  at  most, 
an  escort  of  fifty  soldiers  ;  but  the  Makololo  are  sure 
to  view  your  journey  with  distrust  if  you  attempt  to 
bring  so  large  an  armed  force  into  the  country ; 
moreover,  your  Government  has  distinctly  assured 
us  that  the  object  of  your  mission  was  the  Upper 
Zambezi,  and  not  the  Shire.  Consequently,  if  you 
take  any  political  action  north  of  the  Ruo,  which  we 
consider,  provisionally,  to  be  the  Portuguese  limit, 
you  will  oblige  me,  on  my  part,  to  go  beyond  my 
immediate  instructions  and  effectively  protect  the 
interests  of  Her  Majesty's  Government.  If  you  merely  wish  to  pass  through 
the  country  for  scientific  purposes  we  will  travel  together,  and  I  will  do  my 
best  to  persuade  the  Makololo  to  offer  no  opposition." 

Major  Serpa  Pinto  did  not  give  any  very  definite  reply  to  these  remarks 
of  mine,  merely  reiterating  his  hope  that  I  would  prevail  on  the  Makololo 
to  offer  no  opposition  to  his  passage ;  otherwise  he  would  be  obliged  to  fight 

I    proceeded    on    my   way   in   the  James    Stevenson,    and    soon    afterwards 

1  Many   of   these   men  were   inhabitants    of   Gazaland   and    Inyambane,   but  a    few   of    them   were 
undoubtedly  Zulus,  who  had  been  recruited  in  Swaziland  and  in  the  vicinity  of  Delagoa  Bay. 

2  I  was  aware  that  the  Portuguese  had  endeavoured  by  means  of  Senor  Cardo/o,  the  only 
explorer  who  had  at  that  date  reached   the  shores  of  Lake  Nyasa,   to  conclude  a   treaty  with    M  \ 

but  it  was  common  knowledge  that  although  he  had  received  the  Mission  in  a  friendly  way.  he  had  i.ot 
signed   the  treaty. 



we  passed  the  junction  of  the  Ruo  and  the  Shire,  and  the  steamer  stopped 
at  Chiromo,  on  the  north  bank  of  the  river  Ruo.  Here  we  found  a  large 
native  village,  under  two  young  chiefs,  Mbengwa  and  Makwira,  sons  of 
the  Chipatula  who  had  been  killed  by  Fenwick.  There  was  an  English 
trading  station  at  Chiromo,  belonging  to  two  young  English  elephant 
hunters,  named  Pettitt.  Whilst  the  steamer  stopped  at  Chiromo,  I  saw 
the  two  chiefs,  and  explained  to  them  that  they  were  not  to  take  any 
aggressive  action  against  the  Portuguese,  even  if  the  latter  crossed  the 
Ruo  in  force.  In  such  a  case  as  this  they  were  to  inform  the  Acting 
Consul  at  Blantyre.  From  Chiromo  we  passed  on  up  the  River  Shire, 
through  the  Elephant  Marsh,  but  as  we  approached  nearer  to  the  Makololo 
settlements  beyond  the  Elephant  Marsh,  the  captain  of  the  James  Stevenson 
became  greatly  perturbed  as  to  the  attitude  which  might  be  observed  by  the 
powerful  Makololo  chief,  Mlauri.  Mlauri  was  no  more  friendly  at  that  time 
to  the  English  than  to  the  Portuguese.  Towards  the  English  he  had  been 
very  aggressive  on  account  of  his  not  having  been  recognised  as  supreme 
chief  of  the  Makololo.  He  had  several  times  tried  to  get  hold  of  the  two 
young  chiefs  of  Chiromo,  in  order  that  he  might  kill  them,  and  was  furious 
with  the  Pettitts  and  with  a  Mr.  Simpson,  an  engineer  in  the  service  of  the 
Lakes  Company,  for  having  intervened  to  protect  them.  Mlauri  in  those 
days  occupied  a  strong  position  at  Mbewe,  a  place  some  little  distance 
below  Katunga,  the  termination  of  river  navigation  on  the  Lower  Shire. 
The  set  of  the  current  compelled  all  steamers  to  pass  close  under  the  cliff 
of  Mbewe,  and  they  were  therefore  completely  at  the  mercy  of  Mlauri's  guns, 
and  Mlauri  was  frequently  in  the  habit  of  firing  at  the  steamers  to  compel 
them  to  stop,  and  either  give  him  a  present  or  await  his  good  pleasure  in 
other  respects.  He  had  been  the  leading  spirit  in  the  sinking  of  the  Lady 
Xyasa  at  the  time  of  the  disturbance  following  the  death  of  Chipatula,  and 
not  having  been  punished  for  this  his  tyrannical  obstructions  to  river  navigation 
were  becoming  unbearable. 

As  we  neared  Mbewe,  we  saw  the  banks  lined  with  armed  men.  The 
captain  of  the  James  Stevenson  at  first  determined  to  steam  by  at  full 
speed,  but  the  natives  shouted  from  the  banks  that  if  we  did  not  stop  and 
come  to  an  anchor  they  would  fire  on  us.  I  therefore  advised  the  captain 
to  anchor  his  vessel  at  Mbewe,  and  determined  to  go  on  shore  and  interview 
Mlauri,  with  the  double  object  of  protesting  against  his  behaviour  towards 
the  British  steamers,  and  cautioning  him  about  falling  out  with  the  Portuguese. 
The  Rev.  Alexander  Hetherwick,  of  the  Church  of  Scotland  Mission,  was  a 
fellow  traveller  with  me  on  board  the  James  Stevenson,  and  when  he  heard 
of  my  intention  to  see  Mlauri,  he  kindly  volunteered  his  services  as  interpreter. 
In  those  days  I  could  speak  nothing  but  Swahili,  and  although  this  language 
might  be  partially  understood  by  Mlauri,  it  was  preferable  to  talk  straight 
to  him  in  his  own  language — Chi-nyanja. 

We  landed  amongst  a  jeering  crowd  of  warriors,  armed  with  guns,  who 
were  rather  inclined  to  hustle  us,  but  eventually  we  found  our  way  without 
misadventure  to  the  presence  of  Mlauri,  who  was  seated  in  an  open  space  on 
a  chair,  with  a  gaudy  blanket  wrapped  round  his  loins,  and  a  tall  white 
chimney-pot  hat  on  his  head.  He  was  surrounded  by  a  semi-circle  of  warriors 
and  headmen,  and  directed  us  to  be  seated  on  some  ricketty-looking  camp 
chairs  placed  opposite  to  him,  evidently  in  readiness  for  our  visit.  On  our 
attempting  to  sit  on  the  chairs  they  collapsed,  and  we  fell  to  the  ground  amid 


shouts  of  derisive  laughter  from  the  natives.  After  this  I  lost  my  temper,  and 
so  severely  rated  Mlauri  in  Swahili  that  whether  he  understood  the  drift  of 
ni}'  words  or  not,  he  was  convinced  I  was  extremely  angry,  and  being— like 
most  of  these  negro  chiefs — a  coward  as  well  as  a  bully,  he  became  quite 
apologetic.  When  fresh  and  more  secure  seats  had  been  brought  for  us  I 
explained  to  him — through  Mr.  Hetherwick — firstly,  that  these  attempts  to 
obstruct  the  navigation  of  the  Shire  would  get  him  into  trouble  with  Her 
Majesty's  Government,  and,  secondly,  that  he  had  better  not  attempt  to  fight 
the  Portuguese  if  they  forced  their  way  through  his  country,  but  should  leave 
this  matter  to  be  decided  between  the  two  Governments.  Mlauri  replied, 
discursively,  giving  as  his  reason  for  annoying  the  steamers  that  he  was  not 
allowed  to  seize  Chipatula's  two  sons,  and  that  the  English  would  not  recognise 
him  as  paramount  chief  of  the  Makololo.  Also  that  he  felt  convinced  that 
\ve  were  in  league  with  the  Portuguese,  and  that  all  white  men  were  equally 
bad.  He  would,  therefore,  fight  Major  Serpa  Pinto,  unless  the  latter  broke 
up  his  camp  and  retired  to  the  Zambezi. 

I  reiterated  my  advice  to  him,  not  to  pursue  such  a  course,  and  then 
returned  to  the  steamer,  which  was  allowed  to  leave  without  further  opposition 
on  the  part  of  the  natives.  We  soon  reached  Katunga's,  which  in  some  sense 
is  the  port  of  Blantyre,  that  place  being  about  twenty-five  miles  distant  over 
the  hills.  At  Katunga  I  was  met  by  Mr.  John  Buchanan,  the  Acting  Consul  ; 
by  the  Rev.  D.  C.  Scott,  of  the  Church  of  Scotland  Mission  ;  Mr.  John  Moir. 
the  Manager  of  the  Lakes  Company ;  and  by  a  trader  whom  I  will  call  Mr.  S., 
who  was  a  British  subject  of  German 
origin.  I  explained  to  these  gentle- 
men the  end  that  I  had  in  view, 
namely,  to  secure  treaties  of  friendship 
with  the  Makololo  and  Yao  chiefs,  but 
not  to  declare  a  British  Protectorate 
if  possible,  unless  the  Portuguese 
forced  my  hand,  for  I  considered  it 
better  to  leave  the  ultimate  decision  as 
to  a  Protectorate  with  Her  Majesty's 
Government,  who  would  probably  wait 
till  the}-  had  first  negotiated  a  settle- 
ment of  boundaries  with  the  Portu- 
guese. Mr.  Buchanan  and  Mr.  Moir 
were  delighted  at  the  idea  of  the 
treaties  of  friendship,  but  a  violent 
opposition  was  declared  thereto  by 
Mr.  S.,  the  trader,  an  opposition  which, 
at  the  time,  I  was  totally  unable  to 
understand,  but  which  was  made  clear  MK  ,,)HN  BUCHANAN 

to   me    afterwards   by   the    discovery 

that  Mr.  S.  had,  himself,  attempted  to  conclude  treaties  with  the  native 
chiefs,  by  which  they  were  to  yield  to  him  their  sovereign  rights.  He  had 
not,  up  to  that  time,  succeeded  in  inducing  them  to  do  so,  but  he  was 
counting  much  on  exploiting  the  ill-humour  of  Mlauri.  It  is  not  very  clear 
what  were  the  intentions  of  Mr.  S. — whether  to  start  a  Chartered  Company 
of  his  own,  or,  having  acquired  a  sovereignty  over  the  Shire  Highlands,  to 
make  terms  for  himself  with  either  England  or  German}-,  England  being  the 


country  of  his  adoption,  and  Germany  the  land  of  his  birth.  I  do  not  give 
this  gentleman's  name  in  full,  because,  when  the  British  Protectorate  was  finally 
declared,  he  accepted  it  loyally.  I  only  mention  the  incident  here  because 
it  was  one  which  rather  precipitated  our  political  action. 

A  treaty  of  friendship  was  concluded  by  Mr.  Buchanan  at  Katunga  with 
all  the  Makololo  chiefs  except  Mlauri.  Subsequently,  when  Mlauri  had 
received  his  first  defeat  at  the  hands  of  the  Portuguese,  he  made  a  treaty 
also  with  Mr.  Buchanan. 

Mr.  Moir,  the  manager  of  the  Lakes  Company,  had  invited  me  to  be  his 
guest  at  Mandala,  near  Blantyre,  and  had  brought  down  a  horse  for  me  to 
ride.  In  those  days  there  were  only  two  horses  in  British  Central  Africa ; 
one  of  these  was  ill,  and  the  other  lent  to  me  was  rather  an  unmanageable 
beast.  It  had  evidently  been  bored  by  the  long  delay  in  treaty-making  at 
Katunga,  and  was  desperately  anxious  to  return  to  the  pleasanter  climate  of 
Blantyre,  so  that  when  I  mounted  at  Katunga  station,  it  instantly  bolted, 
nearly  beheading  me  in  the  low  gateway  which  formed  the  entrance  to  the 
station.  Its  frantic  gallop  was  checked  at  the  ascent  to  the  hills,  and  I  regained 
command  over  it ;  but  soon  afterwards  the  rotten  leather  bridle  came  to  pieces, 
and  before  I  could  clutch  at  the  two  ends  they  had  fallen  to  the  ground,  the 
horse  had  put  his  foot  on  them,  snapping  them  off,  and  there  I  was  on  his 
back,  without  any  means  of  controlling  him.  He  realised  the  situation,  and 
once  more  raced  along  the  narrow  path.  I  did  not  fall  off,  but  entered 
Blantyre  more  like  Mazeppa  than  a  well-conducted  British  official.  In 
passing  through  the  various  archways  and  tunnels  covered  with  very  thorny 
roses,  which  diversified  the  garden  approach  to  Mr.  Moir's  house,  I  could 
only  save  myself  from  serious  damage  by  lying  as  flat  as  possible  on  the 
horse's  back,  with  my  arms  round  his  neck.  He  made  straight  for  his  stable, 
and  at  the  fortunately  closed  door  came  to  a  dead  stop.  I  rolled  off  his  back, 
bleeding  and  bruised,  and  have  always  regarded  that  first  ride  from  Katunga  to 
Blantyre  as  the  greatest  risk  I  ever  ran  in  British  Central  Africa. 

At  Blantyre  treaties  were  concluded  with  the  Yao  chiefs;  and  I  organised, 
with  the  help  of  Mr.  John  Moir,  my  expedition  to  the  north  end  of  Lake 
Xyasa.  Before  leaving  for  the  lake,  I  made  arrangements  with  Mr.  John 
Buchanan  as  to  the  course  which  should  be  pursued  if  the  Portuguese  attempted 
to  take  forcible  possession  of  the  Shire  Highlands.  In  such  an  event  as  this, 
if  the  Portuguese  crossed  the  Ruo  in  force  and  gave  any  evidence  of  an  inten- 
tion to  occupy  the  country  politically,  Mr.  Buchanan  was  to  proclaim  a  British 
Protectorate  over  the  Shire  province,  between  Lake  Chilwa  and  the  Kirk 
Mountains  of  Angoniland,  the  River  Ruo  and  Zomba  Mountain.  This  step, 
however,  was  not  to  be  taken  and  Her  Majesty's  Government  was  not  to  be 
pledged  to  a  Protectorate  over  the  Shire  Highlands,  unless  there  was  no 
option  between  such  a  proceeding  and  passively  admitting  the  Portuguese 
conquest  of  the  country.1 

Subsequent  to  my  departure  the  following  events  took  place.  Major  Serpa 
Pinto  advanced  northwards,  along  the  west  bank  of  the  Shire,  and  was  attacked 
by  the  Makololo'2  under  Mlauri.  Mlauri  excused  himself  for  this  action  after- 
wards by  complaining  that  the  Portuguese  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Shire  had 

1  The  Protectorate  was  proclaimed  September  21,  1889,  after  the  news  of  the  first  conflict  between 
the  Portuguese  and   the  Makololo  (at  Mpatsa.  just  below  the  Ruo)  had  reached  Mr.  Buchanan,  who  was 
then  trying  to  pacify  the  Makololo. 

2  November  8,   1889. 


been  the  aggressors,  and  had  raided  some  of  his  villages.  His  attack,  however, 
was  completely  repulsed  by  the  Portuguese,  who  inflicted  upon  him  a  very 
sanguinary  defeat.  Up  to  this  point  Major  Serpa  Pinto  had  not  crossed  the 
hypothetical  boundary  of  English  and  Portuguese  interests,  which  had  been 
once  or  twice  mentioned  to  be  the  River  Ruo,  and  a  line — more  or  less  parallel 
with  the  confluence  of  the  Ruo — drawn  westward  across  the  Shire.  So  far  as  I 
am  aware  Major  Serpa  Pinto  never  crossed  this  line,  but  when  brought  face  to 
face  with  the  question  of  doing  so,  and  thereby  bringing  the  Portuguese 
Government  into  almost  open  conflict  with  the  British,  he  left  the  expedition 

under  the  charge  of  Lieut.  Coutinho,  and  proceeded  to  Mozambique  for  further 
instructions. 1  In  his  absence,  however,  Lieut.  Coutinho,  whose  attitude  towards 
Major  Serpa  Pinto  may  be  described  in  Lady  Macbeth's  lines — 

"  Infirm  of  purpose  !     Give  me  the  day^er  ! ;) 

resolved  to  conquer  the  Shire  province,  and  meet  English  remonstrances  with 
a  fait  accompli.  Hitherto  all  the  other  Makololo  chiefs  had  followed  my  advice, 
and  had  not  joined  Mlauri  in  attacking  the  Portuguese.  Mlauri's  action  was 
quite  isolated,  but  Lieut.  Coutinho  had  established  a  camp  on  the  other  side 
of  the  River  Ruo,  facing  Chiromo.  The  two  young  Chiromo  chiefs  were  careful 
to  give  no  cause  of  offence  to  Lieut.  Coutinho,  who  suddenly  crossed  the  Ruo 
and  seized  Chiromo.  The  Makololo  withdrew  before  him,  and  he  destroyed 
their  village  and  erected  very  strong  fortifications  on  the  small  spit  of  land, 

1  Arriving  there  December  25,  1889. 


which   is  a   peninsula,  with   the   Shire  on   the   one   side  and   the   Ruo  on    the 

The  Portuguese  forces  then  marched  up  both  banks  of  the  Shire,  driving 
Mlauri  before  them.  Prior  to  his  first  defeat  at  the  hands  of  the  Portuguese 
Mlauri  had  concluded  a  treaty  with  Mr.  Buchanan,  but  as  the  latter  had 
forbidden  him  to  fight  with  the  Portuguese,  he  was  not  encouraged,  after  his 
defeat,  to  take  refuge  at  Blantyre,  whither  all  the  other  Makololo  chiefs 
proceeded.  The  Portuguese  forces  advanced  as  far  as  Katunga,  and  were 
making  preparations  to  occupy  Blantyre,  when  the  English  Ultimatum  to 
Portugal  brought  matters  to  a  standstill.  I  have  always  believed  that  the 
Portuguese  Government  in  Lisbon  neither  sanctioned  nor  approved  this  forcible 
entry  into  the  district  in  dispute  between  England  and  Portugal,  and  that  they 
even  transmitted  instructions  to  Major  Serpa  Pinto  and  others  not  to  cross  the 
Ruo,  if  by  so  doing  any  conflict  was  likely  to  arise  with  British  interests  ;  but 
that  their  representative  at  Mozambique  desired  a  bolder  policy  and  acted  far 
beyond  his  instructions,  and  even  in  defiance  of  them  :  for  at  the  time  when  the 
Portuguese  Government  in  Lisbon  had  assured  Lord  Salisbury  that  Major 
Serpa  Pinto  had  left  "for  Mozambique,  and  that  the  expedition  would  proceed 
no  farther  in  the  direction  of  the  Shire  Highlands,  the  Portuguese  Governor- 
General  at  Mozambique  issued  an  official  gazette  announcing  that  the  Shire 
province  had  been  annexed  to  the  Portuguese  dominions,  and  appointed  Lieut. 
Coutinho  "Governor  of  the  Shire."  These  acts  were  annulled  by  the  Portuguese 
Government  after  they  were  brought  to  their  knowledge  by  the  Ultimatum,  and 
the  Portuguese  forces  were  withdrawn  to  the  Portuguese  side  of  the  Ruo, 
though  they  continued  to  exercise  a  strict  control  over  the  Shire  navigation^ 
frequently  stopping  the  British  steamers  and  boats.  At  the  same  time,  I  think 
it  is  only  right,  in  historical  justice  to  Portugal,  to  make  it  clear  that  although 
this  struggle  for  the  possession  of  Nyasaland  was  a  sufficiently  acute  question 
to  the  Portuguese,  and  one  in  which  they  were  passionately  interested,  no  such 
struggle  for  priority  of  rights  was  conducted  with  more  fairness  and  even 
chivalry.  For  instance,  had  Major  Serpa  Pinto  been  an  unscrupulous  man  he 
would  have,  on  some  pretext  or  another,  stopped  my  small  expedition,  and 
whilst  detaining  me  on  this  pretext,  have  marched  ahead  and  arbitrarily  seized 
the  country,  before  anything  could  be  done  to  preserve  British  interests.  Again, 
even  after  the  Portuguese  had  advanced  as  far  as  Katunga,  and  occupied  both 
banks  of  the  Shire  river,  between  that  place  and  Chiromo,  they  placed  no 
obstacle  in  the  way  of  my  return.  On  the  contrary,  the  following  incident 
occurred  between  myself  and  Lieut.  Coutinho,  who  had  been  appointed 
"  Governor  of  the  Shire."  When  I  passed  down  that  river  on  my  return  from 
Tanganyika  my  boat  was  stopped  by  his  orders  and  drawn  into  the  bank  by  a 
Portuguese  sergeant.  I  was,  at  first,  annoyed  at  what  seemed  to  be  an  attempt 
to  arrest  my  progress  towards  the  coast,  but  fortunately,  before  I  could  give 
expression  to  my  angry  sentiments,  Lieut.  Coutinho  had  met  me  on  the  bank, 
and,  raising  his  hat,  said,  "  I  have  taken  the  liberty  of  stopping  you  so  that  you 
might  not  miss  your  mail-bags  which  are  here  awaiting  you.  As  you  have  had 

1  Chiromo^  means  "a  big  lip."  from  the  word  -romo,  or  -lomo,  which  in  so  many  Bantu  languages 
means  ''a  lip."  The  chi-  or  ki-  prefix  in  Chi-nyanja  has  the  effect  of  an  augmentative.  Mromo  means 
'  a  hp  :  "Chiromo"  means  "a  big  lip/'  This  chi-  prefix,  which  becomes  si-  in  Zulu,  has  in  that 
language  the  effect  of  a  diminutive,  consequently  "  Silomo,"  the  Zulu  name  given  to  a  well-known 
member  of  Parliament  by  the  Swazi  Envoys,  means  "  a  little  lip,"  but  is  otherwise  identical  in  origin  with 
the  name  of  this  place  in  British  Central  Africa,  for  a  year  such  a  bone  of  contention  between  Knglaml 
and  Portugal. 


a  long  and  arduous  journey  in  the  interior,  and  are  also,  I  hear,  short  of 
provisions,  I  have  taken  the  liberty  of  making  up  this  small  supply  for  your 
use  on  your  way  to  Quelimane."  Therewith  he  handed  into  the  boat  two 
hampers,  which  contained  not  only  a  supply  of  champagne  and  other  wines, 
but  all  sorts  of  little  luxuries  very  grateful  to  the  jaded  palate  of  a  travel-weary 
man.  Then,  giving  me  a  letter  to  ensure  my  not  being  stopped  on  my  way  to 
Quelimane,  he  bade  me  farewell.  Upon  my  expressing  my  thanks  very  warmly, 
he  said,  "  We  are  both  doing  our  best  for  our  respective  countries,  and  however 
much  our  political  views  may  differ  that  is  no  reason  why  one  white  man  should 
quarrel  with  another  in  Central  Africa."  This  was  indeed  the  keynote  of  the 
Portuguese  demeanour  towards  me,  then  and  thenceforth,  and  I  feel  it  only  just 
to  place  these  facts  on  record,  for  I  have  been  often  vexed  at  the  unjust 
aspersions  which  have  been  cast  upon  the  Portuguese  in  the  British  Press. 

On  my  way  up  the  Shire  to  Blantyre  I  had  encountered  Mr.  Alfred 
Sharpe,  who  was  travelling  up  the  river  in  his  own  boat.  Knowing  that  a  great 
deal  of  ground  would  have  to  be  covered  in  treaty-making,  and  that  I  should  be 
unable  to  reach  all  parts  of  British  Central  Africa  myself,  I  desired  to  engage 
some  one  who  might  suitably  represent  me  in  such  portions  of  this  territory 
as  lay  outside  my  line  of  route,  especially  in  Central  Zambezia  and  the  countries 
between  Nyasaland  and  the  Barutse.  The  latter  country  had  been  placed  under 
the  British  flag  by  Mr.  Rhodes's  agents  acting  for  the  Chartered  Company. 

I  had  heard  much  of  Mr.  Alfred  Sharpe  from  persons  acquainted  with 
Xyasaland.  He  had  taken  a  leading  part  in  the  war  between  the  Arabs 
and  the  Lakes  Company,  in  which  war  he  had  been  wounded.  Mr.  Sharpe, 
who  had  been  trained  for  the  law,  had  held  a  Colonial  appointment  in  Fiji  for 
some  years,  but  when  this  appointment,  in  common  with  many  others,  was 
abolished  at  a  time  when  the  state  of  Fiji  finances  compelled  severe  retrench- 
ments, he  had  been  offered  a  District  Commissionership  on  the  Gold  Coast. 
For  a  time,  however,  he  preferred  to  travel  and  hunt  in  Central  Africa.  In 
1890  Mr.  Sharpe  accepted  employment  under  the  British  South  Africa 
Company,  in  whose  service  he  remained  about  a  year,  securing  for  them  many 
important  concessions  north  of  the  Zambezi.  Early  in  1891  he  was  appointed 
H.M.  Vice-Consul  in  British  Central  Africa.1  It  had  been  arranged  between 
Mr.  Sharpe  and  myself,  before  I  quitted  Blantyre  for  the  north,  that  he  should 
proceed  due  westward  to  beyond  the  Portuguese  dominions  at  Zumbo,  and 
secure  to  the  British  the  Central  Zambezi,  and  that  afterwards  he  should  make 
treaties  along  the  Luangwa  River  and,  northwards,  to  Lake  Mweru  and  Lake 
Tanganyika.  All  this  he  successfully  accomplished.  After  passing  into  the 
service  of  the  British  South  Africa  Company  he  made  an  expedition  to 
Katunga,  but  did  not  succeed  in  making  a  treaty,  as  the  chief,  Msiri,  though 
expressing  a  desire  to  remain  on  friendly  terms  with  all  white  men,  refused  to 
become  subservient  to  any  particular  European  Nation.  Subsequently  Msiri 
similarly  refused  to  make  a  treaty  with  Captain  Stair's  expedition,  which  repre- 
sented the  Congo  Free  State,  and  having  assumed  a  hostile  demeanour  towards 
the  expedition  he  was  shot  by  the  late  Captain  Bodson,  who  himself  was  killed 
immediately  afterwards  by  Msiri's  followers.  His  country  was  afterwards 
annexed  to  the  Congo  Free  State.2 

1  Consul  in  1894  ;  Deputy  Commissioner  in  1896. 

-  Msiri  docs  not  deserve  much  pity.  He  was  a  stranger  to  the  country  (if  Katunga,  being  merely 
a  Mnyamwezi  slave  trader  who  by  the  aid  of  an  armed  rabble  of  Wanyamwezi  freebooters  and  coaM  Arab- 
had  carved  out  a  kingdom  for  himself  in  South  Central  Africa.  lie  was  a  persistent  slave  raider  and  \va.- 
hated  by  the  people  over  whom  he  ruled.  These  latter  rallied  to  the  Belgian  authorities  after  Msiri's  death. 


Mr.  Joseph  Thomson  in  1890  came  out  with  Mr.  J.  A.  Grant,  on  behalf  of 
the  British  South  Africa  Company,  and  supplemented  Mr.  Sharpe's  work  by 
securing  further  treaties  and  concessions  in  the  central  region  of  British  Central 
Africa,  but  the  main  credit  of  having  secured  all  this  portion  of  our  new 
dependency  to  the  British  Flag  emphatically  lies  with  Mr.  Sharpe,  who 
traversed  the  country  with  a  following  scarcely  exceeding  fifteen  to  twenty 
men,  and,  by  the  weight  of  his  personal  influence  only,  secured  these  countries 
to  British  interests,  besides  adding  a  great  deal  to  our  geographical  knowledge.1 

In  my  journey  from  Blantyre  to  Lake  Nyasa  along  the  Upper  Shire,  my 
progress  was  beset  with  great  difficulties  owing  to  the  civil  war  which  was 
raging  between  the  Yao  chiefs,  Mponda  and  Msamara. 

My  assistant,  Mr.  Nicoll,  took  charge  of  that  portion  of  the  expedition 
which  travelled  by  water,  whilst  I  marched  overland.  As  we  neared  the  south 
end  of  the  lake  we  were  stopped  by  Msamara's  forces  in  the  belief  that  we 
were  about  to  render  assistance  to  Mponda.  I  managed,  however,  to  pacify 
Msamara  by  making  a  treaty  of  friendship  with  him,  and  months  afterwards  I 
succeeded  in  patching  up  a  peace  between  him  and  Mponda. 

Mponda's  reception  of  us  was  rather  doubtful.  He  denied  having  concluded 
any  treaty  with  the  Portuguese,  but  was  averse  to  concluding  even  a  treaty 
of  friendship  with  Great  Britain,  at  any  rate  without  the  sanction  of  the  Sultan 
of  Zanzibar  s  representative  on  the  lake — the  Jumbe  at  Kotakota.  Mponda 
was  a  very  repellent  type  of  Yao  robber,  alternately  cringing  and  insolent. 
Had  not  the  Universities  Mission  steamer  arrived  by  good  chance  to  give  me  a 
passage  to  Likoma  (where  I  was  to  see  Bishop  Smythies)  I  might  have 
been  robbed  and  murdered  by  Mponda.  As  it  was  my  retreat  to  the  Mission 
steamer  was  very  like  a  flight.  However,  I  got  away  safely  with  all  my  goods 
and  proceeded  to  the  Island  of  Likoma.  My  object  in  seeing  Bishop  Smythies 
was  to  obtain  the  use  of  the  Charles  Janson  for  a  period,  in  order  to  enable  me 
to  bring  about  peace  with  the  Arabs.  At  that  time  the  Lakes  Company  had 
only  one  steamer  plying  on  the  lake,  the  little  Ilala — which  besides  being 
much  out  of  repair,  was  too  small  for  the  conveyance  of  even  my  limited 
expedition.  The  Bishop  was  good  enough  to  place  his  steamer  at  my  disposal, 
for  though  the  Universities  Mission  then  and  always  declared  its  intention 
of  remaining  absolutely  neutral  in  political  matters,  they  were  anxious  to  do 
all  in  their  power  to  assist  me  to  bring  about  peace  between  the  Lakes 
Company  and  the  Arabs. 

We  then  crossed  to  Bandawe  on  the  west  side  of  the  lake.  From  this  place 
Mr.  Nicoll  proceeded  direct  to  Karonga  in  the  Ilala,  bearing  letters  from  me  to 
the  North  Nyasa  Arabs.  I  remained  some  days  at  Bandawe,  concluding 
treaties  with  the  Atonga  chiefs.  Then  the  Charles  Janson  called  in  and  took  me 
down  to  a  point  fifteen  miles  distant  from  Jumbe's  capital  at  Kotakota,  where 
its  commander  landed  my  expedition  on  the  lake  shore.  His  reasons  for  not 
proceeding  to  Kotakota  arose  from  two  considerations.  One  was  that  Jumbe, 
after  all,  was  an  Arab  and  might  make  common  cause  with  the  north-end 
Arabs  and  seize  the  steamer.  The  second  was  that  at  that  time  the  harbour 
at  Kotakota  was  unsurveyed  and  was  not  thought  to  be  safe  for  steamers 
of  considerable  draught.  I  must  admit  that  I  landed  with  Ali  Kiongwe,  my 

1  The  late  Mr.  Joseph  Thomson's  claims  to  fame  and  to  our  gratitude  are  so  numerous  that  it  is  no 
loss  to  him  to  spare  a  few  laurel  leaves  to  Mr.  Sharpe.  The  treaty  which  Mr.  Thomson  made  with 
the  Emperor  of  Sakatu  on  behalf  of  the  Royal  Niger  Company,  was  alone  a  transcendent  benefit  to 
British  interests  never  to  be  forgotten. 


headman,  and  my  small  expedition  of  fifteen  Makua  in  some  considerable 
trepidation.  The  Lakes  Company  half  feared  that  Jumbe  was  going  to  join 
the  Arab  movement  at  the  north  end.  At  this  time,  too,  all  Arabs  in  Central 
Africa  were  much  incensed  against  Europeans  by  their  quarrels  with  the 
Germans  and  the  Belgians.  The  way  in  which  they  would  receive  me,  there- 
fore, was  very  doubtful.  Makanjira  on  the  opposite  coast  had  recently  stripped 
and  flogged  a  British  Consul  and  held  him  up  to  ransom,  and  no  measures  had 
been  taken  to  avenge  this  insult.  After  landing  near  the  mouth  of  the  Bua 
river  I  sent  Ali  Kiongwe  ahead  to  interview  Jumbe  and  to  deliver  to  him  the 
letters  that  I  had  brought  from  the  Sultan  of  Zanzibar.  On  my  journey  down 
the  east  coast  of  Africa  I  had  stopped  at  Zanzibar,  and  had  conferred  with  the 
late  Sir  Gerald  Portal,  then  Acting  Consul-General  at  that  place,  on  the  subject 


OfTSKIRTS    OF    K(  >TAK<">TA 

of  my  mission  to  Lake  Nyasa.  Mr.  Portal  (as  he  then  was)  had  interested 
himself  very  much  in  this  undertaking  to  make  peace  with  the  Arabs,  and 
urged  the  Sultan  Khalifa  bin  Said  (whose  own  envoy  previously  dispatched 
had  been  unsuccessful  in  bringing  the  Arabs  to  reason;  to  provide  me  with 
the  most  authoritative  letters  to  his  representatives  on  Lake  Xyasa,  notably  to 
the  Jumbe  of  Kotakota,  who  was  the  Sultan's  ostensible  wall,  or  representative. 
The  Sultan  Khalifa  willingly  gave  these  letters,  which  were  most  potent  in 
effecting  the  subsequent  results. 

Some  hours  after  Ali  Kiongwe  had  started  for  Kotakota,  a  Swahili  soldier 
of  Jumbe's  came  rushing  down  into  our  camp,  dropped  on  one  knee  and  seized 
me  by  the  leg,  as  an  act  of  homage.  He  then  said,  "  Master,  do  not  be  alarmed, 
Jumbe  sends  us  to  greet  the  representative  of  the  great  Queen  and  of  the 
Suyyicl  of  Zanzibar,  and  he  has  told  us  to  fire  a  salute  of  guns  in  your  honour.'1 
Shortly  afterwards  a  tremendous  fusilade  commenced,  much  to  the  alarm  of  nix- 
porters,  Who  had  not  understood  the  purport  of  Jumbe's  message.  \Ve  then 
started  for  Kotakota,  Jumbe's  men  insisting  on  carrying  me  in  a  machilla.1 
Jumbe  was  waiting  to  receive  me  as  I  entered  the  town.  A  large  house 
and  compound  was  set  aside  for  my  use.  Oxen  were  killed  for  myself  and 

1   Machilla  is  a  Portuguese  word  (Latin  Manilla],  which  is  universally  applied  in  Eastern  Afrir 
hammock  or  chair  slung  on  a  pole  and  carried  by  porters. 



my  men,  and  quantities  of  provisions  of  all  kinds  were  sent  in  for  our 
sustenance.  After  a  day's  rest  I  had  a  long  conversation  with  Jumbe,  to 
whom  I  exposed  frankly  the  whole  political  situation.  As  soon  as  I  had 
quitted  the  Shire  River  I  had  felt  free  to  take  open  political  action,  as 
after  my  stay  in  Lisbon  there  had  been  a  tacit  understanding  between 
the  Portuguese  and  ourselves  that  although  the  Shire  province  and  a  portion 
of  the  east  coast  of  Lake  Nyasa  were  territories  not  to  be  seized  by  either 
Power  without  arrangement,  the  west  coast  of  Lake  Xyasa  was  admittedly 

open  to  British  enterprise.  I  therefore 
••  •'  advised  Jumbe,  who  was  now  practi- 
cally recognised  by  the  Sultan  of 
Zanzibar  as  an  independent  Prince, 
to  place  his  country  under  British 
protection,  and  to  mobilise  a  sufficient 
number  of  his  men  to  compel  the 
North  Xyasa  Arabs  to  agree  to  make 
terrn^  of  peace  ;  and  in  the  event  of 
their  not  so  agreeing  to  place  this 
force  at  my  disposal  for  their  coercion. 
Jumbe,  in  return  for  all  these  services, 
was  to  receive  a  subsidy  of  ^200  per 
annum.  The  slave  trade  was  to  be 
declared  at  an  end  in  his  dominions. 
After  one  day's  deliberation  with  his 
head  men,  Jumbe  assented  to  my 
propositions.  Treaties  and  agreements 
were  signed,  the  British  flag  was 
hoisted,  and  the  first  portion  of  British 
Central  Africa  was  secured.  I  should 
then  have  been  picked  up  by  the 
Ilala  and  conveyed  to  the  north,  but 
unfortunately  the  Ilala,  unknown  to 
me,  had  been  wrecked  in  a  storm, 
and  she  did  not  resume  her  voyages 
on  the  lake  for  several  years  after- 
wards. Meantime  I  waited  on  and 
on  at  Jumbe's.  treated  by  that  chief 
with  unwearied  hospitality,  though  I 
used  up  almost  all  his  stock  of  candles, 
and  consumed  all  his  supplies  of  tinned 
fruits.  The  only  thing  I  could  offer 
him  in  return  for  all  his  hospitality 
was  a  bottle  of  yellow  Chartreuse. 
Jumbe  was  a  very  strict  Muhammadan, 

especially  on  the  subject  of  alcohol,  but  he  suffered  much  from  asthma.  lie 
appealed  to  me  repeated!)-  for  medicine,  and  as  I  had  no  drugs  with  me  I 
was  in  despair,  until  it  occurred  to  me  that  a  small  glass  of  Chartreuse  might 
at  any  rate  distract  his  thoughts  if  it  did  not  remedy  the  asthma.  I  gave 
him  a  taste  of  what  he  called  "the  golden  water."'  He  at  once  declared 
himself  cured,  and  the  least  I  could  do  was  to  hand  him  the  entire  bottle, 
which  he  spent.  I  believe,  several  months  in  consuming.  It  was  the  one 

THE    I. A  IK     l.\\\  AKAI.I    >l   IM 

JUMBE   OF    KOTAKOTA,    \\ALI    OK    H.H.    THE   SULTAN    OK 


thing,  he  told  me  afterwards,  that   he  felt  obliged  to  deny  to  his  head   \vife 
"  the  lady  Siena."1 

At  last  my  detention  was  becoming  a  little  tedious,  and  I  was  very  anxious 
about  the  missing  steamer.  To  soothe  my  anxiety,  Jumbe  sent  for  his 
necromancer,  \vho  was  to  ascertain,  by  means  of  "  raml "  (sand),  what  the 


immediate    future    had    in   store    for    me    as    regards    steamer   communication. 

necromancer    informed   us    that   the    small   steamer    (the    //*/,,)    had    run 

aground  on  the  rocks,  but  the  "Bishop's  steamer""  would  shortly  call  for  me 

Ihis    information    turned    out    to    be    perfectly    correct,    and    no    doubt    the 

romancer  had  other  sources  of   knowledge  than   those  which  were  occult. 

!  °?  lh;L"  hi,bi  njkubwa,"  ("great  lady  ")  as  she  was  commonly  called 
steamer"  Ja"S°"  "^  '°  bt>  alwa>'S  called   h>'  the   Arabs'    "  I'tima-aLAskaf,"   'he    "Bishop's 


His  news  \vus  true,  for  eventually  the  Charles  Janson,  with  Archdeacon  Maples 
on  board,  came  to  fetch  me  and  convey  me  to  Karonga. 

I  found  on  arrival  here  that  Mr.  Nicoll  had  concluded  in  my  name  a 
truce  with  the  Arabs,  and  that  the  ground  was  prepared  for  negotiation. 
I  may  briefly  relate  that  as  the  Arabs  were  very  distrustful,  I  arranged  t;> 
meet  them  in  the  bush  midway  between  their  nearest  stockade  and  Karonga, 
stipulating  that  they  should  only  be  accompanied  by  a  small  escort,  and  that 
I  would  only  bring  with  me  the  same  number  of  men.  I  was  accompanied 
by  Mr.  Xicoll.  Mr.  Monteith  Fotheringham,  and  a  few  armed  Atonga.  Mlozi, 
Kopakopa,  Bwana  'Omari,  Msalemu,  and  other  Arabs,  duly  met  me  at  the 
point  agreed  upon.  After  a  brief  discussion  I  read  out  to  them  the  terms  of 
the  treaty  which  I  proposed,  and  told  them  that  if  they  refused  it  we  should 
prosecute  the  war  to  the  bitter  end  until  not  one  of  them  was  left  in  the 
country.  They  accepted  these  terms  almost  without  deliberation  and  the 
treaty  was  forthwith  signed,  and  peace  was  declared. 

A  bull  was  killed  as  a  sacrifice,  and  the  flesh  was  distributed  amongst  our 
men  and  the  men  who  had  accompanied  the  Arabs.  On  the  following  day 
the  British  flag  was  run  up  at  Karonga,  and  the  native  chiefs  from  the 
surrounding  districts  came  in  and  signed  treaties,  accepting  British  protection. 
On  the  following  day  the  Arabs  paid 'us  a  return  visit  at  Karonga,  signed 
treaties  of  protection  and  accepted  the  British  flag.  Mr.  Crawshay1  then 
arrived  from  Deep  Bay  with  a  large  number  of  Wahenga  chiefs  in  canoes, 
who  signed  treaties  of  protection.  Thus  protection  treaties  had  now  been 
concluded  between  Jumbe's  territory  on  the  south-west  of  Lake  Nyasa,  and 
the  extreme  north-east  corner  of  the  lake. 

I  was  at  this  time  much  exercised  about  the  want  of  a  secure  harbour  at  the 
north  end  of  Lake  Xyasa.  Karonga  was  an  open  roadstead,  most  dangerous 
for  landing,  for  it  must  always  be  remembered  that  Lake  Nyasa  is  as  rough 
at  times  as  the  British  Channel,  with  heavy  breakers  on  unprotected  shores. 
The  existence  of  a  secure  harbour  in  Kambwe  lagoon,  3^  miles  to  the  north 
of  Karonga,  had  not  then  been  made  known,  or  it  may  be  that  owing  to 
various  circumstances  it  did  not  then  exist  as  a  harbour  which  vessels  of 
considerable  draught  could  enter.  After  examining  carefully  the  north  coast 
of  Lake  Xyasa,  I  decided  to  secure  the  harbour  of  Parumbira,  at  the 
extreme  northernmost  corner  of  the  lake,  for  the  African  Lakes  Company. 
I  accordingly  bought  the  land  for  them,  and  placed  an  agent  there  to  build 
and  occupy.  Subsequently,  however,  by  the  Anglo-German  Agreement  of 
1890,  the  boundary  between  the  two  European  Powers  was  drawn  at  the 
River  Songwe,  and  Parumbira  fell  to  Germany.  It  is  now  the  headquarters 
of  the  German  Government,  on  Lake  Xyasa,  and  has  been  rechristened 

Only  one  week  was  occupied  at  Karonga  in  making  peace  with  the  Arabs  ; 
securing  Xorth  Xyasa  by  treaty  ;  choosing  this  harbour  for  the  African  Lakes 
Company;  and  arranging  my  caravan  for  Lake  Tanganyika.  But  the  reason 

1  Mr.  Crawshay,  originally  a  lieutenant  in  the  Inniskilling  Dragoons,  had  come  out  to  British  Central 
Africa  to  shoot  big  game,  and  had  joined  the  Lakes  Company's  forces  as  a  volunteer  in  the  war  against 
the  AraKs.  After  Captain  Lugard  had  captured  Deep  Bay,  an  important  harbour  on  the  north-west  coast 
of  Lake  Xyasa.  u«ed  by  the  Arabs  as  the  end  of  a  ferry  to  the  east  side  of  the  Lake,  Mr.  Crawshay  for 
some  months  garrisontd  this  place  as  a  fort,  and  kept  the  Arabs  out  of  Deep  Bay.  He  acquired  a 
considerable  influence  amongst  the  Wahenga,  and  was  of  much  service  to  me  in  the  early  days  of  the 
Protectorate.  Until  quite  recently  he  was  Vice-Consul  for  the  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  but  retired  from  this 
appointment  on  account  of  ill-health. 


why  it  was  possible  to  dispatch  such  a  mass  of  important  business  in  seven 
days,  was  that  I  was  most  ably  seconded  by  Mr.  J.  L.  Xicoll.  My  having 
secured  this  gentleman  at  Quelimane  as  my  second  in  command  really  did 
more  than  anything  else  to  secure  the  complete  success  to  my  mission.  \Yc 
started  for  Tanganyika  on  the  loth  of  November,  1889.  To  obtain  as 
much  territory  for  England  as  possible  I  journeyed  at  first  in  a  northerly 
direction,  and  penetrated  as  far  to  the  north-east  as  the  southern  shores 
of  Lake  Rukwa,  a  salt  lake  of  considerable  size.  Mr.  Nicoll,  Dr.  Kerr  Cross 
(who  had  joined  us)  and  myself,  were  the  first  Europeans  to  discover 
the  southern  end  of  this  lake.  The  country  all  round  Rukwa,  however,  was 
so  desolate  and  inhabited  by  such  a  reprehensible  set  of  slave  raiders,  that 
I  concluded  no  treaties  with  them,  and  was  thankful  to  get  my  expedition 
out  of  their  clutches  without  loss  of  goods  or  lives.  Returning  to  the 
beautiful  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  we  found  ourselves  again  among  people 


who  were  warm  friends  of  the  British,  and  who  everywhere  concluded  treaties 
with  expressions  of  positive  enthusiasm.  The  A-mambwe,  especially,  had  come 
to  look  upon  the  British  as  their  champions  against  the  Arab  slave  traders, 
and  were  almost  frantic  in  their  expressions  of  friendship.  Nevertheless 
the  A-mambwe  were  very  quarrelsome  amongst  themselves,  and  when  I 
reached  the  London  Missionary  Society's  station  at  Fwambo,  about  thirty 
miles  from  the  south  end  of  Lake  Tanganyika,  I  found  the  Missionaries 
were  in  a  serious  fix.  In  the  first  place  they  had  been  for  more  than  a  year 
cut  off  from  supplies  and  letters  and  were  much  delighted  to  get  their  mails 
and  such  supplies  as  I  could  bring  them,  but  they  were  still  more  seriously 
embarrassed  because  two  chiefs  were  fighting  one  another,  and  their  servants 
had  left  them  to  join  the  respective  sides  to  which  they  belonged.  A 
little  good-humoured  argument,  however,  secured  peace  between  these  rival 
chieftains,  who  in  turn  concluded  treaties  with  us  ;  and  I  reached  the  south 
end  of  Tanganyika  with  no  further  difficulty  except  occasional  scares  amongst 
my  porters  caused  by  the  dread  of  Awemba  raiders.  At  the  south  end  of 
Tanganyika  I  was  greeted  by  Mr.  A.  J.  Svvann,  who  was  the  master  of  the 
London  Missionary  Society's  steamer  on  that  lake.  Mr.  Swann  threw  himself 
heart  and  soul  into  assisting  me  in  my  projects.  Unfortunately  the  Mission 


steamer  was  laid  up  for   repairs,  but  Mr.  Swann  placed  their  sailing  boat  at 
my  disposal.     By  means  of  this  boat  I  visited  all  the  chiefs  on  the  south  end 
of  I  ake   Tanganyika,    made   treaties   with   them,  and    further   penetrated 
the  settlements   of  Kabunda,  an    Arab   trader,   who   had   almost   constituted 
himself    a    native    chief.       It    was    important    in    those    days    to    conciliate 
Kabunda    who   had    remained    neutral    in    the   war   between    the    Arabs    and 
I  akes  Company,  and  who  had  a  great  influence  over  the  native  chiefs. 
was  really  a  Baluch  in   origin,  not  an  Arab,  and  considered  himself  in  some 
respects  a  British  subject.      He   entertained   Mr.   Swann   and   myself  with  the 
greatest  hospitality,  and  assisted  us  to  enter  into  treaties  with  the  chiefs  of 
Ttawa   in  the  direction  of  Lake  Mweru.     This  being  the  limit,  of  the  journey 
which   I   had   to  perform   (Mr.   Sharpe  was   working  for  me  to  the   west) 
decided   to  return   at  once  to  the  Shire  Highlands,  as  rumours  had  reached 
me  of  war  with  the  Portuguese.      It  was  a  great  disappointment   for  me  to 
turn  back  at  this  juncture,  as  I  desired  to  go  to  the  north  end  of  Tanganyika 
and  secure  for  England  the  north  end  of  that  lake,1  but  I  felt  it  to  be  my 
duty  to  <ret  through  to  the  coast  and  send  a  report  of  the  work  already  done; 
so    I    reluctantly   postponed   the    completion    of  a   scheme,   which    was,   as    1 
hoped   to  <nve  us  continuous  communication  between  Cape  Town  and  Cairo, 
either 'over  international  waterways  or  along  British  territory.     On  my  return 
journey    in    which    no    unpleasant    incident    occurred,   I    found    Mponda,   the 
Yao  chief  at  the  south  end   of   Lake   Nyasa,  in  a  more   reasonable  frame  o 
mind    and  concluded  a  treaty  with  him.     I   reached   Mozambique  at  the  end 
of  January    1890,  telegraphed   the   result  of   my   work   to   the  Foreign  O 
and    subsequently    proceeded    to    Zanzibar    to    make    arrangements    for    the 
conclusion  of  treaties  at  the   north  end   of  Tanganyika.      Not  being  able   to 
return  thither  myself,  as  my  health  was  failing,  I  entrusted  the  task  to  Mr. 
A    T    Swann    and  sent  up  to  him  an  expedition  under  the  leadership  of  my 
invaluable    Swahili    headman,    Ali-Kiongwe.      Mr.    Swann's    expedition    was 
entirely  successful.     Treaties  were  made  and  the  British  flag  was  planted  at 
the    extreme    north    end    of  Lake    Tanganyika.     Unfortunately,  however    his 
treaties  arrived  too  late  to  be  taken  into  consideration  at  the  conclusion  of  the 
An<Tlo-German  Convention  ;  but   Lord   Salisbury  managed  to  secure  by  that 
Convention  facilities  for  the  crossing  of  German  territory  between  Tanganyika 
-ind  Uganda,  which  will  be  very  important  to  us  in  future  developments. 

In  forwarding  my  report  to  the  Foreign  Office  I  proposed  the  term  "British 
Central  Africa"  for  the  territories  just  brought  under  British  influence.  Soc 
•ifter  my  return  to  England  in  the  early  summer  of  1890  the  Anglo-German 
Convention  was  signed,  which,  among  other  important  gams  to  Great 
Britain  set  a  seal  on  the  work  which  the  British  South  Africa  Company, 
Sharpe'  Nicoll,  Swann,  Fotheringham,  Buchanan  and  I  had  done.  This  was 
followed  by  an  abortive  Convention  with  Portugal  which,  however,  proved  to 
be  the  basis  of  a  definite  understanding  concluded  with  that  Power  in  1891. 
In  the  spring  of  1891  the  British  Protectorate  over  the  countries  adjoimn 
I  -ike  Xyasa  was  proclaimed,  and  by  the  Conventions  with  Germany  and 
Portugal,  the  remainder  of  British  Central  Africa  was  declared  to  be  an 
exclusively  British  sphere  of  influence. 

After  the  conclusion  of  the  Anglo-German  Convention  Her  Majesty ^con- 
ferred on    Mr.  John   Buchanan   a  C.M.G.,  and  on   myself  a  C.B.      Mr.  W.  A. 
Churchill,  who,  during  my  absence  in  the  interior,  had  done  excellent  woi 
1  \Viih  land  hunger  I'appetit  vienl  en  inan^ant. 


at  Mozambique,  when  matters  had  been  in  a  most  critical  state  with  Portugal, 
was  promoted  to  be  Her  Majesty's  Vice-Consul  ;  Mr.  Alfred  Sharpe  and  Mr. 
Alexander  Carnegie  Ross1  (who  had  been  British  Vice-Consul  at  Quelimane) 
were  equally  made  Commissioned  Vice-Consuls  ;  Mr.  J.  L.  Nicoll  (who  had 
remained  a  year  at  Tanganyika  to  strengthen  the  British  position  at  the  south 
end  of  that  lake)  was  given  an  important  post  in  the  Administration  of  the 
new  Protectorate  ;  Mr.  John  Buchanan,  when  he  ceased  to  be  Acting  Consul, 
was  made  a  Vice-Consul  ;  Mr.  Crawshay,  Mr.  Swann,  and  Mr.  Belcher  (the 
Commander  of  the  Universities  Mission  steamer  on  Lake  Nyasa)2  all  subse- 
quently joined  the  Administration  of  the  British  Central  Africa  Protectorate. 
Mr.  Monteith  Fotheringham,  the  agent  of  the  Lakes  Company  at  Karonga, 
\\h<>  had  rendered  me  very  great  services,  preferred,  however,  to  remain  in  the 
employment  of  the  African  Lakes  Company,  as  he  was  subsequently  offered 
the  important  post  of  manager  at  Mandala. 

In  the  autumn  of  1890  Her  Majesty's  Government  began  to  consider  the 
administration  of  these  new  territories.  It  was  finally  decided  to  confine  the 
actual  Protectorate  to  the  regions  adjacent  to  Lake  Nyasa  and  the  River  Shire, 
and  to  administer  that  Protectorate  directly  by  a  Commissioner  under  the 
Imperial  Government,  and  further  to  place  all  the  rest  of  the  Sphere  of 
Influence,  north  of  the  Zambezi,  under  the  Charter  of  the  British  South  Africa 
Company,  subject  of  course  to  certain  conditions.  I  was  appointed  to  be 
Commissioner  and  Consul-General  to  administer  the  Protectorate,  and  was 
chosen  by  the  British  South  Africa  Company  as  their  Administrator  north  of 
the  Zambezi,  an  unpaid  post  which  I  held  for  nearly  five  years.3 

By  an  arrangement  between  the  Chartered  Company  and  Her  Majesty's 
Government,  the  former  contributed  annually  for  a  certain  number  of  years 
the  sum  of  ^"10,000  per  annum,  for  the  maintenance  of  a  police  force  to  be 
used  by  me  indifferently  in  the  Protectorate  and  in  the  Company's  Sphere. 
The  Company  also  met  the  cost  of  administering  its  own  Sphere  of  Influence 
north  of  the  Zambezi,  and  further  agreed  to  provide  us,  by  arrangement  with 
the  African  Lakes  Company,  with  the  free  use  of  that  Company's  boats  and 

On  my  return  to  British  Central  Africa  as  Commissioner  and  Consul- 
General  and  Administrator  for  the  British  South  Africa  Company's  territories 
to  the  north  of  the  Zambezi,  I  appointed  to  my  staff  Lieut.,  now  Captain,  B.  L. 
Sclater,  R.E.  (who  took  with  him  three  non-commissioned  officers  of  the  Royal 
Kngineers) ;  Mr.  Alexander  Whyte,  F.z.s.  (as  a  practical  Botanist  and  Natural 
History  Collector);  and,  with  the  consent  of  the  Indian  Government,  engaged 

1   Now  II.  M.  Consul  at  Beira. 

'-'  Now  H.M.  Vice-Consul  at  Quelimane. 

I  preferred  to  receive  no  pay  from  the  Company,  so  that  I  might  not  in  any  way  compromise  my 
position  as  an  Imperial  Officer. 

4  Roughly  speaking  the  Company  thus  pledged  itself  to  spend  about  ,£17,500  a  year  on  British 
Central  Africa.  For  the  first  two  years,  however,  the  average  amount  spent  per  annum  did  not  reach 
this  sum,  but  in  the  third  year  it  was  deemed  advisable  that  I  should  come  to  some  definite  agreement 
\\iih  the  Company  in  regard  to  their  annual  contribution,  which  was  then  fixed  at  .£17,500.  In  addition 
to  this  allowance  Mr.  Rhodes  agreed  to  provide  as  much  as ,£10,000  for  the  special  purpose  of  conquering 
the  chief  Makanjira,  who  persistently  raided  the  south-eastern  portion  of  our  territories.  Of  this  sum  a 
ittk-  over  £4,000  was  actually  spent.  In  1894  this  arrangement  came  to  an  end.  At  the  beginning  ot 
the  financial  year  1895,  the  Company  ceased  to  provide  any  contribution  whatever  towards  the  adminis- 
tration of  the  Protectorate,  and  the  Imperial  Government  returned  to  them  a  proportion  of  the  amounts 
already  contributed.  The  Company  in  1895  undertook  the  administration  of  its  own  Sphere  at  its  own 
expense,  and  the  Protectorate  was  thenceforth  assisted  by  contributions  from  Her  Majestv's  Government 



Captain  Cecil  Montgomery  Maguire1  (of  the  Haiderabad  Contingent  Lancers) 
to  raise  a  small  force  of  Indian  troops  as  a  nucleus  for  our  police  force  in 
Central  Africa.  Captain  Maguire  was  to  start  from  India  and  meet  me  at 
the  mouth  of  the  River  Chinde.  Captain  Sclater  and  the  rest  of  my  staff 
were  to  leave  England  subsequent  to  myself  and  also  meet  me  at  Chinde.  In 
the  meantime  I  proceeded  to  Zanzibar  and  Mozambique,  to  make  arrangements 
for  the  disembarkation  of  my  expedition  at  the  mouth  of  the  Zambezi.  In 
the  autumn  of  1890  Lord  Salisbury  had  resolved  to  place  two  gunboats  on 
the  Zambezi,  and  these  vessels,  the  Herald  and  the  Mosquito,  were  very  ably 
put  together  at  Chinde  under  the  superintendence  of  the  Senior  Naval  Officer, 
Commander  J.  H.  Keane,  R.N.,  C.M.G.,  who  managed  to  launch  his  gunboats 
without  undue  friction  with  the  Portuguese.  All  the  various  sections  of  my 


expedition  arrived  with  delightful  punctuality  at  Chinde,  and  with  the  aid  of 
the  two  gunboats  and  the  steamers  of  the  African  Lakes  Company  we  con- 
veyed men,  beasts,  and  goods  without  accident  to  Chiromo. 

By  the  Anglo-Portuguese  Convention  of  1891  we  had  lost  a  little  territory 
to  the  west  of  the  Shire  basin,  but  had  been  allotted  in  exchange  by  the 
Portuguese  a  portion  of  the  right  bank  of  the  River  Shire,  below  the  Ruo 
Junction.  This  brought  the  British  Protectorate  almost  within  sight  of  the 
Zambezi.  On  my  journey  up  the  river,  therefore,  in  H.M.S.  Herald,  I  had  to 
fix  the  Anglo-Portuguese  boundary  according  to  the  Convention,  and  take 
over  political  possession  of  the  Lower  Shire  District. 

We  had  no  sooner  arrived  at  Chiromo  in  the  month  of  July,  1891,  than  we 
were  greeted  with  the  news  that  the  Yao  chief,  Chikumbu,2  had  attacked  the 
British  settlers  who  had  commenced  coffee-planting  in  that  country.  The 

1  Captain  Maguire  obtained  from   the  Indian  Army  seventy  volunteers,  of  whom  about  forty  were 
Mazbi   Sikhs,   of  the  2jrd  and  32nd  Pioneers,   and   the   remainder  Muhammadan  cavalrymen  from  the 
various  regiments  of  Haiderabad  Lancers.     As  nearly  all  our  first  batch  of  horses  died  of  horse  sickness 
or   tsetse   fly,   the   Cavalry  became  useless  and  were  eventually  sent   back   to   India.      We  subsequently 
decided  to  engage  in  future  nothing  but  Sikhs  for  our  Indian  Contingent. 

2  A  recent  arrival  in  the  Mlanje  district,   who  had  developed  by  degrees  into   a    powerful   African 



ill-feeling  between  Chikumbu  and  the  British  was  of  some  years'  duration. 
Chikumbu  was  a  Yao  who  had  settled  amongst  the  peaceful  Xyanja  people 
of  Mlanje,  whom  he  had  been  gradually  subjugating  until  in  1890  they 
appealed  to  Mr.  John  Buchanan  for  protection.  The  old  Nyanja  chief, 
Chipoka,  had  died  in  1890,  and  on  his  death-bed  had,  with  the  consent  of 
all  his  sub-chiefs  and  subjects,  transferred  the  sovereign  rights  of  his  country 
to  the  Queen,  in  order  to  pledge  the  British  Government  to  the  protection  of 
the  indigenous  Nyanja  people  against  Yao  attacks.  Two  or  three  planters 
had  just  begun  to  settle  in  the  Mlanje  district,  and  although  they  had  paid 


relatively  large  sums  to  Chikumbu  he  continued  to  extort  larger  and  larger 
payments  from  them  ;  and  at  last,  upon  their  refusing  to  give  any  more, 
committed  various  acts  of  violence,  and  stopped  the  natives  working  for  them. 
Chikumbu  was  a  very  great  slave  trader  and  kept  up  a  direcct  communication 
with  the  East  Coast  of  Africa  at  Angoche,  whither  his  caravans  of  slaves 
were  generally  forwarded.  He  was  allied  with  Matipwiri  and  other  Yao 
slave-trading  chiefs. 

Accordingly  Captain  Maguire  was  dispatched  two  days  after  our  reaching 
Chiromo,  with  a  force  of  Sikhs  to  bring  Chikumbu  to  reason.  The  campaign 
was  not  of  long  duration,  though  there  were  one  or  two  days  of  stiff  fighting. 
Chikumbu  fled  and  his  brother  was  taken  prisoner.  The  latter  was  eventually 
released  and  appointed  chief  in  Chikumbu's  stead,  upon  his  giving  promises 
of  good  behaviour  which  have  since  been  kept.  After  a  considerable  banish- 
ment Chikumbu  was  recently  allowed  to  return,  and  lives  now  as  a  private 


Whilst  Captain  Maguire  was  thus  engaged  I  had  to  spend  two  months  at 
Chiromo,  settling  a  great  many  matters  in  connection  with  the  Lower  Shire 
districts.  I  did  not  reach  Zomba  till  the  month  of  September  1891,  and  here 
I  was  joined  by  Captain  Maguire.  After  a  brief  rest  we  were  both  obliged  to 
start  with  a  strong  expedition  for  the  south  end  of  Lake  Nyasa,  owing  to 
troubles  of  a  complex  kind  which  had  broken  out  between  Mponda  and  other 
Yao  chiefs,  and  between  Mponda  and  Chikusi,  a  chief  of  the  Southern  Angoni. 
We  took  with  us  a  force  of  70  Indian  soldiers  and  9  Zanzibaris ;  also  a 
7-pounder  mountain  gun,  and  marched  up  the  east  bank  of  the  Shire. 
Although  we  had  come  to  mediate  between  the  chiefs  whose  fighting  was 
temporarily  stopping  communications  on  the  Shire  and  were  not  bent  on  any 
punitive  measures  except  in  regard  to  Makanjira,  we  were  obliged  to  take 
considerable  precautions  against  Mponda,  who  was  uncertain  in  his  attitude 
towards  the  British,  and  who  waged  these  wars  chiefly  with  the  intention 
of  securing  slaves  for  the  Kilwa1  caravans  which  visited  his  country.  To 
avoid  coming  into  collision  with  him  unnecessarily  we  encamped  on  the 
uninhabited  reed  wilderness  opposite  his  main  town  on  the  east  bank  of  the 
Shire,  about  three  miles  distant  from  the  south  end  of  Lake  Nyasa.  Though 
some  of  these  Yao  chiefs  had  invoked  our  intervention  at  a  distance,  their 
attitude  became  suspiciously  hostile  upon  our  entering  their  country  with  an 
armed  force.  Accordingly  Captain  Maguire  deemed  it  prudent  to  throw  up 
fortifications  round  our  camp  opposite  Mponda's  town.  These  had  to  be 
erected  with  stealth  as  Mponda  was  continually  sending  to  enquire  what 
we  were  doing,  and  we  were  anxious  to  avoid  any  attack  on  his  part  until  we 
were  capable  of  defending  ourselves  and  our  stores.  Accordingly  the  defences 
of  what  Captain  Maguire  called,  half  in  fun,  "  Fort  Johnston,"  were  constructed 
during  the  day-time  in  separate  sections,  which  apparently  had  no  con- 
nection with  one  another.  Mponda  was  informed,  when  he  came  to  see 
what  we  were  doing,  that  these  pits  and  sections  of  embankment  were 
intended  as  sleeping  shelters  for  the  men.  We  then  took  advantage  of 
a  moonlight  night,  when  the  moon  was  half  full,  to  work  almost  twelve 
hours  on  end,  and  by  the  next  morning  our  camp  was  completely 
surrounded  by  mud  and  sand  breastworks  behind  a  revetement  of  bamboo. 
Before  this  point  was  reached,  however,  an  engagement  had  taken  place  with 
one  of  our  enemies.  Makandanji,  a  chief  who  dwelt  on  the  south-east  corner 
of  Nyasa,  had  tied  up  and  imprisoned  our  envoys.  His  town  was  about  seven 
miles  distant  from  Fort  Johnston.  Captain  Maguire  resolved  on  the  true 
Napoleonic  policy  of  crushing  our  enemies  singly,  and  not  waiting  for  them 
to  come  to  terms  as  to  a  combined  movement  against  us.  He  suddenly  fell 
on  Makandanji  and  drove  him  out  of  his  village,  releasing  our  imprisoned  men, 
and  scattering  Makandanji's  forces,  which  were  never  again  able  to  take  the 
field  against  us.  Mponda,  however,  instead  of  joining  Makandanji,  seized  the 
opportunity  to  capture  nearly  all  the  runaways,  whom  he  forthwith  marched 
off  to  his  own  town  and  sold  as  slaves  to  the  Swahili  caravans  waiting  there. 
Over  seventy  of  the  captives  he  had  the  insolence  to  drive  through  our  camp  at 
Fort  Johnston,  at  a  time  when  Captain  Maguire  was  absent  and  I  was  left  with 
only  ten  men.  As  soon  as  Captain  Maguire  was  back  and  the  little  fort  was 
completed,  I  summoned  Mponda  to  set  all  these  slaves  at  liberty.  He  declined 
to  do  so,  and  commenced  warlike  proceedings  against  us.  We  had  timed  our 
ultimatum  for  a  day  which  was  followed  by  full  moon,  and  resolved  to  attack 

1    Kilwa,  on  the  east  coast  of  Africa,  was  formerly  the  great  distributing  depot  of  the  Nyasa  slaves. 



at  night.  Accordingly  at  nine  o'clock,  on  the  evening  of  the  iQth  of  October, 
1891,  one  hour  after  the  expiration  of  the  term  given  for  the  restoration  of  the 
slaves,  we  fired  a  shell  across  the  river  into  Mponda's  town,  perhaps  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  distant.  Mponda  had  no  conception  of  the  range  of  artillery  fire, 
or  the  effects  of  incendiary  shells.  The  return  fire  of  his  guns  and  his  muzzle- 
loading  cannon  was  harmless,  as  we  were  almost  beyond  their  effective  range. 
A  few  more  shells  soon  set  much  of  Mponda's  town  on  fire,  and  he  called  for 
a  truce.  This  was  granted,  but  he  only  made  use  of  it  to  withdraw  with  his 
women  and  ivory  to  a  strong  place  he  possessed  in  the  hills.  His  fighting  men 
remained  and  we  renewed  the  struggle,  which  we  kept  up  till  the  early  morning, 
when  we  landed  on  the  opposite  shore  and  drove  the  remainder  of  the  defenders 
out  of  Mponda's  town,  which  we  then  destroyed.  A  great  many  slaves  were 
found  by  us  in  the  town,  and  brought  over  to  our  camp.  Many  of  these 
wretched  people  had  come  from  vast  distances  in  the  interior  of  South  Central 

FORT  JOHNSTON    IN     1895 

Africa.  The  following  day  Mponda  asked  for  terms  of  peace,  and  peace  was 
eventually  concluded.  He  then  informed  us  as  to  the  whereabouts  of  the  slave- 
trading  caravans  :  Captain  Maguire  pursued  these  people,  capturing  seven  of 
them  and  releasing  large  numbers  of  slaves.  The  terms  of  peace  offered  to 
Mponda  were  very  fair,  and  he  probably  rather  gained  in  power  by  coming  to 
an  understanding  with  us.  For  four  years  afterwards  he  kept  the  peace;  then 
in  the  belief  that  we  were  going  to  get  the  worst  of  it  at  the  hands  of  Zarafi, 
he  unwisely  went  to  war  once  more,  with  the  result  that  he  is  now  temporarily 
exiled  from  his  country. 

Makandanji,  the  first  chief  with  whom  we  had  fought,  acknowledged  the 
supremacy  of  Zarafi,  a  powerful  chief  who  dwelt  on  a  very  high  mountain  20 
miles  to  the  east  of  Fort  Johnston.  We  knew  little  about  Zarafi  in  those  days, 
except  that  he  had  not  long  succeeded  his  mother,  a  famous  woman-chief  called 
Kabutu.  Zarafi,  imagining  that  we  should  follow  the  attack  on  Makandanji  by 
an  advance  into  his  country,  sent  envoys  down  to  treat  with  us  for  peace.  \Yc, 
therefore,  on  one  day,  concluded  treaties  with  Mponda,  Zarafi.  and  Makandanji, 
and  seemed  to  have  accomplished  the  pacification  of  South  Xyasa. 


Encouraged  by  this  success,  \ve  then  and  there  resolved  to  undertake  the 
chastisement  of  Makanjira,  who  had,  as  already  related,  committed  various 
outrages  on  British  subjects,  and  had  recently  robbed  the  Universities  Mission 
of  a  boat  and  killed  some  of  their  boatmen.  We  hired  the  African  Lakes 
Company's  steamer  Doniira,  and  mounted  our  /-pounder  gun  in  the  bows 
Arriving  suddenly  off  Makanjira's  in  the  early  morning,  we  were  saluted  by 
volleys  from  his  fighting  men,  who  were  drawn  up  on  the  beach,  and  who  had 
evidently  been  expecting  our  arrival.  A  shell  landed  in  the  middle  of  this 
yelling  crowd  produced  an  impression  on  them  which  was  absolutely  novel,  and 
there  was  soon  not  one  of  the  enemy  in  sight.  After  setting  fire  to  a  portion 
of  the  town  with  other  shells,  I  effected  a  landing  with  a  small  number  of 
Sikhs,  whilst  Captain  Maguire  kept  the  enemy  at  bay  by  bombarding  the  town 
from  the  steamer.  We  managed  to  land  with  only  one  or  two  casualties,  and 
the  Sikhs  carried  off  two  of  Makanjira's  cannon  and  set  fire  to  one  of  his  daus.1 
The  enemy,  however,  came  on  us  in  such  strength  that  we  had  to  retreat 
to  our  boat,  and  should  probably  have  not  escaped  with  our  lives  had  not 
Captain  Maguire  arrived  with  reinforcements.  He  drove  the  enemy  back  into 
the  town,  and  completed  the  destruction  of  the  dau. 

The  next  morning  Captain  Maguire  landed  in  force,  and  after  hard  fighting, 
in  which  several  of  our  Sikhs  were  severely  wounded,  he  captured  all  Makanjira's 
defences.  I  joined  him,  and  we  then  drove  the  enemy  out  of  the  huge  town, 
which  we  completely  destroyed.  We  also  destroyed  two  or  three  of  their  daus. 

After  waiting  a  day  in  vain  to  see  if  any  person  would  come  from  Makanjira 
to  treat  for  a  peace,  we  steamed  over  to  the  opposite  side  of  the  lake,  where  it 
was  necessary  to  come  to  an  understanding  with  Kazembe,  who  lived  opposite 
to  Makanjira  and  was  a  near  relation.  Lake  Nyasa  is  at  its  narrowest  opposite 
Makanjira's  town.  Its  breadth  here  is  probably  not  more  than  fifteen  miles. 
The  favourite  ferry  across  Lake  Nyasa,  therefore,  has  generally  been  between 
these  two  points,  the  one  on  the  eastern  shore  held  by  Makanjira,  the  other  on 
the  west  by  Kazembe.  Kazembe  was  a  great  slave  trader,  but  was  not  hostile 
to  the  British.  He  had  concluded  a  treaty  with  me  in  1890,  but  it  was 
necessary  to  warn  him  that  the  slave  trade  could  no  longer  continue.  He  took 
the  warning  in  good  part,  and  promised  good  behaviour  in  future.  This  promise 
was  not  faithfully  adhered  to,  and  the  result  was  that  Kazembe  was  exiled  from 
the  Protectorate  for  a  few  months,  but  was  subsequently  restored  to  power,  and 
is  now  chief  in  Makanjira's  place. 

After  leaving  Kazembe's,  we  revisited  Makanjira's  coast  in  the  Domini. 
Captain  Maguire  landed  at  a  town  belonging  to  Makanjira's  headman,  Saidi 
Mwazungu,  in  the  southern  part  of  Makanjira's  country,  for  the  purpose  of 
acquiring  information.  The  people  had  not  evinced  unfriendliness  as  we 
approached,  and  Captain  Maguire  landed  under  a  flag  of  truce.  He  was 
received  by  an  Arab  (who  was  said  to  have  been  a  native  of  Aden)  with  a 
show  of  courtesy,  but  no  sooner  had  he  reached  the  veranda  of  the  Arab's 
house  than  he  was  suddenly  fired  on  by  the  Arab  himself,  who  by  some 
marvellous  accident  missed  him,  though  only  two  or  three  yards  distant. 
Captain  Maguire  had  landed  with  only  six  men  ;  but,  hearing  the  shot,  I 
immediately  dispatched  reinforcements  to  his  assistance,  and  the  town  was 
soon  taken  and  destroyed.  The  two  remaining  daus  of  Makanjira,  in  search 

1  A  "dau"  is  an  Arab  sailing  vessel,  sometimes  of  considerable  size.  Spelt  phonetically  it  should 
be  dan,  but  the  British,  with  their  extraordinary  racial  perversity  in  matters  of  spelling,  prefer  without 
rhyme  or  reason  to  spell  it  "dhow." 



of  which  Captain    Maguire    had   landed,  were   either  not   there  or  had  escaped 
before  our  coming. 

We  now  returned  to  Zomba,  leaving  a  garrison  behind  at  Fort  Johnston.    We 
had  no  sooner  reached  Zomba  than  we  heard  of  trouble  from  Kawinga,  a  power- 
ful Yao  chief  who  lived  on  a  hill  which  was  at  the  north-eastern  extremity  of 
the  Zomba  range.     It  was  deemed  advisable  to  dispatch  an  expedition  against 
Kawinga,  and  this  was  accompanied  by  Mr.  John  Buchanan,  c',  who  had 
become  a  Vice-Consul  in  the  service  of  the  Protectorate.      Kawinga's  fortress 
proved  however  to  be  a  much  harder  nut  to  crack  than  we  had  expected.     A 
gallant  attempt  was  made  by  Captain 
Maguire  and  Mr.  Buchanan  to  scale  the 
hill   in   face  of  a  heavy   fire.      Captain 
Maguire    was    wounded    in    the    chest, 
several     of    our    men    were    killed    or 
wounded,  and   the    force    was   partially 
repulsed,  though  it  had  captured  nearly 
all     Kawinga's    positions     except     the 
highest,  and  had  so  far  scared  him  that 
he    treated    for  peace  and   obtained   it. 
After    the    conclusion    of    peace    with 
Kawinga,   Captain    Maguire   considered 
it  necessary  to  return  to  Fort  Johnston, 
to  complete  the  building  at  that  place, 
and  relieve  the  garrison.     He  was  to  be 
back  at  Zomba  to  spend  Christmas  with 
me,  but  I  was  doomed  never  to  see  him 

Upon  reaching  Fort  Johnston  he 
had  received  information  as  to  the 
locality  where  Makanjira's  two  daus 
were  hidden.  Without  waiting  to  con- 
sult me,  therefore,  he  started  in  the 
Doinira,  with  a  small  force  of  Indian 
soldiers.  He  found  the  daus — in  a  little 
cove  close  to  where  Fort  Maguire  is 
now  situated,  and  somewhat  to  the  north  of  Makanjira's  main  town.  Ik- 
landed  with  a  small  force  of  about  28  men,  and  was  proceeding  to  destroy 
and  incapacitate  the  daus,  when  Makanjira,  with  about  2,000  men,  attacked 
him.  He  retreated  to  the  beach. 

Unfortunately  a  storm  had  arisen  which  had  wrenched  his  boat  from  her 
moorings,  and  had  dashed  her  on  to  the  rocks.  The  Domira  in  endeavouring 
to  approach  as  near  as  possible  in  order  to  come  to  his  assistance,  was  blown  on 
to  a  sand-bank,  and  stuck  fast  within  a  short  distance  of  the  shore.  When 
he  had  lost  three  of  his  men  Captain  Maguire  told  the  others  to  enter  the 
water  and  make  for  the  Domini.  After  seeing  them  off,  and  with  a  few  faithful 
Sikhs  repulsing  with  the  bayonet  the  onslaught  of  the  enemy,  he  turned  to  the 
water  himself,  but  just  as  he  was  nearing  the  steamer  a  bullet  apparently  struck 
him  in  the  back  of  the  head  and  he  sank.  Just  about  this  time  the  master 
of  the  Domira,  Mr.  Keiller,  was  wounded,  and  shortly  after  Mr.  Urquhart, 
the  second  engineer,  was  severely  wounded.  All  the  Indian  soldiers  except  the 
three  who  had  been  killed  reached  the  steamer  safely,  and  preparations  were  at 

CAPTAIN    CECIL    MO.VK  ;t  >M  KK  V     MACl.'IRK 
DIED    DECEMBER    15.    ibgi 


once  made  to  defend  the  Domini  from  the  attack  of  Makanjira's  men,  who  were 
at  very  close  range.  After  two  or  three  days'  incessant  fighting,  Makanjira's 
people  put  up  a  flag  of  truce.  His  envoys  were  received  on  board  and  offered, 
in  return  for  a  certain  ransom  (which  was  paid),  to  cease  fighting  and  to  assist  in 
moving  the  Dornira  off  the  sand-bank,  and  to  give  up  the  bodies  of  Captain 
Maguire  and  the  dead  sepoys.  The  negotiations  were  chiefly  conducted  by  Dr. 
Boyce1  and  Mr.  McEwan,'2  in  order  that  the  two  wounded  Europeans  might  not 
be  shown  to  the  enemy.  After  peace  had,  seemingly,  been  concluded  with 
Makanjira's  envoys,  the  latter  said  that  no  effect  could  be  given  to  the  provisions 
of  this  agreement  until  the  white  men  had  visited  Makanjira  on  the  shore,  and 
as  an  extra  inducement  for  them  to  come  they  promised  Dr.  Boyce  that  he 
should  receive  for  burial  the  body  of  Captain  Maguire.  Owing  to  the  two 
wounded  officers  being  concealed  in  the  cabin  below,  it  appears  that  Makanjira's 
envoys  imagined  Dr.  Boyce  and  Mr.  McEwan  were  the  only  white  men  on  the 
steamer.  They  therefore  made  a  point  of  insisting  they  should  both  come  to 
see  Makanjira. 

No  idea  of  treachery  seems  to  have  entered  the  minds  of  the  Europeans,  who 
did  not  even  think  of  insisting  on  Makanjira's  leaving  hostages  on  board,  whilst 
they  went  on  shore.  They  therefore  started  for  the  beach  with  only  a  few 
unarmed  attendants.  One  of  these  was  Captain  Maguire's  orderly,  an  Indian 
Muhammadan  soldier.  Soon  after  reaching  the  beach  an  Arab  led  this  orderly 
away  from  the  rest  of  the  party,  offering  to  show  him  Captain  Maguire's  body. 
So  far  as  is  known,  after  taking  the  orderly  for  a  roundabout  walk  he  urged  him 
strongly  to  return  to  the  boat,  which  the  man  did.3  Dr.  Boyce  and  his  party 
were  told  that  Makanjira  was  just  a  short  distance  from  the  shore,  in  the  bush, 
awaiting  them.  They  wrere  thus  led  on  to  a  distance  of  perhaps  two  miles  from 
the  lake  shore  ;  then  they  suddenly  found  themselves  surrounded  by  a  number 
of  Makanjira's  men,  at  the  head  of  whom  was  Saidi  Mwazungu,  a  man  half 
Arab  and  half  Yao.  Saidi  Mwazungu  suddenly  called  out,  "  Makanjira  has 
ordered  the  white  men  to  be  killed."  His  men  then  turned  their  guns  on 
the  party.  Mr.  McEwan  was  shot  repeatedly.  Dr.  Boyce  was  shot  several 
times,  but  did  not  die.  They  therefore  threw  him  down  and  cut  his  head 
off.  The  Swahili  servants  who  had  accompanied  this  party  were  not  killed,  but 
secured  and  subsequently  sold  as  slaves.4  The  Atonga  steamer-boys  were 
killed,  or  left  for  dead.  One  of  these  Atonga,  however,  whom  the  Arabs 
believed  themselves  to  have  killed,  managed  in  spite  of  his  terrible  wounds  to- 
crawl  by  degrees  to  the  lake  shore,  where  he  shouted  for  help.  He  was  got  on 
board  the  steamer,  and  gave  them  an  account  of  what  had  happened.  Mean- 
time the  survivors  in  the  steamer  heard  the  Yao  shouting  on  the  shore  that  all 
the  white  men  were  killed,  and  that  now  was  the  time  to  attack  the  steamer. 
The  Sikhs  behaved  splendidly,  but  the  hero  at  this  crisis  was  Mr.  Urquhart,  the 
wounded  engineer,  who  by  dint  of  almost  superhuman  efforts,  and  by  working 
at  the  dead  of  night,  managed  to  get  the  steamer  afloat.  After  a  five  days' 
detention — five  days  without  sleep,  in  constant  and  incessant  danger,  and  almost 

1  Dr.  Boyce  was  a  Par»i  Doctor  of  Medicine,  who  had  been  engaged  by  me  at  Zanzibar  as  Surgeon 
to  the  Indian  contingent. 

2  The  first  engineer  of  the  Dotnira. 

:!  The  orderly,  with  the  horror  of  what  had  taken  place  during  these  few  days,  subsequently  went  out  of 
his  mind,  and  was  never  able  to  give  a  coherent  account  of  the  circumstances,  but  it  is  believed  that  the 
Arab  did  not  wish  a  fellow  Muhammadan  to  be  killed,  and  therefore  induced  the  orderly  to  return  to 
the  steamer. 

4  After  the  most  extraordinary  adventures  they  succeeded  in  reaching  the  coast. 


without  food — the  steamer  floated  off  the  sand-bank  into  deep  water.  The 
7-pounder  gun  was  silently  got  ready  by  the  Sikhs,  and  before  the  vessel 
steamed  away,  shells  were  fired  in  rapid  succession  into  howling  crowds  of 
Makanjira's  men,  who  were  dancing  round  camp  fires,  confident  that  a  few  more 
hours  would  see  the  Domira  in  their  possession. 

The  death  of  Captain  Maguire  took  place  on  the  I5th  December,  1891. 
No  news  of  it  reached  me  until  Christmas  Eve,  just  at  the  time  when  I  was 
expecting  him  to  arrive  for  Christmas  day.  I  left  at  once  for  Blantyre,  which 
I  reached  on  the  evening  of  Christmas  day,  and  there  conferred  with  Mr.  John 
Buchanan  and  Mr.  Fotheringham,  the  manager  of  the  African  Lakes  Company. 
The  latter  at  once  proffered  his  co-operation  in  meeting  the  difficult  situation 
on  Lake  Nyasa.  We  both  started  for  the  Upper  Shire  by  different  routes,  and 
reached  Fort  Johnston  at  the  end  of  December.  Here  we  found  that  the  chief 
Msamara  who  lived  a  little  below  Mponda  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Shire,  had 
turned  against  us  and  with  Zarafi  had  sent  a  force  of  men  to  attack  Fort 
Johnston,  and  although  nothing  more  had  come  of  the  attack  but  a  few  wild 
shots,  he  had  nevertheless  been  raiding  all  round  the  Fort. 

The  bad  news  had  brought  volunteers  hurrying  up  from  the  south.  Amongst 
them  came  Mr.  J.  G.  King,  from  Port  Herald ;  Dr.  A.  Blair  Watson  ;  the  late 
Mr.  Gilbert  Stevenson  ;  and,  a  little  later  on,  Commander  J.  H.  Keane,  R.N.1 
Fortunately  Mponda  had  remained  loyal,  and  although  for  a  few  days  the  Fort 
and  its  garrison  of  wounded  and  exhausted  men  lay  at  his  mercy,  he  had  not 
only  been  neutral  but  had  assisted  to  defend  the  place  against  Zarafi's  attacks. 
My  arrival  soon  restored  the  morale  of  the  Sikhs,  who  were  literally  in  tears  at 
the  death  of  their  commander,  but  the  Muhammadan  Indian  soldiers  had  not 
rallied  from  the  feeling  of  discouragement  caused  by  this  disaster.  Soon  after- 
wards they  had,  in  fact,  to  be  sent  back  to  India,  though  there  were  men 
amongst  them  who  had  strikingly  distinguished  themselves.  It  must  be 
remembered,  however,  that  they  were  all  cavalry  men,  and  not  used  to  fighting 
on  foot,  or  on  board  a  ship,  and  all  things  considered  behaved  as  well  as  might 
be  expected.  The  Sikhs,  however,  throughout  all  this  crisis,  never  showed  their 
sterling  worth  more  effectually. 

Another  attack  on  Makanjira  was  impossible  until  we  had  got  gunboats  on 
the  lake.  So  I  decided  to  restore  our  prestige  by  subduing  those  enemies  who 
were  nearer  at  hand  and  more  vulnerable,  to  wit,  Msamara  and  Zarafi.  The 
chief  Msamara  was  captured  and  imprisoned  in  the  fort,  together  with  some 
of  his  headmen,  whilst  an  enquiry  was  instituted  into  his  culpability  for  the 
recent  raids.  I  regret  to  say  that  whilst  in  prison  he  poisoned  himself  but 
it  was  fortunately  done  with  the  knowledge  and  connivance  of  his  followers  and 
consequently  no  slur  was  cast  on  the  Administration  for  his  death,  his  headmen 
themselves  asserting  that  their  chief  had  committed  suicide  because  he  believed 
he  was  going  to  be  hanged,  an  eventuality,  however,  of  which  there  was  little 
probability.  The  \var  against  Zarafi  was  a  more  difficult  matter.  I  was  able 
with  the  help  of  the  volunteer  officers  and  the  Sikhs  to  capture  all  Zarafi's 
villages  in  the  plains  with  relatively  little  loss  of  men  ;  but  to  attack  Zarafi 
in  the  hills  was  another  matter.  While  on  our  way  thither,  all  Mponda's  men 
who  were  acting  as  our  porters  ran  away,  and  we  were  therefore  compelled  to 
retreat  to  Fort  Johnston.  Under  the  circumstances  the  flight  of  our  porters  was 
the  best  thing  that  could  have  happened  to  us,  since  we  were  embarked  on  an 
enterprise  far  beyond  our  strength,  although  we  did  not  know' it  at  that  time; 

1  Afterwards  made  C.M.f  .. 


for  another  march  would  have  brought  us  to  the  base  of  Zarafi's  hill,  where  we 
should  probably  have  met  with  as  serious  a  disaster  as  subsequently  happened 
to  another  expedition. 

During  all  this  crisis  we  were  much  helped  by  the  Angoni,  under  Chifisi, 
who  dwelt  at  the  back  of  Mponda's  country.  These  men  came  down  in 
hundreds  to  assist  us  in  fighting  Zarafi.  Unfortunately  the  Angoni  are  not 
as  brave  as  they  look,  and  we  subsequently  found  they  were  very  broken  reeds 
to  depend  on  in  hard  fighting.  Zarafi  had,  nevertheless,  suffered  so  much  at 
our  hands  by  the  loss  of  all  his  villages  in  the  plains  that  he  ceased  his  raids, 
and  commenced  negotiations  for  peace.  No  doubt  these  negotiations  were  only 
intended  to  gain  time,  but  I  welcomed  them  as  a  valuable  respite,  and  did  not 
intend  to  take  any  further  steps  against  Zarafi  until  I  could  receive  reinforce- 
ments of  officers  and  men.  By  the  capture  of  Zarafi's  low-lying  towns  I  had 
prevented  for  some  time  to  come  any  attempts  on  his  part  to  obstruct  the 
navigation  of  the  Shire  ;  this  end  was  still  further  attained  by  the  imprisonment 
of  the  chief  Msamara  who  subsequently  committed  suicide  at  Fort  Johnston. 

I  again  returned  to  Zomba,  determined  to  apply  myself  now  to  the  con- 
sideration of  our  financial  position,  for  since  my  arrival  in  British  Central  Africa 
in  July,  1891,  I  had  not  had  a  spare  day  in  which  to  turn  to  accounts.  Up  till 
this  time  it  must  be  remembered  that  I  had  to  be  my  own  secretary  and 
accountant,  and  the  pressure  of  office  work  was  almost  more  than  I  could 
stand.  Captain  Sclater  was  busily  employed  in  making  roads,  and  this  work 
was  so  necessary  I  did  not  like  to  call  him  off  it  for  other  purposes  ;  Mr.  Sharpe 
was  not  yet  back  from  leave  of  absence  in  England. 

I  had  just  begun  to  settle  down  once  more  to  office  work  at  Zomba  when 
another  message  arrived  with  disastrous  news.  On  the  24th  February,  1892, 
I  received  a  note  from  Dr.  Watson  informing  me  that  after  my  departure  a 
large  force  of  Angoni  had  come  down  and  placed  their  services  at  the  disposal 
of  Mr.  J.  G.  King,  whom  I  had  left  in  charge  of  Fort  Johnston  as  chief  of  that 
station  ,  and  Mr.  King  had  resolved,  then  and  there,  to  attack  Zarafi,  who  had 
once  more  become  troublesome;  that  the  expedition  had  resulted  in  a  very 
serious  repulse  at  the  foot  of  Zarafi's  hill,  in  which  but  for  the  dogged  bravery 
of  a  Naval  Petty  Officer,  Mr.  Henry  Inge,  lent  by  the  river  gunboats,  nearly  the 
whole  of  the  expedition  must  have  been  annihilated.  He  went  on  to  relate 
that  at  the  beginning  of  the  engagement  Mr.  King  had  been  shot  through  the 
lungs,  and  that  he  himself  (Dr.  Watson)  had  been  wounded  in  the  fight ;  that 
some  six  Indian  soldiers  had  been  killed  and  several  Svvahilis  ;  that  another 
fourteen  Indian  soldiers  were  missing;1  and  that  the  /-pounder  gun  which 
Mr.  Inge  used  till  the  ammunition  was  exhausted,  to  distract  the  enemy  from 
following  the  defeated  expedition,  had  had  to  be  abandoned  in  the  bush. 
Fortunately  at  this  juncture  Commander  Keane,  R.N.,  was  staying  with  me, 
having  only  quitted  Fort  Johnston  a  short  time  before.  On  my  invitation  he 
returned  there  and  restored  the  situation  as  well  as  possible. 

I  am  glad  to  say  that  both  Mr.  King  and  Dr.  Watson  recovered  from  their 
wounds.  The  recovery  of  the  former  was  quite  extraordinary  as  he  was 
practically  shot  through  the  lungs.2  Our  ultimate  losses  were  found  to  have 
consisted  of  the  y-pounder  gun,  a  few  rifles  and  cases  of  ammunition  ;  and  six 

1  These  subsequently  reached  Fort  Johnston  by  devious  routes,  one  after  more  than  thirteen  clays  in 
the  bush  with  nothing  but  grass,  leaves,  and  roots  to  eat. 

•  For  years  afterwards  lie  was  Vice-Consul  at  Chinde  ;  but  to  my  deep  regret  died  at  that  place 
on  November  30,  1896. 



Indian  sepoys  and  three  Zanzibar!  soldiers  killed.  This  time  may  be  taken  as 
the  nadir  of  our  fortunes.  The  slave- trading  chiefs  at  Chiradzulu  began  to 
give  trouble  by  committing  highway  robberies  on  the  roads  between  Zomba 
and  Blantyre  and  Blantyre  and  Matope.  The  Ndirande l  people  joined  them  in 
these  depredations,  and  Matipwiri,  a  very  powerful  Yao  chief  who  dwelt  near 
the  Portuguese  border  at  the  back  of  the  Mlanje  Mountain,  together  with 
Kawinga,  sent  out  raiding  parties  from  time  to  time  to  rob  our  carriers  and  to 
carry  off  slaves.  Makanjira  having  received  an  enormous  accession  of  strength 
and  prestige  from  the  death  of  Captain  Maguire,  crossed  the  lake  to  the  opposite 
peninsula  of  the  Rifu,  and  with  the  aid  of  the  disaffected  party  there  drove 
Kazembe  from  power  as  punishment  for  his  alliance  with  the  English. 
Kazembe  fled  to  the  south.  Thus  both  sides  of  this  narrow  ferry  were  in  the 
hands  of  the  enemies  of  the  English.  Makanjira's  next  attempts  were  directed 
against  Jumbe,  and  he  began  a  war  with  him,  which  eventually  terminated  in  the 
following  year  by  Jumbe's  loss  of  all  his  territory  except  his  capital  town. 
Fortunately  the  Arabs  at  the  north  end  were  not  ready  to  recommence  the 
war  ;  and  Mponda,  who  held  the  key  of  the  situation  at  the  south  end  of  Lake 
N'yasa,  remained  faithful  to  us.  Then  Mr.  Sharpe  returned  from  leave  of 
absence  in  England,  and  the  terrible  pressure  of  the  official  work  on  my 
shoulders  was  lightened.  Moreover  I  received  my  first  accountant  in  the 
person  of  Mr.  William  Wheeler, 
who  assisted  me  in  getting  our 
finances  into  order. 

Captain    Sclater  had    been   of 

great    assistance    to    me    through 

this    trying  time,  and   had   made 

a   rapid  journey   to   the  coast   to 

obtain   things   that   were   wanted, 

and   to  engage  some   more  men. 

Amongst    his    recruits    was    Mr. 

Wheeler,    who    had    come    to    us 

from  a  position  of  accountant  in 

the  service  of  the  Union  Steam- 
ship Company. 

But  in   March,  1892,  after  the 

disaster  at  Zarafi's,  the  fortunes  of 

the  young  Administration  seemed 

certainly  at  their  lowest  ebb  ;  and 

what  distressed  me  much  more  at 

this  period  than  our  wars  with  the 

Yao,   or   any  trouble    that    could 

be  given  by  the  black  men,  was 

the  attitude  of  the  white  settlers 

and  some  of  the  missionaries.     It  cannot  be  said  that  the  Administration  in  its 

earlier  days  was  universally  popular  amongst   the  Europeans,  especially  those 

who  dwelt  in  the  Shire  province.     The  proclamation  of  the  British  Protectorate 

had   been  followed  by  a  wholesale  grabbing  of  land;  or,   where  it  is  not   fair 

to    describe    the   acquisition   of  land    as   "grabbing,"   at   any   rate  huge  tracts 

had  been  bought  for  disproportionate  amounts  from  the  natives,  and  there  were 

1    NMirande  is  a  mountain  overlooking  Ulantyre. 

-   Now  the  chief  accountant  of  the  British  Central  Africa  Administrate  n. 


MR.    \\II.1. 1AM    \\I1KKLER 


many  claims  that  overlapped  and  required  adjustment.  The  settlers  knew  that 
I  was  entrusted  with  the  task  of  enquiring  into  and  settling  their  claims,  and 
many  of  them  anticipated  with  some  accuracy  that  their  claims  would  not  be 
sanctioned,  either  wholly  or  even  at  all.  They  were  therefore  disposed  to 
weaken  my  position  as  much  as  they  could  by  cavilling  at  all  my  acts,  and 
making  all  the  capital  they  could  out  of  my  misfortunes.  In  regard  to  a 
certain  Missionary  Society  in  the  Shire  Highlands,  its  hostile  attitude  was 
of  more  complex  origin.  It  had  acquired,  and  acquired  by  good  means,  a  very 
strong  influence  over  the  natives.  Its  representatives  were  men  of  great 
natural  ability  who,  whether  conscious  of  it  or  not,  enjoyed  to  the  full  the 
power  of  governing.  Still  they  had  not  been  appointed  to  administer  this 
country  by  the  Government,  and  it  was  impossible  to  allow  them  to  take 
the  law  into  their  own  hands  as  they  were  in  the  habit  of  doing,  by  holding 
informal  courts  and  administering  justice.  Loth  as  I  was  to  come  into  conflict 
with  any  Missionary  Society — as  I  have  always  been  a  sincere  admirer  of  the 
results  of  mission  work — I  found  myself  inevitably  at  issue  with  certain  men 
at  Blantyre  and  elsewhere.  It  is  not  worth  while  describing  the  ways  in  which 
through  misrepresentation  in  the  Press,  letters  to  the  Foreign  Office,  and  strong 
local  opposition  my  life  and  the  lives  of  my  subordinates  were  made  unbearable  : 
for  I  suppose  the  same  conflict  has  occurred  with  the  commencement  of  all 
attempts  to  found  an  Administration  among  headstrong,  sturdy  pioneers.  I 
merely  refer  to  these  foolish  dead-and-forgotten  quarrels  because  in  a  small  way 
they  enter  into  the  woof  of  our  history  at  this  period,  for  I  cannot  too  strongly 
assert,  as  a  fact  perhaps  not  sufficiently  appreciated,  that  during  my  seventeen 
years'  acquaintance  with  Africa  the  difficulties  raised  up  against  my  work  by 
Europeans  have  infinitely  exceeded  the  trouble  given  me  by  negroes  or  Arabs. 

Captain  Charles  Edward  Johnson,  of  the  36th  Sikhs,  arrived  in  the  month 
of  June  to  take  the  place  of  the  late  Captain  Maguire.  He  soon  brought  order 
into  our  disorganised  forces,  and  there  accompanied  him  a  small  detachment  of 
Sikhs  which  proved  a  very  useful  reinforcement.  Commander  Keane  was 
released  by  the  arrival  of  Captain  Johnson  and  received  a  C.M.G.  in  reward 
for  his  services.  Before  Captain  Johnson  could  get  an  expedition  ready  I  was 
obliged  to  dispatch  a  small  force  under  Mr.  Sharpe  and  Captain  Sclater  against 
the  highway  robbers  of  Mt.  Chiradzulu.1 

At  the  beginning  of  July,  1892,  we  received  a  visit  from  Admiral  Nicholson, 
who  was  commanding  on  the  Cape  Station.  Being  absent  at  Fort  Johnston, 
I  dispatched  Mr.  Sharpe  to  meet  the  Admiral  at  Chiromo,  whilst  I  journeyed 
to  Blantyre.  As  regards  bad  news,  I  had  one  hour  after  I  reached  Blantyre 
which  I  shall  always  remember  as  a  kind  of  Job's  experience.  Within  that 
one  hour  arrived  the  following  pieces  of  information.  First  came  a  messenger 
to  say  that  a  raid  had  been  made  by  the  Yao  on  the  Blantyre-Zomba  road,  a 
caravan  attacked  and  a  quantity  of  goods  stolen.  Then  came  another  message 
from  Katunga,  on  the  Shire,  with  the  news  that  Mr.  Sharpe's  boat,  on  his  way 
down  to  Chiromo,  had  been  capsized  by  a  hippopotamus,  and  that  Mr.  Sharpe 
and  all  his  companions  were  drowned.2  Lastly  came  the  post  with  the  news 

1  Chiradzulu  is  a  very  fine  picturesque  mountain  about  5,500  ft.  in  height,  midway  between  Zomba  and 
Blantyre.  The  Yao  settled  on  this  mountain  since  the  Yao  raids  of  1861-2  and  -3  were  very  troublesome 
to  the  first  missionaries  and  planters,  and  gave  a  great  deal  of  annoyance  in  the  early  days  of  the  Adminis- 
tration. They  were  thoroughgoing  slave-raiders,  and  were  not  finally  subdued  until  the  winter  of  1893. 

-  Two  or  three  of  Mr.  Sharpe's  men  were  drowned,  but  he  fortunately  succeeded  in  swimming 
ashore  where  he  was  eventually  picked  up  by  a  native  canoe.  He  lost,  however,  everything  he  had  with 
him,  including  some  valuable  guns. 



that  the  New  Oriental  Bank,  in  which  were  invested  a  good  proportion  of  our 
funds,  had  failed.1  Following  close  on  this  tale  of  disasters  came  Admiral 
Nicholson,  fortunately  accompanied  by  Mr.  Sharpe,  the  news  of  whose 
untimely  death  had  fairly  taken  all  the  heart  out  of  me.  Probably  Admiral 
Nicholson  has  never  known  to  this  day  why  I  received  him  with  so  much 

In  May,  1892,  Mr.  John  L.  Nicoll  had  returned  from  leave  of  absence  in 
England,  and  had  entered  the  service  of  the  British  Central  Africa  Administra- 
tion. He  was  appointed  collector  for  the  South  Nyasa  district,  to  reside  at 


Fort  Johnston.  In  nearly  three  years'  residence  he  effected  a  remarkable 
improvement  in  affairs  on  the  Upper  Shire  and  at  the  south  end  of  the 
lake.  Zarafi's  raids  were  checked,  the  river  was  policed  and  rendered  safe, 
and  Mponda  was  kept  in  order.  In  the  summer  of  this  same  year  two 
important  expeditions  arrived  in  the  country.  One  was  the  dispatch  from 
England  of  three  gunboats  in  sections  for  Lake  Nyasa  and  the  Upper  Shire. 
These  boats  had  been  obtained  by  the  initiative  of  Lord  Salisbury,  when 
the  news  first  arrived  of  the  disasters  on  the  lake,  consequent  on  the  death 
of  Captain  Cecil  Maguire.  The  Admiralty  undertook  the  charge  of  furnishing 
these  gunboats,  and  they  were  sent  out  under  the  charge  of  Lieutenant 
(now  Commander)  Hope  Robertson,  R.N.-  The  other  expedition  was  that 

1  The  Bank  subsequently  paid  us  in  full,  though  not  for  about  a  year  afterwards. 

-  For  his  services  in  conveying  these  gunboats  to  Lake  Nyasa.  bringing  about  their  rapid  and  success- 
ful construction,  and  afterwards  commanding  them  on  Lake  Nyasa  'in  'various  campaigns,  Lieutenant 
Robertson  was  promoted,  and  was  made  a  C.  M.<i. 

I  10 


under  Major  von  Wissmann,  who  at  the  head  of  a  large  expedition  was  con- 
veying a  steamer  (named  after  himself)  to  Lake  Nyasa,  on  behalf  of  the 
German  Anti-Slavery  Society. 

In  the  middle  of  1892  our  Customs  Regulations  received  definite  form. 
Mr.  H.  A.  Hillier,  who  had  joined  the  Administration  in  1891,  was  made 
principal  Customs  Officer  at  Chiromo,  and  the  efficiency  of  our  Customs 
service  owes  much  to  his  organization.  In  1896  he  was  made  Director-General 
of  Customs.  In  1892  also  the  first  steps  were  taken  to  institute  a  Hut  tax. 
I  he  question  of  the  taxation  of  the  natives  was  in  its  initial  stages  a 



difficult  one  to  settle.  In  taking  over  the  Lower  Shire  district  on  the  west 
bank  of  the  Shire  from  the  Portuguese  in  the  middle  of  1891,  the  natives 
who  had  been  accustomed  to  pay  taxes  to  the  Portuguese  had  asked  me 
to  assess  their  taxes,  if  possible,  at  a  lower  rate.  On  enquiry  I  ascertained 
that  they  had  paid  a  capitation  tax  of  something  like  half-a-crown  a  head 
per  annum,  which  tax  was  levied  indifferently  on  men,  women,  and  children. 
The  chiefs  of  the  Lower  Shire  natives,  however,  were  of  opinion  that  the}' 
would  prefer  a  Hut  to  a  Poll  tax.  Estimating  the  average  number  of  hut 
occupants  at  three,  their  former  Poll  tax  would  have  resulted  in  each 
household  paying  about  js.  6d.  per  annum.  I  therefore  proposed  to 
compromise  the  matter  by  fixing  the  annual  Hut  tax  at  6s.  per  annum 
and  abolishing  the  Capitation  Dues.  The  natives  seemed  well  satisfied  with 


1 1 1 

this  proposal.  Gradually,  however,  it  became  obvious  that  if  the  natives  of  the 
Lower  Shire  district  were  to  pay  taxes,  the  other  natives  of  such  portions 
of  the  Protectorate  as  we  were  obliged  to  administer  at  our  own  cost,  should 
do  the  same.  For  a  year  I  talked  this  over  with  the  leading  chiefs  of  the  Shire 
province  (the  only  portion  of  the  Protectorate  we  were  then  prepared  to 
administer),  and  got  most  of  them  to  agree  to  the  principle  that  the  natives 
of  the  Protectorate  should  contribute,  to  a  reasonable  extent,  towards  the 
revenue.  The  idea  of  taxing  the  natives,  however,  was  strongly  opposed  by 
the  missionaries,  and  also  by  many  of  the  traders  and  planters,  who  believed 
it  would  cause  discontent  and  would  make  native  labour  dearer.  I  still  held 
to  my  view,  nevertheless,  that  those  natives  of  British  Central  Africa  who 

THE    NVASA    CTNMoATS    IN     NKATA    MAY,    \\KST    NYASA 

were  unable  to  protect  themselves  from  the  incursions  of  slave  raiders,  or 
who  by  their  own  misconduct  compelled  the  intervention  of  the  Administration 
for  the  maintenance  of  law  and  order,  should  contribute  as  far  as  their  means 
allowed  towards  the  revenue  of  the  Protectorate,  for  it  was  not  to  be  supposed 
that  the  British  taxpayer,  or  the  British  South  Africa  Company,  could  continue 
indefinitely  finding  subsidies  for  the  support  of  the  Protectorate ;  that  the 
Protectorate  must  justify  its  existence  by  eventually  supporting  itself  on  its 
locally  raised  revenue.  At  a  meeting  with  some  of  the  leading  missionaries 
and  planters  at  Blantyrc,  in  the  winter  of  1892,  I  agreed  to  propose  to  the 
Secretary  of  State  that  the  Hut  tax  should  be  reduced  to  $s.  per  annum,  and 
eventually  it  was  fixed  in  the  Queen's  Regulations  at  that  sum. 

The  only  other  taxation  incumbent  on  the  natives  was  the  taking  out 
of  a  gun  license,  for  which  the  same  sum  was  charged  as  in  the  case  of 
Europeans  and  foreigners,  namely,  £i  for  five  years,  or  in  the  case  of  the 
natives,  4^.  per  annum.  The  payment  of  the  Hut  tax  was  at  first  confined 


to  certain  portions  of  the  Shire  province.  Gradually  it  was  enforced  through- 
out the  Shire  province.  At  the  present  time  it  is  enforced  throughout 
all  the  Protectorate  with  the  exception  of  that  portion  of  the  West  Nyasa 
district  which  is  inhabited  by  the  northern  Angoni,  who  at  present  decline 
to  pay  taxes  to  the  Administration  but  on  the  other  hand  remain  quiet 
and  free  from  civil  war,  and  therefore  do  not  compel  us  to  go  to  the  expense  of 
administering  their  country.  Eventually,  no  doubt,  by  friendly  arrangement  the 
Hut  tax  will  be  enforced  even  here.  In  all  other  parts  of  the  Protectorate  it  has 
never  been  put  in  force  without  a  proper  arrangement  being  come  to  with  the 

native  chiefs,  except   in  such  districts  as  where  the  chiefs Yao  or  Arabs— 

have  gone  to  war  with  us.  Then  as  one  of  the  conditions  of  peace  or  one  of 
the  results  of  conquest,  the  Hut  tax  has  been  eventually  enforced.  The 

I-ARK    ROAD,    CHIko.MO 

revenue  derived  from  this  source  in    1893  was  about  £1,639.      In  the  financial 
year  ended  March  3ist,  1896,  it  amounted  to  £4,695  in  value. 

In  the  early  autumn  of  1892  I  commenced  the  land  settlement,  and  by 
degrees  every  estate  or  land  claim  between  the  Lower  Shire  district  and  Lakes 
Tanganyika  and  Mweru  and  the  Upper  Luapula  was  visited  and  enquired  into 
by  Mr.  Alfred  Sharpe,  Captain  Sclater  or  myself.  Admissible  claims  were 
divided  into  two  kinds  :  claims  to  mineral  rights,  and  claims  to  land  with  or 
without  mineral  rights.1  In  the  case  of  treaties  conferring  mining  rights 
the  investigation  was  relatively  simple.  The  chief  or  chiefs  alleged  to  be 
the  grantors  of  such  concessions  were  examined  and  if  they  admitted  making 
the  grant,  and  it  could  be  shown  that  they  had  received  fair  value  for  the  same! 
the  mining  concessions  were  confirmed.  In  regard  to  land,  long  occupation' 
and  improvements  were  regarded  as  almost  the  best  titles.  These  qualifications, 
however,  applied  to  very  few  estates  in  British  Central  Africa,  as  in  most  cases 

1  Inadmissible  claims  were  those  which  conferred  sovereign  rights  or  granted  any  monopoly  of  trade 
inconsistent  with  the  various  treaties  with  Foreign  Powers  to  vrtiich  Great  Britain  wa-'n  parly. 


the  settlers  had  only  arrived  after  the  proclamation  of  the  Protectorate.  Only 
in  cases  of  very  lengthy  occupation  and  much  cultivation  or  building  were 
claims  sanctioned  which  were  unsupported  by  properly  executed  documents. 
Even  when  land  had  been  purchased,  and  the  sale  on  the  part  of  the  chief  was 
not  repudiated,  and  the  deed  of  sale  was  authentic,  the  concessionnaire  was 
required  to  show  what  consideration  had  been  paid,  and  if  the  grantor  was  not 
considered  to  have  received  fair  value  for  his  land  the  grantee  had  either  to 
supplement  his  first  payment  by  another,  or  the  area  of  his  estate  was  reduced 
to  an  extent  fairly  compatible  with  the  sum  paid.  As  land  was  of  very  little 
value  before  the  establishment  of  the  Administration,  and  as  undoubtedly  the 
settlers  had  conferred  great  benefits  on  the  country  by  clearing  and  planting, 
land  was  not  rated  at  a  high  value  in  these  settlements.  Threepence  an  acre 
was  the  maximum,  and  this  only  in  exceptionally  favoured  districts  like  Allanje 
and  Blantyre.  Sometimes  the  value  of  the  land  was  computed  at  as  low  as  a 
halfpenny  an  acre.  Except  on  very  small  estates  the  existing  native  villages 
and  plantations  were  exempted  from  all  these  purchases,  and  the  natives  were 
informed  that  the  sale  of  the  surrounding  land  did  not  include  the  alienation  of 
their  homes  and  plantations.  The  fact  is,  that  at  the  time  the  chiefs  sold  land 
to  the  Europeans  they  were  very  heedless  of  the  results.  All  they  desired  was 
the  immediate  possession  of  the  trade  goods  or  money  given  in  payment.  The 
tenure  of  the  land  in  reality  was  tribal  ;  that  is  to  say  theoretically  the  chief 
had  no  right  to  alienate  the  land,  but  he  had  assumed  such  right  and  his 
assumption  was  tacitly  accepted  by  his  people.  It  was,  however,  highly 
necessary  to  secure  these  people  from  the  results  of  their  chief's  heedlessness,  in 
many  cases,  as  they  were  apt  to  become  the  serfs  of  the  white  man  when  he 
began  to  appear  as  their  over-landlord.  One  of  the  results  of  the  land  settlement, 
therefore,  was  to  completely  free  the  natives  from  any  dependency  on  the  white 
settler,  by  restoring  to  them  the  inalienable  occupancy  of  their  villages  and 
plantations.  Moreover,  in  sanctioning  the  various  concessions  in  the  name 
of  the  Government  we  reserved  to  the  Crown  the  right  to  make  roads,  railways, 
or  canals  over  anybody's  property  without  compensation  ;  the  control  of  the 
water  supply ;  and  where  mining  rights  were  included  in  the  concession,  a 
royalty  on  the  produce  of  the  mines.  In  each  deed  (the  deeds  were  styled 
"  Certificates  of  Claim ")  the  boundaries  of  the  property  were  set  forth  with 
sedulous  accuracy,  and  it  was  provided  that  all  these  deeds  should  be  even- 
tually supplemented  by  an  authoritative  survey  made  by  a  Government  surveyor, 
a  process  which  is  fast  being  completed.  On  the  whole  the  settlement  was  well 
accepted  by  the  Europeans,  while  it  gave  distinct  satisfaction  to  the  natives,  and 
was  approved  without  modification  by  Her  Majesty's  Government.  Throughout 
the  whole  settlement  I  believe  I  am  right  in  saying  that  only  one  dispute 
regarding  boundaries  was  brought  into  Court  and  not  settled  amicably  and 
informally  in  my  office.  When  all  these  claims  had  been  arranged  I  concluded, 
on  behalf  of  the  Crown,  treaties  with  all  the  chiefs  of  the  Protectorate,  securing 
Crown  control  over  the  remainder  of  the  land,  which  the  natives  were  hence- 
forth unable  to  alienate  without  the  sanction  of  the  Commissioner.  In  some 
cases  large  sums  of  money  were  spent  by  the  Government  in  buying  up  the 
waste  land  from  the  natives  where  it  was  deemed  advisable  that  a  complete 
control  over  its  disposal  should  be  exercised.  Except  over  a  small  area  of  land 
which  is  absolutely  Crown  property,  a  percentage  on  the  selling  price  or 
the  rent  is  paid  to  the  native  chief  when  portions  of  the  Crown  lands  are 
let  or  sold. 


In  the  same  year,  1892,  the  foundation  of  our  Courts  of  Justice  was  laid. 
At  my  recommendation  a  number  of  officials  were  given  warrants  as  magis- 
trates by  the  Secretary  of  State,  and  were  thus  enabled  to  administer  justice 
to  Europeans  and  other  foreigners  under  the  "Africa  Orders  in  Council  of  1889 
and  1893."  It  was  theoretically  supposed  that  justice  to  natives  only  was  ad- 
ministered by  native  chiefs,  but  in  reality  the  native  courts  are  practically  held 
by  British  magistrates  in  the  name  of  the  local  chief  or  as  his  representative  ; 
for  over  most  of  the  districts  the  native  chiefs  have  surrendered  to  us  by 
treaty  their  justiciary  rights.  Still,  in  some  districts,  native  chiefs  are 
encouraged  to  settle  all  minor  cases  themselves,  and  the  natives  are  not 
allowed  to  go  to  the  European  magistrate  except  where  the  native  chief  cannot 
be  relied  on  for  fairness.  No  native  chief  or  British  magistrate,  however,  is 


allowed  to  carry  out  a  death  sentence  on  a  native  without  first  referring  the 
case  to  the  Commissioner  for  consideration,  and  obtaining  his  sanction  to  the 
verdict  and  sentence. 

As  far  back  as  1891  we  had  commenced  road-making.  Captain  Sclatcr 
had  begun  to  clear  a  road  from  Chiromo  to  Zoa,  with  the  intention  of  ultimately 
carrying  on  this  road  to  Mlanje  in  one  direcion,  and  to  Blantyre  and  Zomba  in 
another.  It  was  found,  however,  to  be  of  more  urgent  need  to  the  community 
that  the  road  between  Katunga  and  Blantyre  should  be  made  passable  for 
waggons.  Consequently  Captain  Sclater  undertook  the  reconstruction  of  the 
Katunga  road,2  which  proved  to  be  a  very  lengthy  and  expensive  business 
and  is  not  yet  finally  completed. 

In  the  summer  of  1892  Captain  Stairs'  expedition  returned  from  Katanga, 

1  That  of  1889  only  applied  to  British  and  British  protected  subjects  ;  that  of  1893  kr;lve  us>  in  virtue 
o!  treaties  concluded,  jurisdiction  over  all  subjects  of  i'oreign  States  within  the  limits  of 'the  IV 

-It  had  been  originally  made  by  the  Lakes  Company,  but  it  was  little  more  than  a  rough  track, 
Without  bridges,  and  almost  impassable  for  waggons. 


through  Xyasaland  ;   but  Captain  Stairs,  who  had  been  very  ill  with  black-water 
fever,  died  at  Chinde  before  he  could  embark  on  the  ocean  steamer. 

1893  dawned  on  us  with  somewhat  brighter  prospects.  I  had  spent  a  very 
pleasant  Christmas  at  Blantyre,  and  had  been  cheered  by  the  safe  return  of  Mr. 
Sharpe  from  an  extensive  journey  through  the  Tanganyika,  Mweru,  and  Upper 
Luapula  districts,  where  he  had  added  to  our  geographical  discoveries,  and  had 
settled  many  outstanding  difficulties  with  Arabs  and  native  chiefs.  M.  Lionel 
Decle  arrived  at  the  beginning  of  1893  on  a  scientific  mission  for  the  French 
Government.  In  the  course  of  this  mission  he  had  already  travelled  over 
South  Africa  from  the  Cape  to  Xyasaland.  He  eventually  continued  his  journey 


through  British  Central  Africa  to  the  south  end  of  Tanganyika,  and  thence  to 
Uganda  and  the  east  coast  of  Africa. 

In  January,  1893,  came  Mr.  J.  F.  Cunningham  to  be  my  private  secretary.1 

In  the  month  of  February,  1893,  however,  we  found  ourselves  face   to  face 

with    a   serious  outbreak  on   the    Upper    Shire,  an   outbreak   of   slave  traders 

that  had  long  been  threatened.     The  upper  portion  of  the  Shire  was  ruled  over 

by  a  chief  named   Liwonde,  who  was  a  relation  of  Kawinga's.  -     Liwonde  had 

1  In   1894  he  became   Secretary  to  the   British    Central  Africa  Administration.      Mr.    Cunningham, 
besides  organising  our  printing  establishment  and  Ca/ette,  was— among  many  other  accomplishment 
great  road-maker.      He  constructed  the  road  between  Blantyre  and  Zomba  as  a  "  holiday  task  "  while  I 
was  absent   in  South  Africa  in   the  spring  of    1893       To   praise  one's  private  secretary  is  scarcely   le>s- 
difficult  than  to  praise  oneself;  such  commendation  must  be  private.     Still  I  should  like  to  acknowledge 
here  how  much  I  owe  to  this  gentleman's  unflagging  industry  and  zealous  co-operation  during  the  period 
between  1893  and  the  present  day. 

2  Kawinga,  to  whom  constant  allusion  will  be  made  in  the  pages  of  this  History,  was  a  powerful  Yao 
chief  of  the   Machinga  clan,   who  had   settled   on  Chikala    Mountain,  near  the  north-west   end  of    Lake 
Chiloa.   at  the  end  of  the  fifties  or  beginning  of  the  sixties.       He  is  referred   to   by   Livingstone   in   his 
Last  Journeys  as   Kabinga.      The  chief  Liwonde   was   his   relation,   and   had,  with   some   Yao   followers, 
acquired  the  sovereignty  of  the  I'pper  Shire  about  thirty  year- 



received  me  well  in  1889,  ar>d  nad  made  a  treaty  with  me  ;  but  he  was  incurably 
addicted  to  the  slave  trade.  An  old  Arab,  named  Abu  Bakr  (a  white  Arab  of 
Maskat),  lived  with  Liwonde,  and  acted  as  go-between  for  the  supply  of  slaves 
to  the  Swahili  caravans.  At  the  beginning  of  1893  one  of  these  caravans  had 
kidnapped  and  carried  off  some  boys  at  Zomba  who  worked  in  Mr.  Buchanan's 
plantations.  Captain  C.  E.  Johnson,  who  happened  to  be  staying  at  Zomba, 
hurried  off  in  pursuit  of  the  caravan,  accompanied  by  Mr.  George  Hoare 

(formerly  a  N.C.O.  in  the 
Royal  Engineers)  and  a  few 
Makua  police.  They  came  up 
with  the  caravan  in  Liwonde's 
country,  and  succeeded  in  re- 
leasing the  Zomba  boys,  to- 
gether with  a  large  number  of 
other  slaves,  but  the  slave 
traders  managed  to  elude  them. 
On  the  return  of  the  rescue 
party  to  the  banks  of  the 
Shire,  in  Liwonde's  country, 
they  were  attacked  by  Li- 
wonde's men.  One  of  the 
Makua  police  was  killed,  and 
others  were  badly  wounded, 
while  Mr.  Hoare  had  to  swim 
for  his  life  down  the  river  till 
he  was  out  of  the  range  of 
the  enemy's  guns.  Fortunately 
the  rescued  slaves  were  not 
recaptured.  The  whole  river 
now  was  up  in  arms  wherever 
there  were  Yao.  A  boat  of 
the  African  Lakes  Company 
was  coming  down  in  charge 
of  some  Atonga.  It  was  seized 
by  Liwonde's  men,  and  one  of 
the  Atonga  had  his  throat  cut  in  Liwonde's  presence.  Others,  though 
wounded,  managed  to  escape.  Finally,  the  Doinira  unfortunately  chose  this 
moment  to  make  one  of  her  rare  periodical  trips  down  the  Upper  Shire  to 
Matope,  and  stuck  on  a  sandbank  opposite  to  one  of  Liwonde's  towns.  When 
we  heard  the  news  at  Zomba,  we  scraped  together  all  the  forces  we  could 
collect,  but  these  only  consisted  of  Makua  police  and  Atonga  labourers.  With 
these  men  Captain  Johnson  and  I  started  for  the  Upper  Shire.  At  Mpimbi 
we  were  joined  by  Messrs.  Sharpe,  Gilbert  Stevenson,  and  Crawshay.  \\  e 
fought  our  way  up  the  river  to  the  place  where  the  Doinira  was  stranded.  Here 
we  were  over  three  days  in  a  very  disagreeable  position.  Our  camp  was  com- 
manded by  the  higher  ground  in  the  vicinity,  from  which  the  natives  continually 
fired  into  us.  They  also  kept  up  a  steady  fire  on  the  Doinira,  and  Mr.  Steven- 
son, in  going  on  board  that  steamer,  was  gravely,  almost  mortally,  wounded. l 

1  He  was  shot  through  the  body  just  in  front  of  the  kidneys,  but  made  a  marvellous  recover)-,  and 
subsequently  did  excellent  service  in  the  Protectorate  in  the  Mlanje  district.  When  out  shooting  game  in 
September,  1896,  his  gun  went  off  accidentally  and  killed  him. 

MR.   J.    F.    CUNNINGHAM 


We  were  getting  anxious  as  to  our  position,  owing  to  the  possible  exhaustion  of 
our  ammunition  and  the  fact  that  the  enemy  had  reoccupied  the  banks  of  the 
Shire  behind  us,  thus  cutting  us  off  from  overland  communication  with  the 
Shire  Highlands.  The  boats  which  attempted  to  go  up  or  down  the  Shire 
were  fired  at,  and  several  boatmen  and  soldiers  were  wounded.  Mr.  Alfred 
Sharpe  was  the  first  to  relieve  the  acute  crisis  of  our  position  by  stealing  out 
with  a  few  Atonga  from  the  stockade,  and  lying  in  ambush  along  one  of  the 
paths  which  the  enemy  used  for  advancing  in  our  direction.  In  this  way  he 
was  able  to  pick  off  with  his  rifle  several  of  Liwonde's  most  noted  warriors  and 
leaders,  and  this  considerably  damped  the  enemy's  ardour.1 

On  the  third  day  of  our  beleaguered  state  there  arrived  very  welcome 
reinforcements  in  the  shape  of  Herr  von  Eltz  (who  was  in  charge  of  Major 
von  Wissmann's  expedition,  intended  to  convey  a  steamer  to  Lake  Nyasa), 
a  German  non-commissioned  officer,  a  Hotchkiss  gun,  and  about  twenty 
Sudanese  soldiers.  These  really  relieved  us  from  any  peril,  and  enabled 
those  who  had  been  three  days  in  this  camp  without  sleep  or  a  proper 
meal,  to  get  both  whilst  the  new  arrivals  kept  watch.  On  the  following  clay 
Lieut.  Commander  Carr,  who  commanded  H.M.S.  Mosquito  on  the  Zambezi, 
arrived  with  Dr.  Harper  and  about  twenty  blue-jackets. 

We  had  succeeded  in  getting  the  Domini  off  the  sand-bank,  she  had 
gone  to  Matope,  and  returned  with  Mr.  Sharpe  and  further  reinforcements. 
We  were  now,  therefore,  able  to  advance  up  the  river  and  capture  Liwonde's 
town  which  was  done  without  much  serious  fighting;  the  brunt  of  the  struggle 
falling  to  Herr  von  Eltz  and  his  Sudanese,  and  Mr.  F.  J.  Whicker.'2  Liwonde's 
town  was  on  an  island  and  our  forces  advanced  on  both  banks  of  the  river. 
We  managed  to  wade  across  one  branch  of  the  Shire  to  the  island  which  the 
enemy  had  already  abandoned  on  our  near  approach. 

Lieut.  Carr  and  the  blue-jackets  assisted  us  in  building  two  forts  and  then 
returned  to  the  lower  river,  one  or  two  blue-jackets  remaining  behind  for  a  few 
weeks  to  assist  us  in  garrisoning  the  forts.  Commander  Robertson  and  myself 
passed  on  up  the  river  to  the  limits  of  Liwonde's  country  in  the  Doniira,  but 
had  no  fighting  of  any  serious  character.  Liwonde  fled  and  we  did  not  succeed 
in  capturing  him  for  several  years,  during  which  he  occasionally  gave  us  trouble/5 
The  pacification  of  the  country  was  ably  effected  by  Mr.  F.  J.  Whicker,  under 
whose  superintendence  the  Upper  Shire  has  become  one  of  the  most  prosperous 
districts  in  the  Protectorate,  with  an  abundant  and  contented  population. 

In  March,  1893,  Captain  Sclater  was  obliged  to  return  to  England  on 
account  of  his  health  and  the  expiration  of  the  time  for  which  he  was  seconded. 
In  April  I  started  for  South  Africa  to  confer  with  Mr.  Rhodes  and  the  secretary 
of  the  South  Africa  Company,  in  regard  to  the  contributions  to  be  furnished 
by  that  Company  towards  the  adminstration  of  British  Central  Africa. 

On  my  way  down  the  river  I  met  Lieut,  (now  Lieut.- Colonel)  Edwards,  who 
had  arrived  from  India  with  a  large  reinforcement  of  Sikhs.  For  two  years 
past  the  armed  forces  in  the  Protectorate  had  consisted  of  one  English  officer, 
sixty  to  seventy  Indian  Sepoys,  and  about  fifty  Zanzibaris  and  Makua  (the 
latter  being  natives  of  Mozambique).  The  Indian  soldiers,  again,  included  over 
forty  Mazbi  Sikhs  and  about  twenty  Indian  Muhammadan  cavalrymen.  The 
term  for  which  these  men  were  allowed  to  volunteer  from  the  Indian  Army 

1  An  important  settlement  was  afterwards  founded  here  and  called  "  Fort  Sharpe." 

"   Subsequently  collector  for  the   Upper  Shire  district. 

'•''    Fie  is  however  now  exiled  to  Port  Herald  on  the  Lower  Shire. 




would  expire  in  the  summer  of  1893,  and  I  had  therefore  made  arrangements 
with  the  Indian  Government  for  their  relief,  but  had  asked  on  this  occasion,  at 
the  suggestion  of  Captain  Johnson,  that  when  the  second  Indian  contingent 
was  sent  out,  all  the  new  Indian  soldiers  should  be  Jat  Sikhs  and  not  Mazbis.1 

Lieut.  Edwards  brought  with  him  a  hundred  Sikhs  on  this  occasion.  A  few 
months  after  their  arrival  the  time  expired  of  the  Mazbi  Sikhs,  and  the  few 
Indian  cavalrymen  that  remained  were  sent  back  to  India. 
Later  on  in  the  year  another  hundred  Sikhs  arrived,  under 
the  command  of  Lieut,  (now  Captain)  W.  H.  Manning, 
thus  bringing  up  the  full  strength  of  our  Indian  contingent 
to  200  men,  which  maximum  it  has  not  since  exceeded. 
In  regard  to  black  troops  we  had  first  of  all  tried  natives  of 
Zanzibar,  but  these  men  had  not  proved  very  satisfactory. 
They  were  nearly  as  expensive  as  the  Sikhs,  they  were  not 
-  ^  all  of  them  very  brave  or  reliable  in  warfare,  and  they 

were    difficult    to   procure,  owing  to   the    restrictions 
which   had   been   placed   at  that  time  on   the  ex- 
patriation of  the  natives  of  Zanzibar  ;  restrictions 
rendered  absolutely  necessary  owing  to  the  drain 
\l  on  the  population  of  that  island  caused   by  the 

engagement  of  Zanzibaris  for  the  many  expedi- 
tions engaged  in  African  exploration.  I  had  been 
much  struck  with  the  good  qualities  of  the  Makua 
of  Mozambique  The  escort  I  had  taken  with 
me  in  my  journeys  of  1889-90  was  composed  of 
Makua,  recruited  at  Mozambique.  I  had  also 
obtained  Makua  for  the  Thomson-Grant  expedi- 
tion to  Bangweolo,  and  these  men  after  Mr. 
Thomson's  return  had  passed  into  our  police 
force.  We  were  also  beginning  to  employ  as 
police  the  Atonga  natives  of  West  Nyasa.  I 
therefore  decided  to  pay  off  and  send  back  our 
\  few  remaining  Zanzibaris,  and  to  replace  them 

m  y  by  Makua  and  natives  of  Nyasaland.    Meantime, 

however,  at  a  suggestion  from  the  late  Mr.  Portal, 

I.IEUT.-COI,  c.  A.  EDWARDS  I  tried  the  experiment  of  forming  a  small  corps 

of  Zanzibar  Arabs  (most  of  them  ex-soldiers  of 

the  Sultan  of  Zanzibar's  bodyguard).  These  men  were  of  poor  physique,  and 
we  only  kept  them  in  our  service  from  one  to  two  years.  They  were  very  plucky 
and,  contrary  to  some  people's  anticipation,  perfectly  loyal.2 

During  the  year  1893  arrangements  which  had  been  begun  for  the  division 
of  the  British  Central  Africa  Protectorate  and  the  adjoining  Sphere  of  the 

1  I  need  scarcely  remind  my  readers  that  the  Sikhs  are  not  a  race  but  merely  a  religious  sect.  They 
are  really  a  section  of  the  I'anjab  people  of  very  varied  types  of  humanity,  some  being  dark  coloured  and 
of  almost  Dravidian  aspect,  others  having  faces  of  Greek  outline  and  very  pale  complexions.  The  Jat 
belongs  to  the  cultivator  class  and  is  supposed  to  be  much  more  aristocratic  than  the  Ma/bi.  Between  the 
Ma/bis  and  the  Tats,  however,  I  could  see  very  little  difference  in  general  appearance,  and  to  my  thinking 
both  kinds  of  Sikhs  were  equally  good;  perhaps  in  one  or  two  points  the  Mazbis  had  the  advantage  in 
regard  to  physical  endurance,  while  on  the  other  hand  the  Jats  were  more  cheery  in  disposition,  and  even 
more  loyally  enthusiastic  than  the  Mazbis.  In  the  days  when  the  Sikhs  set  much  store  by  caste,  the  Mazbis 
were  the  "  sweepers  "  or  lowest  caste  of  all,  and  by  some  were  hardly  recognised  as  proper  Sikhs. 

1  A  detailed  description  of  our  present  military  force  in  the  1'rotectorate  will  be  found  in  the 
Appendix  to  this  chapter. 




British   South  Africa  Company  into  administrative  divisions  were  completed. 

The   Protectorate  was   divided   into  twelve  districts,  the  names   of  which  will 

be   found   in   the   accompanying   map,  and  that   portion   of   the   South   Africa 

Company's  territory  which  we  were  able  to  administer  was 

divided  into  the  districts  of  Tanganyika,  Chambezi,  Mweru 

and  Luapula.1 

During  my  absence  in  South  Africa  Mr.  Sharpe  had 

taken  an   important   step  towards  controlling  the  Mlanje 

district,  and  guarding  our  south-eastern  border  from  the 

raids   of  a  very  troublesome   chief,   known   as   Matipwiri. 

To  check  these  raids  he  had  founded   Fort  Lister  in  the 

pass  between   Mounts  Mlanje  and   Michesi.     The  idea  of 

building  a  fort  at  this  spot  was  no  new  one.     It  had  first 

occurred  to  Consul   Hawes  in   1886,  and  I   had  taken  up 

the  idea  again  after  my  first  visit  to  Mlanje  in  1892.    After 

that  journey   I  decided  that  as  soon  as  we  could  obtain 

reinforcements  from  India,  we  should  build  forts  to  guard 

the   north   and  south  ends  of  Mlanje   Mountain.      These 

forts  I  subsequently  named  Fort  Lister  and  Fort  Anderson 

to  commemorate  the  sympathy  and  assistance  I  had  re- 
ceived at  the  hands  of  Sir  Villiers  Lister  and  Sir  Percy 

Anderson    of    the    Foreign    Office,    in    carrying    out    my 

projects  for  the  suppression  of  the  slave  trade.     Captain 

C.  K.  Johnson  commenced  the  construction  of  Fort  Lister, 

but  although  his  advent  in  this  country  was  warmly 
welcomed  by  the  indigenous  A-nyanja 
chiefs,  it  was  anything  but  welcome  to 

the  Yao  slave  traders,  prominent  among  whom  was  the 
chieftain  named  Nyaserera.2  Nyaserera  seems  to  have  disliked 
the  idea  of  making  an  attack  in  force  on  the  fort  as  long  as 
it  was  defended  by  a  white  man,  but  the  idea  apparently 
occurred  to  him  to  attempt  the  assassination  of  Captain 
Johnson.  That,  at  least,  was  the  belief  of  most  of  the  native 
witnesses  whom  we  subsequently  examined.  What  took  place 
was  this:  One  night  as  Captain  Johnson  was  sitting  down 
to  dinner  in  his  temporary  bungalow  he  heard  a  slight  noise 
in  his  adjoining  sleeping  apartment,  and  on  looking  up  saw 
a  man  with  a  spear  concealed  behind  a  portiere.  He  at  once 
attempted  to  seize  the  intruder.  The  latter  grappled  with 
him  in  the  bath-room,  to  which  he  had  retreated,  and  stabbed 
the  Captain  till  he  swooned.  He  then  made  off  before 
assistance  came.  This  news  was  conveyed  to  me  by  the 
Indian  hospital  assistant  at  Fort  Lister. 

I  hurried  over  there  with  Mr.  Whyte,  and  such  was  the 
panic  created  amongst  the  natives  by  Xyaserera's  sudden 
evidence  of  hostility  towards  us  that  we  had  the  greatest 
difficulty  in  getting  any  porters  to  carry  our  loads.  Part  of 

1  I  believe  to  these  districts  the  South  Africa  Company  have  now  added  the  Mpc/eni  district  and  the 
Luangwa  districts.  The  capital  of  the  latter  is  Fort  Jameson. 

-  Nyaserera  though  he  ruled  Yao  and  identified  himself  much  with  the  Yao  cau^e.  was  in  reality 
a  Mlolo  from  the  countries  west  of  Lake  Chilwa.  The  A-lolo  are  closely  related  to  the  Makua  and 
speak  nearly  the  same  language. 

A    hIKH    M>U>IKR    IN     I  UK 


A    SIKH    SOI.DIKK    IN 
I  Kill  TINT,    KIT 

I  20 


the  way  we  had  to  travel  through  Nyaserera's  country,  and  between  bands  of 
sullen-looking  warriors  on  either  side  of  the  narrow  path.    They  would  probably 
have  attacked  us  but  that  an  escort  of  Sikhs  had  come  out 'to  meet  us  from 
^^^^^  Fort  Lister. 

At  this  place  I  held  meetings  with  many  chiefs,  and 
endeavoured  to  detach  from  Nyaserera  his  relations  and 
allies  ;  and  this  diplomacy  proved  so  far  successful  that 
when  later  on  Lieut.  Edwards  arrived  from  Fort  Johnston 
he  had  only  Nyaserera  to  fight,  and  subdued  him  after  a 
brief  campaign. 

Later  in  the  year  further  troubles  broke  out  in  the 
Mlanje  district,  with  the  chief  Mkanda,  whose  subjects 
had  been  concerned  in  recent  road  robberies,  and  who  was 
continually  kidnapping  women  for  the  slave  trade.  I  took 
advantage  of  the  arrival  of  the  second  detachment  of 
ioo  Sikhs  to  bring  Mkanda  to  his  senses,  but  I  thought 
at  first  it  would  be  sufficient  for  him  to  be  made  aware 
that^the  Sikhs  were  encamped  in  the  plain  on  their  way 
to  Fort  Lister,  while  the  collector  of  the  Mlanje  district 
(Mr.  Bell)  visited  Mkanda  in  the  mountains  with  a  small 
escort  and  delivered  an  ultimatum,  to  which  I  believed 
Mkanda  would  submit.  Mkanda,  however,  was  very  in- 
solent, and  his  men  commenced  attacking  Mr.  Bell's  escort. 
To  protect  themselves  in  retreating  the  escort  set  fire  to 
some  houses  and  loose  stacks  of  grass  for  thatching,  and 
succeeded  in  reaching  the  main  force  encamped  in  the 
plain.  They  then  com- 
municated with  Captain 
Johnson  at  Fort  Lister, 

and  awaited  instructions  as  to  further  pro- 
cedure. Mkanda  took  advantage  of  this  tem- 
porary inaction  to  attack  the  Scotch  Mission 
station  on  the  borders  of  his  territory.  The 
missionaries  took  to  flight  and  Mkanda's  men 
gutted  and  burnt  most  of  the  houses,  and 
succeeded  in  carrying  off  several  guns  and  a 
quantity  of  ammunition.  Fortunately  the  up- 
rising spread  no  farther,  and  the  other  Yao 
chiefs  did  not  join  in,  though  Matipwiri  sent 
out  skirmishers  to  see  what  he  could  do  in  the 
way  of  highway  robbery. 

Mkanda's  men  also  intercepted  and  slew 
several  Atonga  labourers  on  their  way  to  a 
European  plantation,  but  after  several  days' 
hard  fighting  among  the  crags  and  precipices 
of  Mlanje,  Captain  Johnson  succeeded  in 
capturing  all  Mkanda's  positions,  and  Mkanda 

His  near  relation  Kada,  who  had  remained  on  our  side  during  this  struggle, 
succeeded  him  in  the  chieftainship.  Most  of  his  people  returned  when  peace 
was  made,  and  were  allowed  to  settle  in  the  plains  instead  of  amongst  the 

A    SIKH    SOI.1MKK 





mountains.  Mkanda  himself  eventually  made  terms  with  us  and  returned  to 
his  country.  So  did  Nyaserera,  who,  strange  to  say,  is  now  one  of  our  greatest 

It  was  perhaps  just  as  well  that  this  outbreak  occurred  when  it  did,  as 
it  prevented  Mkanda  attacking  us  when  all  our  forces  were  subsequently 
engaged  in  the  Makanjira  expedition.  For  this  expedition  I  had  been 
continually  preparing  since  the  death  of  Captain  Maguire.  I  had  succeeded 
in  getting  the  gunboats  placed  on  Lake  Nyasa  and  the  Upper  Shire.  These 
vessels  were  now  completed,  and  in  the  summer  of  1893  Admiral  Bedford,1 
Commander-in-chief  on  the  Cape  Station,  had  paid  me  a  visit  at  Zomba, 
and  had  proceeded  with  me  to  Lake  Nyasa  to  witness  the  launching  of 
the  two  gunboats  and  to  inspect  the  already  completed  vessel  for  the  Upper 

I    had    discussed    the    need    for    this    expedition    with    Mr.    Rhodes    when 

K  s  nnrsK  AT  FOR'; 

visiting  Capetown,  and  he  had  agreed  in  addition  to  the  ordinary  subsidies 
of  the  Company  to  find  £io,OOO'2  for  increasing  the  police  force  in  order  to 
grapple  with  Makanjira  and  subdue  him.  This  aid  had  enabled  us  to  obtain 
an  additional  100  Sikhs  from  India,  who  came  out  under  the  command 
of  Lieut.  W.  H.  Manning.3  It  was  high  time  we  moved  because  our  faithful 
ally  Jumbe  was  almost  at  his  last  gasp.  A  certain  Yao  headman  of  Jumbe's 
named  Chiwaura  had  been  encouraged  by  Makanjira  to  rebel,  and  with 
the  assistance  of  Makanjira's  men  had  defeated  Jumbe  and  forced  him 
to  retire  to  his  capital.  Chiwaura  had  built  a  very  strong  town  about  five 
miles  inland  from  Kotakota,  with  high  loopholed  walls  of  red  clay,  and  an 
inner  citadel  surrounded  by  trees  of  great  girth.  Except  on  one  side 
Chiwaura's  town  was  surrounded  by  an  impassable  marsh,  a  swamp  which  it 
was  almost  impossible  to  cross. 

Accordingly  we  decided  first  of  all  to  relieve  Jumbe  before  proceeding 
against  Makanjira  directly.  The  African  Lakes  Company's  boats  Doinira 
and  Ilala  were  chartered  to  convey  the  troops,  while  some  of  the  officers 

1  Now  Sir  Frederick   Bedford,   K.r.n. 

-  Of  which  sum  over  £4,000  were  spent  and   the  balance  returned  to   Mr.    Rhodes. 

3  Now  Captain  Manning  and  second  in  command  of  the  H.  C.  A.  forces. 



CAPT.  \v.  ii.  VANNING 

and  myself  travelled  on  the  gunboats  which  were  under  the  direction  of 
Commander  Robertson,  R.X.  The  officers  consisted  of  Captain  Johnson, 
Lieut.  Edwards,  Dr.  Watson,  and  a  volunteer  in  the  person  of  Mr.  Glave, 
who  had  come  out  to  Central  Africa  to  study  these  countries  on  behalf  of 
the  Century,  an  American  magazine.1  Mr.  Alfred  Sharpe  also  accompanied 

the  expedition. 

^^^^^^^^^^^^  Our  terms  were  rejected   by   Chiwaura  who   felt 

illimitable  confidence  in  his  clay  walls,  not  realising 
that  his  town  was  absolutely  at  the  mercy  of  a 
bombardment.  It  lay  in  a  marshy  plain  within  700 
yards  of  the  precipitous  cliffs  of  a  little  plateau.  The 
approach  to  this  plateau  was  not  defended  by 
Chiwaura,  though  he  might  have  made  it  very 
difficult  for  our  forces  to  get  there  except  with 
great  loss  of  men  ;  but  without  other  difficulties 
than  those  attending  transport  on  men's  heads,  we 
succeeded  in  planting  our  7-pounder  guns  on  the 
edge  of  the  aforementioned  cliffs.  From  this  position 
we  shelled  Chiwaura,  and  the  main  town  was  soon 
in  flames.  The  people  retired  to  the  inner  citadel, 
which  was  not  in  the  same  way  destructible,  since  the 
shells  burst  harmlessly  in  the  adjoining  forest.  The 
enemy  after  a  while  called  for  a  truce,  but  more 

Africano  employed  this  interval  in  the  hostilities  to  strengthen  his  defences, 
and  when  he  was  ready  to  begin  again  he  announced  the  fact  by  firing  on 
our  soldiers  when  they  approached  the  walls  under  cover  of  the  truce.  In 
fact  in  African  warfare  the  hoisting  of  a  white  flag  really  means,  "  I  want  a 
breathing  spell,"  and  when  both  sides  are  rested  they  go  on  again  without 
troubling  themselves  to  announce  the  cessation  of  the  truce. 

J  urn  be  had  put  4,000  men  under  arms  and  had  accompanied  us  to  the 
scene  of  the  fight,  where  he  remained  the  whole  of  the  time  with  his  head 
wives.  Jumbe  though  old  and  feeble  was  not  lacking  in  bravery,  and  would 
willingly  have  risked  his  life  against  Chiwaura  had  I  not  held  him  back, 
but  Jumbe's  commander  was  by  no  means  a  rash  man.  He  was  gaudily 
dressed  in  scarlet  cloth  and  had  innumerable  charms  hung  about  him  to 
dispel  ill-luck,  but  he  was  very  much  afraid  of  coming  to  close  quarters 
with  the  enemy.  During  the  truce  we  would  watch  with  amusement  this 
great  mass  of  several  thousand  men  surge  across  the  quarter  of  a  mile  of 
plain  which  lay  between  us  and  Chiwaura's  town,  but  as  soon  as  a  gun  was 
discharged  from  the  ramparts  by  the  enemy,  Jumbe's  commander  would  shout 
"  Tamanga  !  tamanga  !  "  (Run  !  run  !),  and  the  whole  four  thousand  would  surge 
back  to  the  base  of  the  cliffs.  At  last  the  afternoon  was  drawing  towards 
evening,  and  the  enemy  showed  no  disposition  to  yield.  Jumbe's  people 
were  beginning  to  doubt  whether  the  white  man  was  equal  to  taking  such  a 
place  as  Chiwaura's.  It  was  necessary  to  show  them  that  not  only  could  we 
set  a  place  on  fire  at  a  distance  of  half  a  mile  through  our  shells,  but  if 
incumbent  on  us  we  could  come  to  close  quarters  and  take  a  town  by 

1  Mr.  Glave  was  an  Englishman  who  had  served  with  Stanley  on  the  Congo.  He  subsequently 
journeyed  through  British  Central  Africa  to  the  Congo  Free  State,  thence  down  the  Congo  to  the 
vicinity  of  the  Atlantic  Ocean,  where  he  unfortunately  died  of  fever  he  fore  he  proceeded  on  board  the 
ocean-going  steamer. 



assault,  even  at  the  risk  of  losing  lives  in  so  doing.  Accordingly  Captain 
Johnson  gave  orders  for  a  general  assault,  and  with  about  seventy  Sikhs 
and  thirty  Makua  dashed  across  the  plain  through  the  ruined  precincts  of 
the  outer  town  and  up  to  the  high  wall  of  the  inner  citadel,  over  which  he 
and  the  other  officers  and  the  Sikhs  swarmed  and  scrambled.  The  first  Sikh 


Avho  succeeded  in  climbing  to  the  top  of  the  wall,  which  was  about  eight 
feet  high,  and  began  to  haul  up  his  comrades,  was  shot  dead.  Otherwise 
there  were  no  casualties  on  our  part  but  severe  wounds.  Once  the  troops  had 
got  on  the  top  of  this  high  wall  of  the  citadel  the  enemy  were  completely 
at  their  mercy  and  huddled  together  in  a  seething  mass  below.  Appalled  at 
the  idea  of  the  slaughter  that  must  ensue  from  continual  firing,  Captain 
Johnson  gave  the  order  "  cease  firing."  This  leniency  on  his  part  was  taken 


by  the  enemy  for  sudden  fear,  and  a  furious  fusillade  was  opened  on  our  inert 
by  which  several  more  were  wounded.  Then  with  or  without  order  our  guns 
went  off,  and  numbers  of  the  enemy  were  shot  down.  The  bulk  of  them, 
however,  including  Chiwaura,  scrambled  over  the  further  wall  and  dropped 
into  the  marsh  below,  where  a  good  many  of  them  were  drowned.  Chiwaura 
himself  was  shot  as  he  was  running  away,  and  fell  dead  into  the  marsh.  The 
citadel  was  then  entered  by  our  men,  and  hundreds  of  women  were  found 
cooped  up  in  the  houses,  many  of  them  in  slave  sticks.  They  were  set  free 
and  directed  to  proceed  to  Kotakota,  where  many  of  them  had  their  homes.1 
That  same  night  our  forces  returned  to  Kotakota.  The  next  two  days  were 
spent  in  levelling  the  \valls  of  Chiwaura's  town. 

We  then  decided  to  proceed  down  the  south-west  shore  of  the  lake,  part  of 
us  going  overland  and  the  remainder  on  the  gunboats  and  steamers  to  the  Rifu 
peninsula,  which  was  strongly  held  by  Makanjira,  whose  relation  Kuluunda, 
a  famous  woman  chief  amongst  the  Yao,  had  displaced  Kazembe,  our  ally  and 
her  nephew.  Whilst  attacking  Kazembe's  old  town  (Kazembe  himself  had 
joined  us  with  a  few  men  remaining  faithful  to  him)  we  received  information 
that  a  dau  had  just  crossed  from  Makanjira's  with  seventy  fighting  men 
on  board,  and  a  large  quantity  of  gunpowder,  and  would  probably  land  in 
"  Leopard  Bay."  H.M.S.  Pioneer  was  dispatched  thither  under  the  command 
of  Lieut.  Villiers,  R.N.  Although  the  Pioneer  did  not  succeed  in  preventing 
the  dau  from  reaching  the  shore  she  fired  into  her  and  disabled  her  so  that  she 
stranded  on  the  rocks.  But  Makanjira's  men  succeeded  in  escaping  to  the  hill 
overlooking  Leopard  Bay  where  they  were  joined  by  the  defeated  enemy 
who  had  been  driven  out  of  Kazembe's  town.  The  situation  was  further 
complicated  by  the  arrival  of  a  large  Arab  slave-trading  caravan,  commanded 
by  four  or  five  white  Arabs  and  containing  several  hundred  slaves.  The  Arabs 
joined  their  forces  to  those  of  Kuluunda  and  Makanjira,  and  for  several  days 
we  besieged  these  people  by  land  and  water  round  the  lofty  hill  which  overlooks 
Leopard  Bay.  Eventually  the  Arabs  of  the  slave  caravan,  Kuluunda,  and  most 
of  her  followers  were  captured  or  surrendered;  but  meantime  a  force  of  Jumbe's 
men  was  left  to  continue  the  siege  of  the  hill  while  our  Sikhs,  Makua,  and  300 
of  Jumbe's  soldiers,  together  with  Jumbe  himself  and  all  the  officers,  were 
conveyed  across  the  lake  to  Makanjira's  main  town.  We  had  made  the  journey 
by  way  of  Monkey  Bay  so  as  to  have  a  short  rest  before  embarking  on  the 
most  critical  part  of  our  programme.  We  had  timed  ourselves  to  arrive  at 
Makanjira's  town  at  dawn.  The  enemy  were  taken  somewhat  by  surprise,  and 
we  succeeded  in  effecting  a  landing  on  the  sandy  promontory  to  the  south 
of  Makanjira's  huge  straggling  metropolis  of  many  thousand  huts  and  houses 
without  meeting  with  any  serious  resistance.  This  promontory  was  separated 
from  the  town  by  a  strip  of  low-lying  swampy  country.  After  entrenching 
ourselves  in  a  camp  the  bulk  of  our  forces  started  with  Captain  Johnson, 
Lieut. .  Edwards,  and  Mr.  Glave  to  try  conclusions  with  Makanjira's  forces, 
while  the  town  was  shelled  over  their  heads  by  Mr.  Sharpe  from  the  camp 
and  from  the  two  gunboats  which  steamed  along  the  shore.  The  Pioneer  found 

1  Not  a  few  of  these  poor  women  were  far  gone  with  child,  and  the  terror  of  the  bombardment 
so  upset  them  that  on  the  way  to  Kotakota  woman  after  woman  sat  down  by  the  way  and  gave  birth  to  a 
child,  which  she  straightway  abandoned  in  her  panic  fear  of  Chiwaura's  pursuit.  It  was  a  quaint  though 
touching  sight  to  see  the  Sikh  soldiers  gravely  gathering  up  the  new-born  babes  and  carrying  them  with 
their  many  other  burdens  of  rifle  and  kit  into  Kotakota.  where  they  were  afterwards  impartially  distributed 
among  the  various  women  who  claimed  to  be  recently  parturient.  Never  in  any  historical  tale  or 
Gilbertian  burlesque  were  babies  so  hopelessly  "mixed." 



one  of  Makanjira's  daus  drawn  up  in  a  narrow  creek  near  to  or  at  the  place 
where  Captain  Maguire  had  been  killed.  In  spite  of  a  heavy  fire  from  the 
enemy  this  dau  was  attached  by  a  hawser  to  the  gunboat,1  and  towed  out  into 
the  lake.2 

After  about  five  hours'  fighting  Makanjira's  forces  gave  up  the  struggle  and 
disappeared.  We  then  had  at  our  mercy  his  many  villages.  Several  times  he 
asked  for  terms  of  peace,  but  apparently  without  any  idea  but  to  gain  time. 
The  place  where  Captain  Maguire  had  been  killed  and  Boyce  and  McEvvan 

massacred  was  destroyed,  with  several  other  villages  and  towns  in  Makanjira's 
country.  These  extreme  measures  were  only  resorted  to,  however,  after 
Makanjira  had  refused  our  terms  of  peace. 

Kuluunda  was  sent  as  an  exile  to  Port  Herald  on  the  Shire.:! 

As  Makanjira  would  not  make  peace  with  us  I  had  now  to  consider  what 
steps  should  be  taken  to  occupy  his  country.  Some  of  my  staff  were  of  opinion 
that  it  would  be  better  after  destroying  the  towns  to  remove  our  forces,  as  we 
could  always  return  on  other  occasions  and  prevent  any  attempt  on  the  part 
of  Makanjira  to  rebuild;  but  my  own  views  were  different.  It  seemed  to  me 

1  This  deed  uas  accomplished  by  Ilajji  . \skar,  a  Persian,  uho  was  an  interpreter  on  board  the 

-  It  now  plies  to  and  fro  across  the  lake  under  the  British  ilai;  conveying  natives  over  the  ( lo\  eminent 

•'  In   1896  she  was  allowed  to  return  to  her  country  on  the  promise  of  good  behaviour. 



that  the  expeditions  against  Makanjira  would  have  to  be  annual  unless  we 
permanently  occupied  his  country.  I  therefore  decided  to  leave  Major  Edwards 
behind  with  a  large  force  of  Sikhs  to  build  a  strong  fort  near  the  place  where 
Captain  Maguire  had  been  killed.  This  fort  was  then  named  "  Fort  Maguire." 

Having  chosen  the  site  and. seen  the  British  flag  hoisted  with  great  ceremony 
I  returned  to  Zomba  and  spent  the  winter  in  attending  to  the  civil  organisation 
of  the  Protectorate.  At  the  beginning  of  1894  Makanjira  attacked  Fort 
Maguire  and  the  surrounding  villages  with  a  large  force  of  men,  but  was 
defeated  with  great  loss  by  Captain  Edwards,  who  soon  after  succeeded 
Captain  Johnson  as  the  senior  officer  in  command  of  the  B.C.A.  forces. 



Early  in  this  year  Mr.  Harrhy,  who  had  been  lent  by  the  Postmaster-General 
of  Cape  Colony  (Mr.  French)  for  a  year  to  organise  our  Postal  Service,  returned 
to  Cape  Town,  and  his  place  was 'taken  by  Mr.  J.  E.  McMaster  (now  Vice- 
Consul  at  Chinde),  who  has  been  a  most  efficient  Postmaster-General. 

In  April,  1894,  I  returned  to  England  for  a  much-needed  holiday,  Mr. 
Sharpe  conducting  the  administration  of  the  country  during  my  absence. 
Besides  reasons  of  health  which  necessitated  this  return,  the  time  had  come 
when  the  development  of  the  Protectorate  required  its  administration  to  be 
placed  on  a  thoroughly  sound  basis,  and  the  period  during  which  the  South 
Africa  Company  had  agreed  to  contribute  towards  the  cost  of  its  administration 
being  near  expiration '  it  would  be  necessary  for  Her  Majesty's  Government 
to  consider  the  financial  provision  which  was  needed  for  the  future  maintenance 


of  the  Protectorate.  The  summer  and  autumn  of  1894  were  spent  in  making 
these  arrangements,  the  results  of  which  were  that  the  Civil  Service  was  hence- 
forth efficiently  organised,  and  the  South  Africa  Company's  subsidies  were 
devoted  to  the  administration  of  the  Company's  own  territory;  the  direct 
administration  of  which  was  taken  over  from  me  by  the  Company  in  1895. 
The  Imperial  Government  repaid  to  the  South  Africa  Company  and  to  Mr. 
Rhodes  a  proportion  of  the  sums  spent  on  the  defence  and  development  of  the 

The  Civil  Service  of  the  Protectorate  and  the  Postal  Service  were  put  on  a 
satisfactory  footing.  A  postage  stamp l  was  designed  and  issued.  Arrangements 
were  made  for  taking  over  the  lake  gunboats  from  the  Admiralty  and  working 
them  henceforth  by  the  Administration  of  the  Protectorate. 

Freed   from   all  future  anxieties  concerning   finance   I   started  for  India  to 


settle  the  question  of  the  Indian  contingent  on  a  definite  basis  with  the 
Indian  authorities. 

A  very  satisfactory  arrangement  was  come  to,  lasting  six  years,  which 
permits  of  our  employing  as  many  as  200  Sikhs  from  the  Indian  Army  in 
British  Central  Africa. 

I  left  India  on  the  1st  of  April,  1895,  and  reached  Chinde  on  the  I9th  of 
that  month,  and  Zomba  on  the  4th  of  May.  I  found  that  during  my  absence 
everything  had  proceeded  smoothly  until  the  early  spring  of  1895,  when  the 
Yao  chief  Kawinga,  whose  attitude  had  long  been  threatening,  had  attempted 
a  very  serious  attack  on  the  British  Protectorate.  He  had  felt  his  way  by  first 
raiding  the  villages  of  a  chief  named  Malemia,  in  whose  territory  the  Church  of 

1  The  design  for  this  was  slightly  altered  of  late  and  differently  printed,  but  remains  practically  the 
same  as  that  devised  in  1894.  It  consists  of  the  Coat  of  Arms  of  the  Protectorate  (which  is  on  the 
cover  of  this  book).  This  Coat  of  Anns  was  designed  by  me,  with  the  assistance  and  advice  of  Sir  Albert 
Woods  It  may  be  described  as  a  shield  sable,  with  a  pile  or,  and  over  all  a  fimbriated  cross  argent,  bearing 
an  inescutcheon  gules  on  which  is  imprinted  the  Royal  Arms  in  or.  The  shield  is  poised  on  an  outspread 
map  of  Africa  ;  supporters,  two  negroes,  one  carrying  a  pick  and  the  other  a  shovel  ;  crest,  a  coffee-tree  in 
lull  hearing;  motto,  "Light  in  darkness."  Put  in  plain  language  the  shield  is  intended  to  illustrate  our 
three  colours,  black,  yellow,  and  white,  with  a  touch  of  the  English  red.  Into  the  sable  mass  of  Africa 
I  have  driven  a  pile  (wedge)  of  Indian  yellow.  Over  all  is  the  white  cross,  representing  in  its  best 
-significations  the  all-embracing  white  man.  The  inescutcheon  of  English  red  shows  the  Arms  of  the 
protecting  Power.  The  motto.  "  Light  in  darkness,"  was  the  suggestion  of  the  late  Sir  Percy  Anderson. 


Scotland  Mission  was  established.  Mr.  Sharpe  sent  a  small  force  of  Sikhs  and 
Aton^a  under  Corporal  William  Fletcher,  and  an  Atonga  sergeant  named 
Bandawe,  to  defend  Malemia's  principal  village  where  the  Scotch  missionaries 

This  expedition,  which  only  consisted  of  six  Sikhs  and  a  few  Atonga, 
built  a  "boma"1  to  protect  themselves  against  any  sudden  attack  from 
Kawinga.  It  was  fortunate  they  did  so,  because  a  day  or  two  afterwards  he 
descended  on  them  with  2,000  men,  many  of  them  recruited  from  amongst  the 
warlike  Anguru  of  the  countries  east  of  Lake  Chilwa.  It  appears  that  Kawinga, 
in  alliance  with  Zarafi  and  Matipwiri,  had  really  resolved  on  attempting 
to  drive  the  British  out  of  the  Shire  Highlands.  An  attack  was  first  to 
be  made  on  the  unarmed  Mission  stations  at  Domasi  Their  men,  whetted 
with  success,  would  then  feel  the  necessary  courage  to  attack  the  Residency  at 
Zomba.  Having  captured  this  and  possibly  succeeded  in  murdering  the  Com- 
missioner, the  forces  of  Zarafi  and  Kawinga  would  advance  on  Blantyre,  whilst 


Matipwiri  sweeping  through  the  Mlanje  district,  would  unite  his  forces  to  theirs, 
and  the  Yao  then  counted  on  taking  possession  of  the  gunboats  at  Chiromo. 
Zarafi  had  sent  his  son  and  some  of  his  fighting  men  to  assist  in  the  preliminary 
attack  on  Domasi. 

War  with  Kawinga  was  always  felt,  since  our  abortive  attack  on  his 
positions  in  1891,  to  be  a  serious  affair  not  lightly  to  be  encountered.  We  had 
therefore  put  up  with  a  great  deal  of  robberies,  outrages  and  slave  kidnapping 
on  the  part  of  Kauinga  without  renewing  the  war  with  him  till  we  had  larger 
forces  at  our  disposal.  Mr.  Sharpe  therefore  at  first  intended  to  do  no  more 
than  guard  the  approaches  to  the  main  station  at  Domasi,-  though  he  made 
preparations  for  assembling  as  large  a  force  of  Sikhs  and  Atonga  as  were 

Kawinga's  aggressive  action  however  got  no  farther  than  "  Fletcher's 
boma."  Thi-i  trumpery  little  fort  was  so  splendidly  defended  by  the  Sikhs 

1  He  mm  i.i  a  S\\aliili  word  meaning  "  a  fence,"  "a  stockade."  It  is  a  term  which  has  come  into 
general  use  in  British  Central  Africa,  and  is  often  applied  to  (lovernment  stations,  most  of  which  were  al 
first  provided  \\iili  some  such  defence. 

-  Domasi  S  defended  by  Mr.  S.  Hewitt-Fletcher.  2nd  Accountant  to  the  Hritish  Central 

Africa  Administn'1  ion.  Some  confusion  arose  between  the  two  Fletchers  in  the  subsequent  newspaper 


and  the  Atonga  that  the  Yao  again  and  again  recoiled  before  the  well-directed 
rifle  fire.  At  last  the  ammunition  on  the  side  of  the  British  was  giving  out, 
and  in  spite  of  the  heavy  losses  amounting  to  over  a  hundred  men  on  the  part 
of  the  enemy  it  looked  as  though  the  defence  must  come  to  an  end.  At 
this  juncture  a  reinforcement  of  Atonga  was  seen  to  be  arriving,  brought  up 
by  two  planters,  Messrs.  Hynde  and  Starke.  Bandawe  proposed  to  Fletcher 
that  they  should  charge  the  demoralised  enemy  who  were  already  aware  of 
the  approach  of  reinforcements.  Accordingly  the  defenders  sallied  out  from 
the  fort  firing  their  last  volleys.  The  Yao  broke  and  fled,  and  were  pursued 
for  miles  by  the  Sikhs  and  Atonga.  Many  prisoners  were  captured  by 
Malemia's  men,  who  had  hitherto  decidedly  "  sat  on  the  fence,"  apparently 
ready,  had  Kawinga  prevailed,  to  side  with  the  conqueror  against  the  British. 


Among  the  prisoners  taken  was  a  son  of  Zarafi,  whom  Malemia  caused  to 
be  beheaded. 

Kawinga  retired  to  his  mountain  of  Chikala.  It  seemed  however  to  -Air. 
Sharpe  that  whilst  the  army  remained  demoralised  was  the  time  to  definitely 
bring  this  struggle  with  Kawinga  to  a  close.  At  this  time  his  reinforcements  of 
Sikhs  had  arrived  from  Fort  Johnston  under  the  command  of  Lieut.  Hamilton 
and  Captain  \Y.  H.  Manning. 

Kawinga's  stronghold  was  approached  by  a  new  route  and  the  enemy 
were  taken  by  surprise.  They  defended  the  fords  of  the  rivers  with  some 
pertinacity,  and  a  few  casualties  took  place  amongst  our  native  soldiers  and 
allies.  But  while  the  main  approach  to  the  town  was  still  being  contested 

I  72 


Lieut.  Hamilton  had  entered  the  place  with  his  Sikhs  from  another  quarter  and 
the  enemy  broke  and  fled.1 

With  the  subdual  of  Kavvinga  the  road  robberies,  except  in  the  Mlanje 
district,  came  to  an  end  ;  a  sense  of  security  spread  over  the  southern  portion 
of  the  Protectorate  which  was  quite  pleasantly  unfamiliar.  It  was  felt  that  in  a 

very  trying  crisis  Mr.  Sharpe 
had  acted  with  decision  and 
promptitude  and  without  flurry, 
and  many  of  the  European 
settlers  expressed  the  sense  of 
obligation  which  they  felt  to- 
wards Mr.  Sharpe. 

In  other  respects  the  record 
of  the  Protectorate  during  my 
absence  in  England  had  been 
singularly  peaceful.  By  negotia- 
tions which  Mr.  Sharpe  had 
commissioned  Major  Edwards 
to  undertake,  a  civil  war  that 
had  long  raged  between  the 
Angoni  chiefs  Chikusi  and 
Chifisi  was  brought  to  a  close. - 
Mr.  Sharpe  returned  to 
England  on  leave  of  absence, 
and  Major  Edwards  and  myself 
began  to  make  steady  prepara- 
tions for  the  inevitable  cam- 
paign against  Zarafi,  a  campaign 
rendered  absolutely  necessary 
because  this  chief  finding  that 
he  was  not  visited  with  war 
after  his  co-operation  in  the 
Kawinga  raids,  began  to  attack 
Fort  Johnston.  However,  our 
plans  in  regard  to  Zarafi  were 
temporarily  postponed  because 
Matipwiri  attacked  one  of  our 
hill  patrols  in  the  Mlanje  dis- 
trict, and  it  was  obvious  that  this  chief  would  renew  his  raids  in  that  direction 
directly  our  forces  were  engaged  with  Zarafi. 

I  was  at  Chiromo  when  the  news  came  of  Matipwiri's  hostility.     I  therefore 

1  Kawinga  has  subsequently  made  peace  with  us,  and  though  not  allowed  to  return   to  Chikala  he  is 
stationed  on  British  territory.     Chikala  Mountain  is  now  guarded  by  a  fort.     As  an  instance  of  the  rapid 
way  in  which  the  negro  accepts  the  results  of  an  appeal  to  force,  and  his  want  of  rancour,  I  may  state 
these  facts  :  that  when  in  1896  we  proceeded  against  Zarafi  Kawinga  did  his  very  best  to  help  us,  giving 
as  his  reason  for  so  doing  "that  he  had  been  well   beaten   by  the  British  ;  it  was  now  time  that  Zarafi  had 
a  licking."      Kawinga's  son  provided   us  with  guides  who  led  us  along  the  best  route  to  Zarafi's  country, 
and   Kawinga  sent  with   me   a  special  bodyguard   of  Yao  who  were  charged  to  look   after  my  personal 
safety,  and  who  certainly  did  their  best  in  this  respect. 

2  In  this  war  Chikusi,  who  was  a  very  ill-conditioned  young  fellow,  had  been  the  aggressor,  and  the 
way  in  which  he  was  almost  compelled  to  make  peace  with  Chifisi  left  a  certain  amount  of  rancour  in 
his  mind  against  the  British,  which  ill-feeling  finally  culminated  in  his  attacking  the  British   Protectorate 
in  the  autumn  of  1896,  in  his  defeat,  and  death.     In  our  counter  attack  on  Chikusi  we  had  the  entire 
support  of  Chifisi  and  his  men. 





started  for  Mlanje  where  I  arranged  to  rendezvous  with  Major  Edwards. 
We  made  very  careful  preparations  and  suddenly  fell  on  Matipwiri,  travelling 
all  night  over  the  distance  which  separated  his  principal  town  from  F<>rt 
Lister.  His  men  made  but  a  feeble  stand  and  Matipwiri  and  his  brother 
Kumtiramanja1  fled  to  Tundu  hill,  where  they  made  their  last  stand.  From 
this  position  they  were  driven  off  by  Captain  the  Hon.  \Y.  K.  Cavendish 
and  Lieut.  Coape-Smith,  and  large  supplies  of  war  material  were  abandoned 

1  Tnc  mure  powerful  chief  of  the  two. 



in  their  flight  and  captured  by  Captain  Cavendish.  Subsequently  both  Matip- 
\viri  and  Kumtiramanja  were  taken  prisoners  by  Lieut.  Coape-Smith.  A  fort 
was  built  in  their  country  and  Matipwiri's  former  subjects  settled  down  very 
contentedly  under  our  rule,  and  the  country  has  since  been  perfectly  peaceful. 
This  settlement  was  rendered  all  the  easier  because  Matipwiri,  like  most  of  the 
Van  chiefs,  was  a  usurper,  and  not  a  native  of  the  district  in  which  he  had 
established  himself.  Many  of  his  subjects  belonged  to  the  A-lolo  stock  and 
spoke  a  language  akin  to  Makua. 

From  the  hills  in  Matipwiri's-  country  we  were  able  to  look  out  eastwards 

over  a   most    wonderful    country 

-^jpijj^te  hitherto  untraversed  by  any  white 

man,  but  within  the  Portuguese 
Sphere  of  Influence.  We  could 
see  splendid  ranges  of  mountains 
almost  as  high  as  Mlanje- — that 
is  to  say,  reaching  in  parts  to  an 
altitude  of  8,000  feet.  When  the 
interior  of  Portuguese  East  Africa 
is  opened  up  this  A-lolo  country 
should  become  a  great  resort  of 
European  planters,  as  it  is  very 
fertile  and  admirably  well  watered. 
In  the  Matipwiri  expedition 
we  had  for  the  first  time  tried 
our  new  military  organisation, 
especially  in  regard  to  the  Native 
levies,  and  we  were  greatly  en- 
couraged by  the  results  and 
proceeded  with  some  confidence 
on  the  expedition  against  Zarafi. 
This  expedition  was  brought  to  a 
completely  successful  result  after 
a  week's  fighting  in  which  we  lost 
our  best  Sikh  non-commissioned 
officer.  The  heights  of  Mangoche 
Mountain  were  successfully  taken 
by  storm,  the  lost  7  -  pounder 
cannon  was  recovered,  and  Zarafi 
fled  far  to  the  eastward  into 

Portuguese  East  Africa,  where  of  course  we  were  unable  to  follow  him.  A 
fort  was  planned  on  the  site  of  Zarafi's  town,  and  was  subsequently  built 
by  Lieut.  Alston.  We  then  proceeded  to  try  conclusions  with  Mponda, 
who  after  several  years  of  doubting  had  at  last  decided  to  renew  his  struggle 
with  us  and  had  retired  to  a  strong  place,  Mauni,  in  the  mountains  of  the 
Cape  Maclear  peninsula.  Major  Edwards  started  with  a  strong  force  for  Mauni, 
but  Mponda  at  the  last  moment  deemed  discretion  to  be  the  better  part  of 
valour,  and,  eluding  the  force  sent  against  him,  came  down  in  a  canoe  to 
Eort  Johnston  and  surrendered  to  me.  As  much  bloodshed  was  saved  by 
this  act  of  Mponda's  I  dealt  as  leniently  with  him  as  possible,  and  secured 
to  him  his  personal  property,  though  I  deemed  it  necessary  to  send  him 
away  from  his  country  for  a  time  as  his  presence  was  so  obnoxious  to  the  mass 




•of  the  population  which  of  late  years  had  placed  themselves  under  the  British. 
Mponda,  like  most  of  the  other  chiefs  in  the  southern  part  of  the  Protectorate, 
was  of  Yao  origin,  and  the  bulk  of  his  subjects  were  A-nyanja. 

Major  Edwards  now  advanced  against  Makanjira  who  of  late  had  renewed 
his  raids  into  British  territory  and  had 
founded  a  new  capital  in  the  hills,  just 
over  the  British  side  of  the  border,  and 
about  ten  miles  from  the  south-east  coast 
of  Lake  Nyasa.  This  town  was  taken 
and  destroyed  by  Lieut.  Coape- Smith. 
Makanjira's  forces  were  completely  routed 
and  fled  in  disorder  into  Portuguese 

On  my  return  to  Fort  Johnston  from 
Zarafi's  I  received  letters  from  Karonga 
at  the  north  end  of  Lake  Nyasa  and  from 
Mr.  Crawshay,  the  Vice-Consul  at  Deep 
Bay,  informing  me  that  the  situation  at 
the  north  end  of  the  lake  was  serious,  as 
Mlozi  and  the  Arabs  were  now  raiding  in 
all  directions  for  slaves,  and  openly  an- 
nounced their  intention  of  fighting  the 
British  as  soon  as  the  rainy  season  began. 
Mlozi  had  captured  and  severely  flogged 
a  lay  missionary  named  Stevens  ;  he  had 
even  threatened  the  Free  Church  Mission 
station  near  Fife  on  the  Nyasa-Tanganyika 
plateau,  and  Dr.  Cross,  a  medical  mission- 
ary, had  been  obliged  to  proceed  to  that 
place  to  bring  away  the  wife  of  the 
missionary  through  German  territory. 

Mlozi  had  amongst  other  things 
attacked  the  populous  villages  of  the 
Awa-wandia,  and  besides  slaughtering 
many  of  the  men  had  carried  off  women 
and  children  to  his  stronghold.  He  had 
concluded  an  alliance  with  the  powerful 
Awemba  tribe  to  the  west,  and  it  was 
obvious  that  unless  we  moved  first  he 
would  soon  be  attacking  Karonga  with 
an  overwhelming  force.  I  may  state  here 
parenthetically  that  since  my  return  from 
Kngland  I  had  in  July,  1895,  made  a 
special  journey  to  the  north  end  of  Lake 
Nyasa  to  see  Mlozi  and  persuade  him  to 
keep  the  peace  according  to  the  original 
treaty  concluded  by  him  in  1889;  but  on 

arriving  at  Karonga  Mlozi  had  flatly  refused  to  see  me,  and  had  even  written 
inr  a  very  threatening  letter,  in  the  course  of  which  he  remarked,  "The 
British  have  closed  my  route  to  the  coast:  very  well,  I  will  close  their  road 
to  Tanganyika." 





The  Arabs  were  not  able  to  go  to 
war  with  us  at  that  time,  and  also  they 
wished  first  of  all  to  gather  in  their 
crops.  They  knew  besides  that  the 

Europeans  fought  at  a  disadvantage  in  the  rainy  season,  and  it  was  evident 
if  we  did  not  take  steps  to  reduce  the  Arab  power  before  the  end  of  December 
they  would  attack  us  in  January  with  many  chances  in  their  favour. 

Accordingly  with  some  reluctance  I  resolved  to  continue  our  campaigns 
on  Lake  Xyasa  by  an  expedition  against  the  Arabs.  Our  little  force  had  by 
this  time  been  nicknamed  the  "  ever  victorious  army."  We  had  now  400  men 
(100  Sikhs  and  300  natives)  on  whom  we  could  place  absolute  reliance,  and 
the  force  had  been  strengthened  by  the  advent  of  several  volunteer  officers. 
The  officers  on  the  staff  consisted  of  Major  C.  A.  Edwards  ;  Captain  F.  T. 
Stewart;1  Captain  the  Honble.  W.  E.  Cavendish;  Lieut.  H.  Coape  -  Smith ; 
Lieut.  G.  de  Herries  Smith  ;  and  Lieut.  Alston  ;2  Dr.  Wordsworth  Poole  and 
Sergeant-Major  Devoy. 

It  was  essential  that  the  Arabs  should  be  taken  by  surprise  ;  that  we  should 
fall  on  them  with  all  our  available  force  and  surround  their  strongholds  before 
they  could  escape  to  the  interior,  for  they  might  prefer  to  run  away  instead  of 
fighting  out  the  struggle,  which  they  could  renew  at  a  more  convenient  season. 
Therefore,  our  most  important  problem  was  how  to  transport  400  men,  seven 
officers  and  the  necessary  munitions  of  war  in  one  trip.  The  gunboats  would 
only  carry  about  fifteen  men  each  and  a  similar  proportion  of  our  stores  ;  the 
African  Lakes  Company's  steamer  Doniira  could  not  take  much  more  than 

1  Who  with  Captain  Cavendish   was  left  to  watch   Makanjira  and  Zarafi. 

-  The  Volunteers  were  Major  L.  Bradshaw  (of  the  35th  Sikhs),  Major  V.  C.  Trollope  (Grenadier 
Guards),  and  last,  but  not  least,  Mr.  Walter  Gordon  Cummin^.  These  gentlemen  served  in  the  autumn 
campaign  of  1895  \\itliout  pay  and  at  their  own  expense.  Major  Trollope  and  Mr.  Gordon  dimming 
were  visiting  the  country  for  the  purposes  of  sp<>n.  Major  Bradshaw,  who  was  a  brother  officer  of 
Major  Edwards,  and  assisted  us  when  in  India  to  recruit  Sikhs,  was  very  anxious  to  study  the  question  of 
Indian  soldiers  fighting  in  Africa,  and  had  obtained  leave  of  absence  so  that  he  might  join  our  campaign. 


100  men.  I  bethought  myself  of  the  German  steamer  the  ll'i'ssindun,  which  was 
fortunately  at  that  moment  lying  off  Fort  Johnston.  I  had  an  interview  with 
her  Commander,  Captain  Berndt,  and  relying  on  him  as  a  man  of  honour, 
communicated  my  plans  to  him,  and  asked  whether  I  could  hire  the  German 
steamer  to  carry  them  out.  He  at  once  assented  and  proposed  terms  which 
were  generous  financially  as  they  provided  merely  for  the  working  expenses  of 
the  steamer.  I  may  say  here  that  my  plans  were  kept  absolutely  secret  by 
Captain  Berndt,  and  that  no  hint  reached  the  Arabs  as  to  our  intentions. 

Major  Edwards  and  I  made  a  hasty  journey  to  Zomba  for  final  preparations 
and  the  expedition  left  Fort  Johnston  on  the  24th  of  November,  1895.  On  the 
way  to  the  north  end  of  the  lake  Major  Edwards  fell  ill,  so  that  when  we  landed 
at  Karonga  I  was  temporarily  deprived  of  the  services  of  my  commander-in- 
chief,  who  for  a  few  days  was  obliged  to  lie  up.  But  his  plans  had  been  so  well 


laid  that  they  were  carried  out  without  a  hitch  by  Lieut.  Coape-Smith,  who 
succeeded  him  temporarily  in  the  command.  Major  Bradshaw  was  also  an 
invalid,  but  fortunately  both  he  and  .Major  Edwards  recovered  in  time  to  take 
part  in  the  final  assault  on  Mlo/i's  stockade.  Our  plan  of  campaign  was  this:1 
Mlozi's  stockaded  town  was  situated  about  eleven  miles  inland  from  Karonga, 
the  station  of  the  African  Lakes  Company  on  the  shore  of  Lake  Xyasa.  About 
six  miles  inland  from  Karonga  were  the  stockades  of  Msalemu  and  Kopakopa 
which  guarded  the  ford  of  the  River  Rukuru.  Mlozi's  town  was  in  the  plain 
near  the  south  bank  of  the  River  Rukuru.  It  was  overlooked  by  a  ridge  of  hills 
to  the  south  which  ran  transversely  to  the  course  of  the  river.  The  Arab  road 
from  Kopakopa's  stockade  to  Mlozi's  ran  through  a  pass  in  these  hills,  and  this 
low  range  on  the  side  of  the  pass  nearest  the  river  terminated  in  a  rather  high 
house-shaped  hill  which  it  was  possible  to  climb  to  the  summit,  and  where  guns 
could  be  planted.  Our  idea  was  to  send  out  about  300  men  and  a  number  of 

1   In  drawing  up  this  plan  at   /.omba   Major  Edwards  and  I  \\viv  greatly  helped  by  the  notes  and 

map-,  i  if  M]o/,i's  stockade   which   had   been   made   for  us  by  Dr.    Kerr  Cross  and   Major  Trollope. 



officers  under  the  command  of  Lieut.  Coape-Smith,  who  should  proceed  by 
a  circuitous  course  northwards  till  they  came  opposite  Mlozi's  town,  with  the 
River  Rukuru  running  in  between.  This  march  should  be  undertaken  at 
night  and  the  River  Rukuru  forded  in  the  darkness,  opposite  the  house-shaped 
hill,  which  eminence  was  to  be  seized  and  garrisoned  by  one  division  under 
Major  Trollope.  Lieut.  Coape-Smith  was  then  to  place  a  section  of  his  force 
under  Lieut.  Alston  to  guard  the  approach  to  the  River  Rukuru  from  Mlozi's 
town.  A  further  division  under  Mr.  Gordon  Gumming  was  to  pass  round  to 
the  back  of  Mlozi's  town  and  take  up  a  position  to  the  west  of  it.  Major 
Trollope's  force  by  occupying  the  house-shaped  hill  would  command  the  pass 
through  which  the  road  to  Kotakota  passed,  and  thus  be  able  to  cut  off  Mlozi's 
retreat  in  that  direction.  Mr.  Walter  Gordon  Cumming's  force  would  be  able 
to  check  his  flight  westward  and  Lieut.  Alston  prevent  him  from  crossing  the 

MI.OZI,    CHIEF    OF    THK    NORTH     NYASA     \RA1!S 

River  Rukuru  to  the  Tanganyika  road.  Having  posted  these  three  divisions 
in  the  darkness  of  the  night  Lieut.  Coape-Smith  was  to  return  along  the 
banks  of  the  river  to  Kopakopa's,  and  meet  me  there  at  eight  o'clock  in  the 
morning  ;  for  I  in  the  meantime  should  have  started  with  the  naval  division 
and  a  force  of  Sikhs  under  Lieut,  de  Herries  Smith  and  have  attacked,  and 
presumably  mastered  Kopakopa  and  Msalemu.  Lieut.  Coape-Smith  accordingly 
left  Karonga  at  eight  o'clock  at  night  on  the  1st  of  December,  and  although 
it  was  raining  cats  and  dogs  and  the  night  was  pitch  dark  he  carried  out 
the  whole  of  the  operations  entrusted  to  him  without  a  single  mistake  or 
deviation,  and  punctually  turned  up  at  Kopakopa  at  eight  o'clock  next 
morning.  I  left  at  five  o'clock  in  the  morning  of  the  2nd  of  December  with 
a  strong  force  of  artillery  under  Commander  Percy  Cullen,  R.N.R.  (the  senior 
naval  officer  on  Lake  Nyasa),  and  accompanied  by  Lieut.  Rhoades  and 
Phillips  (of  the  Lake  Nyasa  gunboats) ;  the  petty  officers  of  the  said 
gunboats;  Sergeant -Major  Devoy ;  Dr.  Poole  ;  and  Lieut.  Merries  Smith 
who  commanded  the  Sikhs.  We  reached  Msalemu's  stockades  soon  after 


daylight,  and  began  to  shell  it.  A  few  shots  were  fired  by  the  enemy,  but 
their  resistance  was  soon  overcome  and  they  fled  from  Msalemu's  and 
Kopakopa  simultaneously,  and  crossed  the  Rukuru  River.  We  therefore 
entered  the  stockades  and  took  possession  of  them.  Kopakopa  however 
had  resolved  to  make  but  little  stand  here  and  to  unite  his  force  with  those 
of  Mlozi  in  the  defence  of  the  latter  town,  where  the  war  would  really  be 
fought  out.  He  had  therefore  retreated  from  his  stockade  in  the  night, 
directly  the  rumour  of  our  landing  had  reached  him,  and  although  he  lost 
some  of  his  men  from  the  fire  of  Major  Trollope's  party  he  succeeded  in 
effecting  his  retreat  to  Mlozi's. 

After  a  short  rest  at  Kopakopa's  we  marched  along  the  Arab  road  to  Mlozi's 
stockade  and  came  up  with  Major  Trollope's  force  at  I  p.m.  Getting  the  guns 
into  position  Commander  Cullen  commenced  a  most  effective  fire,  which  would 
have  probably  burned  Mlozi's  town  to  the  ground  then  and  there  but  for  a 
terribly  heavy  rain  falling  at  the  time.  The  enemy  returned  our  fire  with 


vigour  but  could  only  use  against  us  rifles,  muzzle-loading  guns,  and  one 
muzzle-loading  cannon.  Although  their  firing  was  fairly  good  we  kept  pretty 
much  outside  their  range.  We  sheltered  ourselves  in  one  or  two  outlying 
villages  which  apparently  had  been  built  for  the  housing  of  slaves.  One  of 
these  settlements  was  within  250  yards  of  the  main  entrance  of  Mlozi's  stockade 
and  this  we  managed  to  occupy,  with  only  one  serious  casualty.  It  is  true 
we  were  not  very  well  sheltered  from  Mlozi's  fire  in  this  position,  but  then  the 
fire  of  his  men  was  rather  high  and  the  bullets  whistled  harmlessly  over  our 
heads.  We  now  drew  the  cordon  tighter  round  Mlozi's  stockade  in  an  almost 
continuous  ring  of  armed  men.  About  700  Wankonde  people  had  tendered 
their  services  as  carriers  for  our  guns,  and  these  men  though  unwilling  to  get 
within  fire  still  assisted  us  in  repelling  sorties  from  the  stockade,  which,  as  the 
bombardment  continued,  became  fiercer  and  more  frequent. 

Mlozi's  town  was  of  large  extent,  perhaps  half  a  square  mile  in  area,  and 
it  was  surrounded  by  a  rather  remarkable  stockade  which  consisted  of  a  double 
fence  of  withes  thoroughly  coated  with  hard  clay  and  with  a  flat  roof  of  wooden 
beams,  thatch  and  clay.  This  hollow  stockade  was  cut  up  by  transverse  parti- 
tions into  innumerable  dwellings.  It  was  loopholed  in  two  rows  and  pits  were 
dug  below  the  level  of  the  ground  for  the  shelter  of  the  defenders  who  fired 


from  the  upper  and  the  lower  loopholes.  Here  and  there  angles  of  the 
stockade  were  guarded  by  specially  strong  bastions,  and  in  most  places  there 
was  a  kind  of  moat  below  the  glacis  of  the  stockade.  At  intervals  small  gate- 
ways had  been  made,  their  doors  being  of  heavy  hewn  planks  and  the  passages 
through  the  doorway  into  the  town  most  intricate.  It  was  an  admirable 
stockade  for  the  purpose  as  shells  had  no  effect  on  it,  merely  making  a  round 
hole  as  they  passed  through,  the  resistance  being  too  weak  to  cause  any  breach 
to  be  made  by  an  exploding  shell.  Mlozi's  weakness  lay,  however,  in  his  not 
having  built  his  stockade  alongside  the  water  from  which  he  was  separated 
by  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  mile.  We  had  cut  him  off  from  his  water  supply,  and 
although  rain  fell  in  abundance  the  water  obtained  was  not  sufficient  for  the 
enormous  number  of  people  cooped  up  in  the  stockade,  and  the  cattle.  More- 
over within  the  stockade  the  houses  were  closely  packed  with  inflammable  grass 
roofs,  and  these  were  soon  set  on  fire  by  incendiary  shells.  Naturally  many 
of  the  people  took  shelter  in  pits  below  the  ground  ;  still  the  bombardment 
caused  great  loss  of  life.  A  sortie  en  force  was  made  on  the  night  of  the 
2nd  of  December,  but  was  smartly  repelled  by  Commander  Cullen  with  his 
Nordenfelt  gun. 

.  At  seven  o'clock  in  the  morning  of  the  following  day  just  as  we  had  resumed 
our  artillery  fire,  Mlozi  hoisted  a  flag  of  truce.  We  ceased  firing  and  I  walked 
up  to  within  a  short  distance  of  the  walls  to  meet  Mlozi  who  had  come  out 
of  the  main  gateway.  I  was  going  to  meet  him  face  to  face,  but  that  one 
of  the  black  sailors  of  the  gunboats,  a  native  of  Zanzibar,  warned  me  that 
he  had  overheard  the  Arabs  advising  Mlozi  to  stab  me  as  soon  as  I  came  from 
under  the  guns  of  the  fort  and  then  to  retreat  through  the  open  gateway.  This 
may  or  may  not  have  been  Mlozi's  intention.  At  any  rate  I  deemed  it  prudent 
to  halt  him  at  about  eight  yards  distance,  and  from  this  point  I  spoke  to  him. 
He  asked  what  would  be  our  terms  of  peace  and  I  replied  "  the  immediate 
surrender  of  himself  and  all  the  other  Arabs  and  of  their  fighting  men,  and  the 
giving  up  of  their  guns  and  the  release  of  all  slaves  held  in  the  fort."  If  he 
would  fulfil  these  conditions  I  promised  the  Arabs  and  all  their  men  their  lives, 
but  declined  to  commit  myself  to  any  other  promises  until  I  had  investigated 
the  whole  case.  Mlozi  after  some  hesitation  said  that  he  would  return  and 
consult  Kopakopa.  Meantime  two  of  his  leading  men  were  given  to  us  as 
hostages,  so  that  we  might  approach  nearer  to  the  fort  and  converse  with  the 
Arabs.  Presently,  however,  an  Arab — it  may  have  been  Mlozi — came  out 
of  the  gateway  and  shouted  to  us  that  they  would  go  on  fighting  ;  if  we  wanted 
them  we  must  come  and  take  them.  We  therefore  released  the  hostages  and 
allowed  them  to  return,  but  before  the  flag  of  truce  could  be  taken  down  Mlozi 
had  opened  fire  on  Lieut.  Alston  and  on  my  camp.  Fortunately  the  bullets 
passed  through  Lieut.  Alston's  helmet  and  left  him  uninjured,  while  I  had  just 
entered  a  hut  and  so  escaped  the  fire  directed  at  me. 

I  hesitated  to  sanction  an  immediate  assault  on  the  stockade  as  it  appeared 
likely  to  result  in  a  terrible  loss  of  life  to  our  men.  I  therefore  decided  it  was 
best  that  we  should  continue  the  bombardment  and  protract  the  war,  so  as 
to  cause  Mlozi  to  use  up  much  of  his  ammunition  before  we  finally  assaulted 
the  stockade.  But  matters  were  precipitated  by  the  excellence  of  our  artillery 
fire.  A  refugee  Mhenga  chief,  who  had  escaped  from  the  stockade  during  trie- 
trace,  pointed  out  to  us  the  exact  situation  of  Mlozi's  house,  the  roof  of  which 
rose  somewhat  above  the  other  buildings.  Commander  Cullen  sighted  a 
9-pounder  gun  very  carefully,  and  Sergeant-Major  Devoy  landed  three  shells 



in  the  middle  of  this,  one  passing  through  the  doorway  and  killing  four  men. 
One  of  the  shells  that  burst  in  Mlozi's  house,  wounded  Mlozi  in  the  head 
and  killed  one  of  his  followers.  The  rumoui  went  about  that  Mlozi  was  dead 
and  a  furious  sortie  took  place — a  sortie  which  elicited  from  us  no  pity  because 
it  was  almost  as  much  an  impetuous  attack  on  our  own  positions.  The  bullets 
simply  whistled  through  the  air,  and  it  was  marvellous  that  we  did  not  meet 
with  more  casualties ;  but  our  soldiers  fought  splendidly,  and  strange  to  say 
the  timid  Wankonde  also  came  to  the  front  and  between  two  and  three  hundred 
of  Mlozi's  men  were  shot  or  speared  ;  amongst  them  fell  four  Arabs,  one  of 
them  alleged  to  be  Kopakopa,  though  it  would  afterwards  seem  he  was 
Kopakopa  of  Tanganyika,  and  not  the  man  who  had  built  the  stockade 


near  Karonga.  The  latter  is  said  to  have  been  severely  wounded  but 
is  still  living  in  the  Senga  country.  Our  attempts  to  repulse  the  sortie 
brought  the  Sikhs  close  up  to  the  walls,  and  somehow  or  other  with  or  without 
command  from  their  officers  they  scaled  the  ramparts  and  stood  on  the  roof. 
Lieuts.  de  Herries  Smith  and  Coape- Smith  were  dragged  up  on  to  the  roof 
of  the  stockade  by  the  first  Sikhs  who  had  got  there,  and  the  first  man  to 
jump  down  into  the  stockade  was  Lieut,  de  Herries  Smith,  who  immediately 
fell,  shot  through  the  right  arm.  Lieut.  Coape-Smith  and  Mr.  Gordon  Gumming 
followed  Herries  Smith,  lifted  him  up  and  carried  him  out  of  the  Arab  fire. 
Majors  Edwards  and  Bradshaw  had  by  this  time  arrived  from  Karonga,  and 
together  with  Commander  Cullen,  Dr.  Poole  and  myself  and  the  other  officers 
made  for  the  stockade.  Lieut.  Alston  and  Major  Trollope  had  joined  the  party 
under  Coape-Smith.  Edwards  and  Bradshaw  scrambled  over  the  walls. 
Commander  Cullen  made  a  breach  through  the  doorway  with  axes,  and  he 


and  I  passed  in,  having  been  preceded  by  a  number  of  Wankonde  who  drove 
out  the  cattle.  Night  had  now  fallen  ;  we  had  lost  one  Sikh  and  three  Atonga 
killed,  and  Lieut,  de  Herries  Smith  severely  wounded,  besides  one  Sikh  hospital 
assistant  and  five  Sikhs  and  five  native  soldiers  were  more  or  less  severely 

Nothing  had  as  yet  been  seen  of  Mlozi.  Every  effort  had  been  made 
to  protect  the  women,  no  matter  whether  they  were  the  Arabs'  wives  or 
their  slaves,  and  fortunately  little  or  no  loss  of  life  took  place  amongst  them. 
They  were  soon  safely  housed  in  our  main  camp  and  here  they  gave  us  valuable 
information  as  to  the  whereabouts  of  Mlozi.  All  search  for  this  man  in  his 
dwelling,  however,  proved  fruitless,  and  we  were  returning  to  our  camp  at 
night  very  disconsolate,  when  suddenly  the  rumour  went  up  that  he  had  been 


captured  and  brought  in  by  Sergeant-Major  Bandawe  of  the  Atonga.  Bandawe 
soon  appeared  leading  Mlozi  captive  and  related  the  remarkable  feat  of  his  capture 
which  was  as  follows  : — After  the  Sikhs  and  officers  had  given  up  searching  M  lo/i's 
house  Bandawe  had  remained  behind  feeling  certain  that  there  was  some  secret 
hiding  place.  After  an  interval  during  which  he  remained  perfectly  quiet  he 
fancied  he  heard  voices  speaking  underground.  In  the  corner  of  the  main  room 
was  a  bedstead,  and  under  the  bedstead  was  an  opening  leading  to  an  under- 
ground chamber.  Crawling  under  the  bed  Banda\ve  heard  Mlozi  asking,  "  \\"ho 
is  there?"  Mimicking  the  voice  of  a  Swahili,  he'  replied  "  It  is  I,  master,"  and 
descended  to  the  underground  chamber,  where  he  found  Mlozi  being  guarded 
by  a  man  with  a  spear.  Bandawe  had  no  weapon  with  him  but  threw  himself 
on  the  man  and  wrenched  his  spear  from  him  which  he  then  ran  through  his 
body.  Turning  to  Mlozi  he  threatened  to  kill  him  at  once  unless  he  followed 
him  without  resistance.  Mlo/.i  who  was  stupid  with  his  wound  did  so,  and  he 
was  safely  brought  into  the  camp  by  Bandawe. 

\\  r    had    found    out    from    some    of    the    runaway    slaves    that  during  the 


bombardment  Mlozi  had  caused  a  good  many  of  the  hostages  whom  he  had 
detained  from  the  natives  to  be  slaughtered.  I  therefore  summoned  a  council 
of  the  Wankonde  chiefs,  and  under  my  superintendence  they  tried  Mlozi  on 
this  count.  He  was  found  guilty  and  sentenced  to  death.  When  called  upon 
for  his  defence  he  merely  said,  "  What  is  the  good  ?  These  people  are  resolved 
that  I  shall  die.  My  hour  is  come." 

He  was  sentenced  to  be  hanged,  but  it  was  originally  intended  that  this 
sentence  should  be  carried  out  at  Karonga.  After  the  trial,  however,  a  number 
of  Mlozi's  men  who  were  prisoners  succeeded  in  overpowering  the  guard  and 
escaping,  and  the  rumour  went  about  that  Kapanda-nsaru's  forces  were  at  hand 
coming  to  the  relief  of  Mlozi.  As  a  strong  flank  attack  on  the  part  of  the 
Arabs  might  have  cut  off  our  line  of  retreat  to  Karonga,  it  was  resolved  that 
Mlozi's  execution  should  take  place  immediately,  so  that  we  might  be  released 



from  the  responsibility  of  guarding  him.  He  was  accordingly  hanged  on  the 
afternoon  of  the  4th  December,  in  the  presence  of  the  Wankonde  chiefs. 

On  the  fourth  day  of  the  campaign  we  were  back  again  at  Karonga  ;  but 
here  we  found  to  our  great  disgust  that  the  s.s.  Domira,  contrary  to  my  orders, 
had  been  sent  away  by  the  agent  of  the  African  Lakes  Company.  The 
departure  of  the  officers  and  men  was  therefore  delayed  for  some'  weeks. 
Meantime  I  left  for  the  south  with  Major  Kdwards  to  attend  to  other  matters 
that  were  pressing. 

My  three  days  at  Mlo/i's  without  sufficient  shelter  in  the  midst  of  pouring 
rain,  without  proper  food  and  having  to  place  my  mattress  on  the  wet  -round 
and  to  drink  the  foul  water  of  the  early  rains,  had  begun  to  make  me  very 'ill,  and 
a  few  days  after  leaving  Karonga  I  was  down  with  an  attack  of  black-water 
fever,  in  which  I  was  most  tenderly  and  carefully  nursed  by  Major  KdwanU 
who  conveyed  me  on  the  German  steamer  to  Fort  Johnston  and  thence  to 
Liwonde,  where  1  was  joined  by  Dr.  Poole,  who  eventually  landed  me  safe  and 
sound  and  recovered  at  Zomba.  Meanwhile  Lieut.  Coape-Smith  and  Mr.  Gordon 



dimming  were  destroying  the  remainder  of  the  Arab  stockades  in  the  North 
Nyasa  districts,  and  Lieut.  Alston  and  Mr.  A.  J.  Swann  were  conducting  a 
brilliantly  successful  expedition  in  the  interior  of  the  Marimba  district  where 
the  notorious  Saidi  Mwazungu1  had  induced  the  powerful  chief  Mwasi  Kazungu 
to  declare  war  against  the  British. 

After  a  little  fighting  Saidi  Mwazungu  surrendered,  but  Mwasi  declined  to 
make  peace.  His  capital  was  stormed  and  taken.  He  himself  escaped,  but 
soon  afterwards  committed  suicide.  He  was  of  Achewa  race,  but  was  allied  to 
the  Angoni,  and  had  under  him  many  Angoni  headmen.  Originally  it  was 
intended  that  his  attack  on  our  positions  in  Jumbe's  country  should  coincide 

IN    FORT    HI  LI. 

with  the  Arab  outbreak,  but  the  movements  were  not  quite  simultaneous  and 
we  were  therefore  able  to  deal  with  each  in  turn. 

It  had  finally  been  resolved  by  me  that  the  campaign  should  close  with  the 
driving  out  of  two  Yao  robber  chiefs  who  had  settled  in  the  Central  Angoniland 
district — Tambala  and  Mpemba.  Captain  Stewart  led  an  expedition  into 
Central  Angoniland  which  was  joined  by  Lieut.  Alston.  Tambala's  stronghold 
was  captured  and  he  himself  fled.  Mpemba  hid  in  the  bush  but  later  on  was 
made  prisoner  by  Commander  Cullen  and  Mr.  Gordon  Cumming.  The  latter 
succeeded  Captain  Stewart  in  the  command  of  the  Central  Angoniland  district, 
and  did  a  great  deal  to  bring  it  into  order. 

Here  as  elsewhere  in  Nyasaland  we  were  much  assisted  in  our  campaigns 
by  the  real  natives  of  the  country  who  were  almost  always  opposed  to  the 

1  This  was  the  man  who  as  before  related  ordered  the  massacre  of  Dr.  Eoyce  and  Mr.  McKwan. 
After  our  conquest  of  Makanjira's  country,  Saidi  Mwazungu  fled  to  the  west  of  Nyasa,  and  settled  \\ith 
Mwasi  Kazungu  where  he  wras  surrounded  by  a  number  of  refugees  from  Makanjira's. 



chiefs  of  alien  origin  who  ruled  over  them  and  were  in  conflict  with  the 
British.  The  bulk  of  the  inhabitants  in  Central  Angoniland  are  neither  Angoni 
nor  Yao  but  Achewa  and  A-chipeta,  branches  of  the  A-nyanja  stock. 

At  the  north  end  of  Lake  Nyasa  a  new  Administration  station  was  built 
by  Mr.  G.  A.  Taylor  the  collector,  near  Karonga,  and  a  strong  fort,  called  Fort 
Hill,1  was  erected  near  the  British  South  Africa  Company's  boundary  by 
Mr.  Yule,  for  the  purpose  of  guarding  the  Nyasa-Tanganyika  road  from  the 
raids  of  the  Awemba. 

The  Awemba  are  a  warlike  race  inhabiting  the  regions  of  the  Nyasa- 
Tanganyika  plateau  which  are  watered  by  the  River  Chambezi.  They 

IHK    SI  ()(   KADK,     FORT    HIM. 

originally  came  from  the  country  of  Itawa  on  the  south-west  coast  of 
Tanganyika.  In  Livingstone's  day  they  do  not  appear  to  have  been  a 
particularly  warlike  or  aggressive  race;  but  soon  after  they  came  under  Aral) 
influence  and  were  supplied  by  the  Arabs  with  guns  and  gunpowder,  and 
thenceforth  took  to  slave  raiding  with  extraordinary  zest.  For  several  years 
past  they  had  harried  not  only  the  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau  at  the  south 
end  of  Tanganyika,  but  even  the  territory  that  has  recently  come  under 
German  influence  ;  and  of  late  they  had  been  taken  up  by  Mloz'i  as  his  special 
allies,  and  were  introduced  by  him  into  the  North  Xyasa  district  from  which 
their  stragglers  have  been  expelled  since  the  conclusion  of  the  Arab  war.  As 
a  people,  however,  they  are  by  no  means  indisposed  to  come  to  terms  with 
us  if  they  see  that  we  are  a  strong  power. 

A   strong  fort  was   built  in  the  spring  and  summer  of   this  year  by  Lieut. 

1    After  Sir  Clement  Hill,  the  head  of  the  African  Department  at  the  Foreign  (  )!nVe. 



Alston  on  the  site  of  Zarafi's  town  at  Mangoche  Mountain.  Zarafi's  former 
capital  was  situated  on  a  neck  or  pass  between  high  mountains  and  constituted 
one  of  the  most  obvious  and  frequented  roads  into  British  Central  Africa.  The 
boundaries  of  this  Protectorate  are  so  well  guarded  by  lofty  and  inaccessible 
ranges  of  mountains  or  by  broad  lakes  and  swamps  that  there  are  not  many 
routes  by  which  it  can  be  easily  approached  from  the  East  Coast.  The  road 
through  Zarafi's  country  however  is  so  easy  that  it  will  always  require  to 
be  specially  guarded  if  the  slave  trade  is  to  be  stopped. 

In  the  month  of  May,  1896,  I  had  a  serious  relapse  of  bilious  remittent 
fever  which  ultimately  developed  hsematuric  symptoms.  I  therefore  returned  to 
England  on  leave  of  absence,  being  relieved  by  Mr.  Sharpe,  who  had  been 
in  England  during  the  second  half  of  1895.  Since  my  return  the  progress 
of  the  country  has  continued  almost  without  check  or  interruption.  Raids 
on  the  part  of  the  southern  Angoni  into  the  south-western  portion  of  the 
Protectorate  occurred  in  the  autumn  of  1896,  apparently  as  a  reflex  of  the 
agitation  amongst  their  Matabele  kindred  in  the  south.  These  were  sharply 
punished  by  a  force  dispatched  against  the  chiefs  Chikusi  and  Odete  under 
Captains  F.  T.  Stewart  and  W.  H.  Manning,  and  Lieut.  Alston.  The  latter 
had  previously  captured  a  slave-raiding  chief  named  Katuri  who  lived  near 
Fort  Mangoche,  and  who  might  be  described  as  the  last  unconquered  adherent 
of  the  Zarafi  clan.  With  these  exceptions  the  tranquillity  of  the  Protectorate 
has  not  been  further  disturbed.  The  Imperial  Government  has  placed  the 
British  South  Africa  Company's  forces  in  the  adjoining  Sphere  of  Influence 
under  an  Imperial  Officer  who  is  subordinated  to  the  control  of  Lieut.- 
Colonel  Edwards,  or  whoever  commands  the  armed  forces  in  the  British 

Central  Africa  Protectorate.   The  efficiency 
of  the  Administration  was  further  recog- 
nised   by    the    Admiralty    who    proposed 
handing  over  to   us  the  gunboats   on  the 
Zambezi    and     Lower    Shire,    in    a    way 
similar    to    the    transference    of    the    lake 
gunboats  in   1895  ;  but  for  various  reasons 
it   has   been   deemed    preferable  to   retain 
these  vessels  under  the  White  Ensign. 
A  brief  summary  of  the  results  of 
the   British   administration  of   this 
Protectorate    from    1891    to    1896 
may  be  expressed  as  follows  :— - 
At  the  commencement  of  our 
administration   in    July,    1891, 
there  were,  as  far  as  I  can 
calculate,  fifty-seven  Europ- 
eans resident  in  the  British 
Central   Africa   Protector- 
ate,  and   in  the  adjoining 
Sphere  of  the  British  South 
Africa  Company.  Of  these 

MR.    ALFRED   SHARPE    IN    1896  OttC  WRS    French,  tWO    WCTC 

Austrian    Poles,   and    the 

remainder  were  British.  In  the  summer  of  1896  the  European  settlers  in  the 
Protectorate  alone  exceeded  300  in  number,  and  probably  amounted  to  forty- 


five  in  the  adjoining  Sphere  of  the  British  South  Africa  Company.1  At  the 
time  I  made  this  calculation  as  to  the  number  of  the  Europeans  in  the 
Protectorate,  in  the  summer  of  1896,  I  ascertained  that  30  were  non-British 
subjects,  and  consisted  of  13  Germans,  8  Dutch,  i  Frenchman,  2  Italians, 
5  Austro- Hungarians,  and  I  Portuguese.  Amongst  the  British  subjects  in 
the  late  summer  of  1896  there  were  119  Scotch,  123  English  and  Welsh, 
7  Irish,  2  Australians,  23  South  Africans,  I  Anglo-Indian,  and  3  Eurasians. 
1  he  number  of  Indians  has  risen  from  nil  to  263,  of  whom  56  were  Indian 
traders.  All  these  Indians,  with  the  exception  of  14  who  were  natives  of 
Portuguese  India,  were  British-Indian  subjects. 

The  total  amount  of  trade  done  with  British  Central  Africa  in  1891,  so  far 
as  I  could  calculate  from  information  supplied  by  the  African  Lakes  Company, 


was  £39,965  in  value.  In  April,  1896,  the  year's  trade  was  computed  at 
£102,428.  The  export  of  coffee  in  1891  amounted  to  at  most  a  few  pounds. 
It  is  computed  that  in  1896  320  tons  were  shipped  home  from  British  Central 
Africa,  and  much  of  this  coffee  attained  the  very  high  prices  of  113^.  od.  and 
1 15^-.  od.  a  c\vt. 

In  1891  there  were  four  British  steamers-  on  the  Zambezi  and  Lower  Shire 
(besides  one  steam  launch  owned  by  Mr.  Sharrer),  two  of  which  were  gunboats 
belonging  to  Her  Majesty's  Xavy.  There  are  now  seventeen  British  steamers 
on  the  Zambezi  and  the  Shire,  and  forty-six  cargo  boats  mostly  built  of  steel, 
besides  innumerable  small  wooden  boats  and  large  cargo,  canoes.  On  Lake 
Xyasa  and  the  Upper  Shire  the  number  of  steamers  has  increased  from  three  in 
1891  to  six  in  1896,  in  addition  to  which  there  are  several  large  sailing  beats 

1  At  the  date  of  the  publication  of  this  book  the  number  of  Kuropeuns  in  the  ProUi!oratt-  amount-; 
to  315. 

'2  In  the  twelve  month*  from  the  1st  of  January,  1895,  lo  tr>e  3lsl  December,  1895,  109  steamers,  360 
barges,  169  boats,  and  178  large  canoes  entered  and  discharged  at  the  UritMi  port  al  riiimmo  on  the 
Lower  Shire. 


and  cargo  barges.     The  captured  daus  it  may  be  noted  have  been  repaired  by 
us  and  are  now  plying  in  the  service  of  the  Government. 

There  was  of  course  no  postal  service  in  1891,  and  letters  were  generally  sent 
through  the  African  Lakes  Company  to  the  Vice-Consul  at  Quelimane  together 
with  money  for  postage  stamps,  and  this  official  stamped  the  letters  with 
Portuguese  stamps,  and  sent  them  home  from  the  Portuguese  Post  Office. 
We  commenced  to  establish  a  postal  service  in  July,  1891.  There  are  now 
eighteen  Post  Offices  in  the  Protectorate,  and  five  in  the  British  South 
Africa  Company's  sphere,  while  our  postal  service  extends  from  Chinde  at 
the  mouth  of  the  Zambezi  to  Tanganyika,  Mweru,  and  the  Congo  Free  State. 


In  the  month  of  November,  1895,  which  was  taken  as  an  average  month, 
the  total  number  of  articles  carried  by  our  postal  service  in  the  Protectorate, 
including  letters,  postcards,  book  packets,  newspapers,  and  parcels,  inwards  and 
outwards,  was  29,802  as  compared  with  25,592  in  November,  1894,  and  19,383 
in  November,  1893.  Besides  this  we  carry  the  mails  of  the  German  Government 
from  Lake  Nyasa  to  Chinde.1  Our  parcel-post  service  was  started  in  1893 
and  has  been  extended  to  the  South  African  Colonies  and  England  and 
to  Zanzibar  and  Aden  and  India.  A  money  order  system  has  just  been 

Want  of  funds  in    1894  compelled  us  to  adopt  a  rather  cheap  and  inferior 

1  In  return  fur  which  the  (iennan  subsidized   steamers   carry  our   correspondence   between   Chinde 
and  Zanzibar 


issue  of  stamps,  but  by  a  grant  from  the  Treasury  we  have  now  been  able 
to  have  a  thoroughly  satisfactory  issue  engraved  by  Messrs.  De  La  Rue. 
The  design  of  the  stamps  is  that  of  the  Coat  of  Arms  of  the  Protectorate. 
Their  values  are  id.,  2d.,  4^.,  6d.,  is.,  2s.  6d.,  $s.,  45.,  £i,  £10.  They  are  used 
alike  in  the  collection  of  revenue  as  in  the  payment  of  postal  charges. 

At  Chinde  on  the  British  Concession  there  is  a  Post  Office  of  Exchange, 
at  which  mails  are  landed  from  or  transferred  to  the  ocean-going  steamers. 
Letters  or  other  material  arriving  from  the  outer  world  at  Chinde  are  sorted 
at  this  Post  Office  of  Exchange  into  bags  for  the  various  postal  districts  in 
British  Central  Africa,  and  into  bags  for  the  German  territories  and  for  the 
Congo  Free  State,  and  are  then  shipped  up  river  by  the  various  steamers  plying 
between  Chinde  and  Chiromo.  At  Chiromo  the  bags  are  sent  overland  to  the 
different  Post  Offices  of  distribution  between  the  Lower  Shire  and  Lake  Nyasa, 
being  carried  by  native  postmen  who  wear  a  special  uniform  of  scarlet  and 
white.  These  men  travel  at  the  rate  of  25  miles  a  day,  and  are  wonderfully 
faithful  and  careful  in  the  delivery  of  their  precious  charges.  Cases  have  been 
known  where  postal  carriers  have  been  drowned  in  the  crossing  of  flooded 
rivers  by  their  obstinacy  in  not  parting  from  their  mail  bags,  and  where  they 
have  fought  bravely  and  successfully  against  odds  in  an  attack  by  highway 
robbers.  The  negro  of  Central  Africa  has  a  genuine  respect  for  the  written 
word.  Of  course  the  time  will  come  when  attendant  on  the  growth  of  civiliza- 
tion, native  postmen  will  probably  commit  robberies  of  registered  letters,  as  is 
occasionally  done  by  their  European  colleagues;  but  at  the  present  time  our 
mails  are  perfectly  safe  in  their  hands. 

In  1891  there  was  about  one  mile  of  road — that  between  the  Mission  station 
at  Blantyre  and  the  African  Lakes  Company's  store — over  which  a  vehicle  could 
be  driven.  By  the  end  of  1896  we  had  constructed  some  390 l  miles  of  roads 
suited  for  wheeled  traffic,  while  another  80  miles  of  broad  paths  have  been 
cleared  through  the  bush  for  the  passage  of  porters  and  "  machillas."- 

Attempts  in  great  part  successful  have  been  made  to  improve  the  naviga- 
bility of  the  Shire  by  removing  the  snags  from  the  approaches  to  Chiromo,  and 
the  sharp  stones  from  the  Nsapa  Rapids  on  the  Upper  Shire  ;  and  by  deepening 
the  bar  at  the  entrance  to  Lake  Nyasa.  Last,  and  not  least,  the  Slave  trade, 
and  it  may  almost  be  added  the  status  of  Slavery,  have  been  brought  absolutely 
to  an  end.  Between  1891  and  1894,  86 1  slaves  were  released  by  various 
officials  of  the  Protectorate,  and  between  1894  and  1896,  1700.  Native  labour 
is  now  organised  in  such  a  way  as  to  protect  the  interests  of  both  the  white 
man  and  the  negro. 

1600  acres  of  land  were  under  cultivation  at  the  hands  of  Europeans  in 
1891,  as  against  5700  acres  in  1896. 

In  1891  no  coin  was  in  circulation  in  the  country,  except  to  a  very  limited 
extent  amongst  Europeans.  Transactions  with  natives  were  carried  on  by 
means  of  the  barter  of  trade  goods.  In  the  three  following  years  the  use  of 
English  coinage  was  introduced  by  the  Administration.  We  imported  several 
thousand  pounds'  worth  of  gold,  silver  and  copper  coins  from  the  Royal  Mint, 
and  put  them  in  circulation  amongst  the  natives  who  immediately  took  to  the 

1  i.e.,  Katunga  to  Blantyre,  Blantyre  to  Zomba,  Zomba  to  Fort  Liwonde  (ria  Pomasi),  Zomba  to  Fort 
Lister,  and  thence  round  Mlanje  to  Fort  Anderson,  Fort  Anderson  to  Chiromo,  Chiromo  to  Chiradzulu 
and  Ntonda,  Blantyre  to  Cholo.  Karonga  to  the  Nyasa-Tanganyika  Plateau,  and  short  roads  in  the 
Blantyre,  Zomba,  South  Xyasa,  Central  Angoniland  and  Marimba  districts. 

3  A  "  machilla  "  it  must  be  remembered  is  a  hammock  or  wicker-work  couch  slung  on  a  pole. 



new  system.  In  these  efforts  we  were  effectively  seconded  by  the  African 
Lakes  Company  which  established  a  Banking  Company,  with  its  main  office 
at  Blantyre  and  branches  at  Chinde  and  Fort  Johnston.  Native  wages  are  now 
paid  in  cash,  and  the  Administration  receives  most  of  the  native  taxes  in  cash, 
though  produce  is  still  accepted  in  payment  of  taxes  in  the  outlying  districts. 
Finally,  it  may  be  stated  that  the  local  revenue  raised  from  Customs  Duties, 
Stamp  Duties,  and  Native  Taxes,  which  in  the  year  ended  March  3ist,  1892, 
was  only  £1700  in  value,  was  in  the  year  ended  March  3ist,  1896,  over 


Attempts,  in  some  degree  successful,  have  been  made  to  check  the  indis- 
criminate slaughter  of  the  elephant,  rhinoceros,  and  gnu,1  and  this  protection 
has  now  been  accorded  to  the  zebra,  wild  swine,  buffalo,  and  most  of  the  rare 
or  more  beautiful  African  antelopes.  Two  game  reserves  for  the  breeding 
of  these  animals  unmolested  by  any  attacks  from  man  have  been  formed,  and 
regulations  for  the  protection  of  wild  game  were  drawn  up  by  the  Foreign 
Office  early  in  the  present  year  (these  will  be  found  in  an  Appendix  to 
Chapter  IX.). 

Some  mention  should  be  made  of  the  excellent  work  done  by  Mr.  Alexander 
Whyte,  F.Z.S.,  the  head  of  our  scientific  department.  He  discovered  on  Mount 
Mlanje  that  most  interesting  conifer  the  Widdringtonia  \Vhytci — discovered 

1  The  same  restrictions  also  apply  to  the  giraffe,  but  the  giraffe  is  of  very  doubtful  existence  in  British 
Central  Africa. 


it  just  in  time  to  save  it  from  extinction  at  the  hands  of  the  natives  who 
would  every  year  ignite  bush-fires  on  the  upper  parts  of  Mlanje,  which  were 
rapidly  destroying  this  valuable  tree.  Successful  efforts  have  now  been  made 
to  replant  other  districts  with  the  Widdringtonia,  the  seed  of  which  has  also 
been  introduced  into  England,  where  it  is  now  cultivated  at  Kew  Gardens 
and  at  the  establishments  of  one  or  two  leading  horticulturists.  Mr.  Whyte, 
with  the  co-operation  of  many  officials  in  the  B.C. A.  Administration  has  made 
remarkable  zoological  and  botanical  collections  which  have  enriched  our  national 
and  provincial  museums.  (Some  idea  of  the  work  we  have  done  in  this  respect 
may  be  obtained  by  glancing  at  the  Appendices  to  Chapters  VIII.  and  IX.) 
Mr.  \Vhyte  laid  the  foundations  of  a  Botanical  Garden  at  Zomba,  and  has 
distributed  amongst  the  planters  seeds  and  plants  which  he  has  introduced 
on  behalf  of  the  Administration,  or  obtained  from  Kew.  The  authorities 
at  Kew  Gardens  have  from  time  to  time  sent  out  Wardian  cases  containing 
varieties  and  species  of  coffee,  of  bananas,  of  vanilla,  and  of  a  great  many 
other  useful  and  beautiful  trees,  shrubs,  and  plants  suited  to  cultivation  in  a 
tropical  country. 

Coal  has  been  discovered  by  our  officials  in  various  districts,  and  specimens 
have  been  sent  home  for  analysis. 

MR.    \VHYTK    IN    TIIK    HARDENS    AT    ZOMBA 




i    CHAPTER  IV.  may  be  usefully  supplemented  by  a  brief  statement  of  the  present 
methods  of  administration. 

There  are  the  following  Civilian  officials  :  — 
H.M.  Commissioner  and  Consul-General  : 
H.M.  Deputy  Commissioner  and  Consul  : 

A  Vice-Consul  and  Agent  of  the  British  Central  Africa  Administration  at  Chinde  : 
An  Assistant  Agent  and  Head  Postmaster  at  the  same  place  : 
A  Vice-Consul  at  Blantyre,  and  another  at  Fort  Johnston  : 
A  Secretary  to  the  Administration  ;  an  Assistant  Secretary  and  2  clerks  : 
A  Judicial  Officer  at  Blantyre,  who  is  at  the  head  of  the  Judicial  Establishment  : 
A   Chief  Accountant  ;    3    other    Accountants  ;   a    Store-keeper  and  Commissariat 

Officer  ;  an  Assistant  ditto  and  a  native  assistant  ditto  ;  a  local  Auditor  : 
A    Postmaster   General  ;  a   head   of  the    Scientific    Department    (Mr.    Alexander 

Whyte)  ;  an  Assistant  and  Forester  in  the  same  department  : 
A  Principal  Medical  Officer,  and  2  other  medical  officers  : 
A  First  Surveyor  (European);  3  other  Surveyors  (Indian,  lent  by  the  Indian  Govern- 

ment) ;  a  Superintendent  of  Road-making,  and  two  Assistant  Superintendents  : 
A  Superintendent  of  Public  Works,  with  a  European  assistant  and  6  Indian  artisans  : 
1  2  Collectors,  8  of  whom  hold  Judicial  Warrants  : 
15  Assistant  Collectors. 

Most  of  the  Collectors  and  Assistant  Collectors  hold  in  addition  the  office  of  Post- 
master. There  are  further,  besides  the  Postmaster-General  at  Blantyre,  and  the  Head 
Postmaster  at  Chinde,  2  special  Postmasters  at  Blantyre  and  at  Zomba. 

The  Armed  Forces  consist  of  the  following  officers  and  men  :— 
A  Commandant  (Lieut.  -Colonel  C  A.  Edwards)  : 

Second-in-Command  and  Staff  Officer  ;  Third  Officer  and  Quarter-Master  : 
Accountant,  Clerk,  Sergeant-Major  of  Artillery,  and  Transport  Officer,  and  2  Indian 

(The  foregoing  are  specially  attached  to  the  Indian  Contingent,  though  their  control 
extends  to  the  rest  of  the  armed  forces.) 

In  the  Contingent  of  Native  troops  there  are  :  — 

6  British  Officers;  2  native  Sergeant-Majors  ;  and  a  number  of  Police  Corporals  and 

The  troops  consist  of 

1  80  Sikhs,  with  20  followers  and  2   Indian   hospital  assistants,  and    about   1,000 
native  soldiers,  armed  porters  and  policemen. 



The  Naval  Service  consists  of  a 
Commandant  (Commander  Percy  Cullen,  R.N.R.)  and 

3  other  Naval  Officers,  all  of  whom  are  chosen  from  the  Royal  Naval  Reserve ;  and 

4  Warrant  Officers,  who  are  pensioners  in  the  Royal  Navy ; 
A  Chief  Engineer,  and  4  other  engineers ; 

4  Indian  Artificers  ; 

Other  European  carpenters,  clerks,  store-keepers,  £c. ;  and  about 

80  "  Sidi  Boys,"  or  native  seamen. 


There  are  at  present  in  the  service  of  the  Protectorate  on  the  Upper  Shire  and  on 
Lake  Nyasa,  3  gunboats,  i  barge,  5  steel  boats,  and  2  daus  (Arab  sailing  vessels).  The 
war  vessels  are  well  armed  with  suitable  guns.  A  new  gunboat  of  considerable  si/c  is 
being  built  for  service  on  Lake  Nyasa,  and  should  be  launched  at  the  beginning  of  1898. 

The  most  important  "item"  in  the  service  of  the  Protectorate  is  probably  the 
Collector."  This  official  superintends  the  collection  of  Customs  Duties,  the  assessment 
and  levying  of  native  taxes  ;  he  directs  the  Civil  police  in  his  district ;  administers  justice 
to  Europeans  and  between  Europeans  and  natives  where  he  holds  a  Warrant  from  the 
Secretary  of  State  to  act  as  a  judicial  officer  ;  superintends  the  administration  of  native 
justice  ;  and  acts  generally  as  political  officer  and  Tribune  of  the  people.  In  all  Civil 
matters  he  is  supreme  in  his  District,  and  only  subordinate  to  the  Commissioner.  In 
many  cases  he  is  also  responsible  for  the  conduct  of  the  postal  service.  If  he  possesses 
a  great  deal  of  power  he  is  at  the  same  time  almost  invariably  an  overworked  individual, 
with  many  cares  and  responsibilities  on  his  shoulders. 

Justice  is  administered  to  British  subjects  and  other  Europeans  and  foreigners  under 



the  Africa  Orders  in  Council  of  1891  and  1893  ;  and  to  the  natives  by  such  native  chiefs 
as  are  authorised  to  hold  Courts  of  Justice  ;  or  more  ordinarily  by  the  judicial  officers  in 
the  district,  acting  in  the  name  and  by  the  authority  of  the  native  chiefs.  Capital 
punishment  on  Europeans  can  only  be  carried  out  after  the  Minutes  of  the  Trial  have 
been  submitted  to  a  Supreme  Court a  which  revises  the  sentence,  and  if  it  is  confirmed 
sanctions  the  execution.  Capital  sentences  on  natives  of  the  Protectorate,  imposed  by 
the  native  Court,  cannot  be  carried  out  until  they  have  received  the  sanction  of  the 
Commissioner  of  Zomba,  to  whom  Minutes  of  the  case  are  submitted  2  by  a  provision 
under  the  Africa  Orders  in  Council.  Additional  laws,  governing  the  Protectorate  and 
the  Sphere  of  Influence,  can  be  made  by  the  issue  of  "Queen's  Regulations,"  which, 
after  receiving  the  assent  of  the  Secretary  of  State  for  Foreign  Affairs,  are  promulgated 
by  the  Commissioner  for  British  Central  Africa.  Special  legislation  of  this  kind  is  chiefly 
directed  to  the  establishment  of  Customs  Duties  and  Taxation,  to  the  protection  of  Big 
Game,  to  the  regulation  of  native  labour  and  of  navigation  on  the  rivers  and  lakes. 

These  Regulations  and  other  announcements  of  a  Governmental  kind  are  published 
in  the  British  Central  Africa  Gazette,  which  is  the  official  organ  'of  the  Administration 
and  appears  fortnightly,  issued  by  the  Government  Press  at  Zomba.3 

Government  land  is  sold  by  public  auction,  and  its  upset  price  at  present  varies  from 
2S.  6d.  to  $s.  od.  an  acre. 

There  is  a  central  Hospital  at  Zomba  for  the  treatment  of  the  European  servants  of 
the  Administration,  and  a  native  hospital. 

For  Administrative  purposes  the  Protectorate  is  divided  into  the  following  districts: — 

Lower  Shire  (Capital,  Port  Herald). 
Ruo  (Capital,  Chiromo). 
Mlanje  (Capital,  Fort  Anderson). 
Zomba  (Capital,  Zomba). 
Blantyre  (Capital,  Blantyre). 
West  Shire  (Capital,  Chikwawa). 

Upper  Shire  (Capital,  Liwonde). 
South  Nyasa  (Capital,  Fort  Johnston). 
Central  Angoniland  (Capital,4  Tambala). 
Marimba  (Capital,  Kotakota). 
West  Nyasa  (Capital,  Nkata). 
North  Nyasa  (Capital,  Karonga). 

1   Which  at  present  is  the  High  Court  of  Cape  Colony. 

"  There  have  only  been  four  executions  for  murder  amongst  the  natives  since  1891.  One  was 
the  execution  of  a  native  of  Kotakota.  who  killed  a  Makua  soldier  ;  the  second,  the  execution  of  Mlozi  ; 
the  third,  the  execution  of  Saidi  Mwa/.ungu,  who  killed  Dr.  Boyce  and  Mr.  .McKwan  ;  and  the  fourth  the 
execution  of  the  Angoni  Chief,  Chikusi. 

•'  Where  there  are  i  European  superintendent  and  6  native  printers. 

'   It  is  probable  that  the  capital  will  be  removed  to  Chiwere. 

.    ZOMBA 

ifik/         t*  h 


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V    ', 


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f  \f  ;^ 

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IN  regard  to  the  slave  trade,  a  few  words  of  explanation  and  description  may 
be  of  interest.     Slavery  has  probably  existed  among  mankind  from  time 
immemorial,  and  no  doubt  one  race  of  negroes  enslaved  another  ages  before 
the  ancient  Egyptians  and  Phoenicians  introduced  the  slave  trade,  by  which  is 
meant  the  deliberate  expatriation  of  negroes  to  countries  beyond  the  sea,  or  to 
parts  of  Africa  not  inhabited  by  the  negro  race.     But  the  horrors  of  the  slave 
trade  are  attributable,  firstly  to  Europeans,  and  secondly  to  Arabs. 

The  English,  Spanish,  Portuguese  and  French  had  commenced  trafficking  in 
negro  slaves  from  the  West  Coast  of  Africa  when  that  coast  became  opened  up 
to  geographical  knowledge  in  the  fourteenth  and  fifteenth  centuries.  In  the 
sixteenth  century  organised  attempts  were  made  to  replace  the  disappearing 
aborigines  of  the  West  Indies  by  negro  slaves  ;  then  came  the  introduction  of 
negroes  into  the  southern  States  of  North  America.  At  first  the  trade  was 
confined  to  the  West  Coast  but  the  Portuguese  commenced  to  export  slaves 
from  East  Africa  in  the  seventeenth  century,  and  thenceforward  a  mighty  slave 
trade  sprang  up  in  the  valley  of  the  Zambezi  which  is  not  yet  extinct,  although 
several  measures  for  its  abolition  have  been  taken  by  the  Portuguese  Govern- 
ment during  the  present  century. 

Maskat  Arabs  who  warred  with  the  Portuguese  in  East  Africa  and  gradually 
supplanted  them  in  all  the  settlements  between  Aden  and  the  Ruvuma  River, 
organised  a  brisk  traffic  to  supply  the  markets  of  the  East  with  black  concubines, 
black  eunuchs,  and  strong-armed  willing  workers. 

Slaves  thus  became  indispensable  to  Arabia,  Egypt,  Mesopotamia  and 
Persia,  and  Abyssinian  slaves  were  even  introduced  in  numbers  to  the  West 
Coast  of  India  where  they  were  turned  into  fighting  men  or  into  regular  castes 
of  seamen.1 

The  Moors  of  Northern  Africa,  however,  had  almost  shown  the  way  in  the 
matter  of  the  slave  trade  to  the  nations  of  Western  Europe  by  developing  an 
active  intercourse  with  the  regions  of  the  Nigerian  Sudan,  so  that  all  Northern 
Africa  was  abundantly  supplied  with  a  caste  of  negro  workers  while  negro 
blood  mingled  freely  in  many  of  the  Arab  and  Berber  tribes. 

^  The  worst  horrors  of  the  slave  trade  were  probably  the  miseries  endured  by 
the  closely-packed  negroes  on  slave  ships,  where  from  want  of  ventilation  and  of 
such  treatment  as  would  nowadays  be  accorded  as  a  duty  to  cargoes  of  beasts, 
they  endured  untold  miseries  and  developed  strange  maladies.^  Moreover,  to 

1  Curiously  enough  some  of  these  slaves  revolted  and  formed  communities  of  their  own  in  Western 
India,  now  recognised  by  the  Imperial  Government  as  small  tributary  States  under  negroid  rulers  of 
Abyssinian  descent. 




supply  the  slave  market  in  America  incessant  civil  war  was  raging  amongst  the 
coast  tribes  of  West  Africa.  But  the  Arabs  of  East-Central  Africa  have  run  us 
hard  in  the  matter  of  wickedness.  I  do  not  need  to  recapitulate  the  horrors  of 
slave  raids  and  the  miseries  of  slave  caravans  :  they  are  graphically  described 
by  Livingstone.1 

The  Arabs  of  Maskat  from  the  Zanzibar  coast  and  the  half-breed  Portuguese 
from  the  Zambezi  joined  together  to  devastate  what  is  now  called  British  Central 

The  slaves  from  the  Senga  and  Bisa  countries  in  the  Luangwa  valley  and 
from  much  of  Southern  Nyasaland  found  their  way  to  Tete  on  the  Zambezi,  and 

thence  to  Quelimane  and  Mozambique,  where 
they  were  picked  up  by  American  ships  as 
late  as  the  beginning  of  the  "  sixties."  Some 
of  these  ships  eluded  the  British  gunboats  ; 
others  were  captured  and  taken  to  Sierra 
Leone.  Here,  strange  to  say,  many  inhabitants 
of  Nyasaland  and  of  the  countries  as  far  west 
as  the  Lualaba,  were  landed  in  the  "  forties  " 
and  "  fifties  "  of  this  century,  and  were  ex- 
amined as  to  their  languages  by  Mr.  Koelle, 
a  German  missionary  of  great  learning,  who, 
in  his  Polyglotta  Africana,  produced  one  of 
the  finest  books  ever  written  on  the  subject 
of  African  languages.  Long  before  the 
existence  of  Lakes  Nyasa  and  Tanganyika 
were  known  to  Europe,  Mr.  Koelle,  of  Sierra 
Leone,  was  writing  down  the  vocabularies 
and  languages  spoken  on  the  shores  of  those 
lakes,  gathered  from  slaves  that  had  come 
from  Mozambique  and  Quelimane. 

In  between  Mozambique  and  Quelimane 
the  Arabs  still  retain  to  this  day  a  hold  on 
certain  little-known  ports,  such  as  Angoche 

and  Moma.  From  these  points  slaves  from  Eastern  Nyasaland  were  shipped 
to  Madagascar,  which  until  its  recent  conquest  by  the  French  was  another 
profitable  market  for  slaves.  In  addition,  the  Matabele  Zulus,  who  had  surged 
back  into  South-Central  Africa  from  Zululand  at  the  beginning  of  this  century 
raided  across  the  Zambezi  for  slaves,  and  slave-raiding  was  also  carried  on  by 
the  Basuto  who.  under  the  name  of  the  Makololo,  conquered  the  Barutse 
kingdom.  From  the  middle  of  the  i8th  to  near  the  end  of  the  igth  century 
British  Central  Africa  has  been  devastated  by  the  slave  trade.  Whole  tribes 
have  been  cut  up  and  scattered  ;  vast  districts  depopulated  ;  arts  and  crafts 
and  useful  customs  have  been  forgotten  in  the  flight  before  the  slave -raiders. 
The  whole  country  was  kept  in  a  state  of  incessant  turmoil  by  the  attempt 
to  supply  the  slave  markets  of  the  Zambezi,  of  Madagascar,  of  the  United 
States,  of  Zanzibar,  Arabia,  Persia,  and  Turkey. 

A  great  blow  was  dealt  to  this  trade  by  the  conclusion  of  the  American 
Civil  War  and  the  abolition  of  slavery.  This  and  the  Emancipation  of  Slaves 
first  in  the  West  Indies  and  subsequently  in  Brazil,  brought  the  West  African 

1  I  have  attempted  also  to  give  descriptions  based  on  a  good  deal  of  personal  observation  as  well  as 
on  much  reading  in  my  book,  The  History  of  a  Slave. 




slave  trade  to  a  close  and  largely  diminished  the  source  of  profit  in  the 
South -East  African  slave  trade;  for  American  ships  came  no  longer  to  the 
Mozambique  coast  to  take  away  cargoes  of  slaves  and  to  evade  the  British 
cruisers.  Then  the  Portuguese  awoke  to  a  sense  of  duty  and  a  series  of  edicts 
made  slavery  very  difficult  and  the  slave  trade  practically  impossible  in  all  the 
settled  portions  of  Portuguese  East  Africa.  But  the  Eastern  market  always 

ARAB    AN'H    SWAHII.I    SI.AYI-X1  K Al  >KRS,    rAl'Tl'REH    HV    THK    ] 

remained  open  and  the  Arabs-  carried  their  slaving  enterprise  farther  and 
farther  into  the  heart  of  British  Central  Africa.  They  had  enlisted  on  their 
side  powerful  tribes  like  the  Wa-yao,  the  Wa-nyamwezi,  the  Awemba,  and  the 
Angoni  Zulus.  Dr.  Livingstone,  however,  appeared  on  the  scene  and  his  appeals 
to  the  British  public  gradually  drew  our  attention  to  the  slave  trade  in  Eastern 
Central  Africa  until,  as  the  direct  result  of  Livingstone's  work,  slavery  and  the 
slave  trade  are  now  at  an  end  within  the  British  Central  Africa  Protectorate, 
and  are  fast  disappearing  in  the  regions  beyond  under  the  South  Africa 



Company ;  and  the  abolition  of  slavery  at  Zanzibar  will  shortly  be  decreed  as 
a  final  triumph  to  Livingstone's  appeal. 

The  attitude  of  our  Administration  in  British  Central  Africa  towards  the 
status  of  slavery  has  been  this  :  we  have  never  recognised 
it,  but  where  slavery  existed  without  its  being  forced  on 
our  notice  through  an  attempt  to  carry  on  the  slave  trade, 
or  through  unkindness  to  the  slaves,  we  have  not  actually 
interfered  to  abolish  the  status.  But  if  ever  a  slave  has 
run  away  from  a  district  not  administered  by  us  to  a  more 
settled  portion  of  the  Protectorate,  we  have  always  refused 
to  surrender  him.  If  the  slave  was  a  female  and  it  could 
be  shown  that  she  was  a  wife  or  concubine  of  the  man  who 
owned  her  or  that  he  had  inflicted  no  unkindness  she  was 
usually  given  back  upon  a  promise  of  immunity  from 
punishment.  When  a  district  from  various  causes  has 
come  under  our  our  immediate  administration  we  have 
always  informed  the  slaves  that  they  were  not  slaves  and 
that  they  were  free  to  go  and  do  what  they  pleased  as  long 
as  they  did  not  break  the  law.  But  it  has  rarely  happened 
that  the  slaves  of  a  chief  who  were  well  treated  have  chosen 
to  quit  their  masters  ;  therefore,  being  free  to  do  as  they 
liked,  if  they  chose  to  remain  and  work  as  slaves  nobody 
interfered  to  prevent  their  doing  so.  The  slave  trade — still 
more  slave-raiding — has  always  been  punished,  and  it  may 
be  safely  stated  that  such  a  thing  does  not  now  exist  in  the 
Protectorate,  though  it  is  still  carried  on  in  such  districts  as 
are  not  wholly  under  the  control  of  the  British  South 
Africa  Company  ;  while  Mpezeni  alone  among  the  uncon- 
quered  Angoni  chiefs  raids-  the  countries  round  his  settle- 
ments and  apparently  adds  his  slaves  to  the  population  of 
his  kingdom,  or  sells  them  to  the  Arabs  on  the  Luangwa. 

The  hardships  of  the  slave  trade  were  these : — Homes 
were  broken  up,  a  large  number  of  men,  women  and  little 
children  were  collected  together  and  dispatched  on  a  many- 
hundred-mile  journey  overland  to  the  coast,  on  which  they 
often  had  to  carry  heavy  burdens  Their  slave-sticks l  were 
no  light  weight,  and  they  were  ill-fed  and  provided  with  no 
clothing  to  shield  them  from  the  cold  or  wet  in  mountainous 
regions.  If  they  lagged  by  the  way  or  lay  down,  worn 
out  with  exhaustion,  their  throats  were  cut  or  they  were  shot.  Often  before 
reaching  the  coast  the  Arabs  would  stop  at  some  settlement  and  roughly 
castrate  a  number  of  the  young  boys  so  that  they  might  be  sold  as  eunuchs. 
Some  died  straightway  from  the  operation,  others  lingered  a  little  longer  and 

1  The  slave-stick  in  most  of  the  languages  of  East-Central  Africa  is  called  gori,  goli,  or  li-goli.  It 
consists  usually  of  a  young  tree  lopped  off  near  the  ground  and  again  cut  where  it  divides  into  two 
branches.  The  ends  of  these  two  branches  are  left  sufficiently  long  to  enclose  the  neck  of  the  slave. 
Their  ends  are  then  united  by  an  iron  pin  which  is  driven  through  a  hole  drilled  in  the  wood  and 
hammered  over  on  either  side. 

The  thick  end  of  the  gori-stick  is  usually  fastened  to  a  tree  at  night  time  when  the  caravan  is  resting, 
though  sometimes  it  is  merely  left  on  the  ground  as  the  weight  of  the  stick  would  make  escape  nearly 
impossible,  especially  as  stubborn  slaves  have  their  hands  tied  behind  the  back.  When  the  slaves  are 
engaged  in  any  work  the  end  of  the  gori-stick  is  sufficiently  supported  to  enable  them  to  bear  its  weight 
and  yet  perform  the  task  allotu-d  to  them.  Except  in  the  case  of  children,  on  whom  no  stick  is  placed, 

A    "  (PuGA-RUGA 

Slave-raider  employed  by  Arab 

THE    SLAVE    TRADE  i59 

eventually  perished  from  hernia  induced  by  this  operation.  Those  who  survived 
usually  had  an  extremely  comfortable  and  prosperous  after-life  in  the  harem 
of  some  Turk,  Arab  or  Persian.  The  mortality  amongst  the  children  was 
terrible:  the  Arab  slave-drivers  do  not  appear  to  have  been  actuated  by  motives 
of  commercial  expediency  in  endeavouring  to  land  as  many  live  and  healthy 
slaves  on  the  coast  as  possible.  They  seem  on  the  contrary  to  have  been 
inspired  by  something  more  like  devilish  cruelty  at  times  in  the  reckless  way 
in  which  they  would  expose  their  slaves  to  suffering  and  exhaustion,  and  then 
barbarously  kill  them.1 

as  they  are  sure  to  follow  their  mothers  or  friends,  or  of  comely  young  women  who  are  the  temporary 
concubines  of  the  slave-drivers,  and  who,  with  the  facile  nature  of  the  negro,  rapidly  become  attached 
to  their  brutal  husbands— all  slaves  are  usually  loaded  with  this  terrible  weight.  Nevertheless  escape 
does  sometimes  take  place.  Most  slaves  must  of  necessity  have  their  hands  free  when  on  the  march 
especially  if  they  are  to  support  the  weight  of  the  gori-stick.  They  then  often  manage  to  secrete  a  knife 
>r  razor,  or  some  sharp  substance  with  which  during  the  night  they  will  attempt  to  saw  through  one 
the  branches  of  the  stick  round  the  neck.  They  are  then  able  to  twist  the  iron  pin  round  and  release 
their  necks  from  the  burden.  To  escape  in  a  strange  country  is  impossible,  and  the  attempt  is  invariably 
followed  by  a  return  to  slavery  in  some  shape  or  form.  As  a  rule  when  the  journey  to  the  coast  is  half 
done  the  slaves  are  sufficiently  to  be  depended  upon  for  docility  to  be  able  to  travel  without  the  slave- 

1  Much  of  my  information  about  slavery  was  derived  from  an  interesting  man,  several  years  in  my 
service,  who  was  originally  a  native  of  the  east  coast  of  Lake  Xvasa,  and  had  been  sent  as  a  slave  to  the 
coast  with  an  Arab  caravan  when  he  was  about  twelve  years  old.  The  slaves  whom  he  accompanied 
were  captured  by  a  British  cruiser.  This  boy  was  taken  to  Zanzibar  and  set  free,  was  educated  at  the 
Universities  Mission,  and  became  the  servant  of  a  succession  of  Admirals  on  the  East  Coast  Station 
ending  up  with  Admiral  Hewett ;  after  whose  death  he  passed  into  my  service,  and  was,  until  his  recent 
death,  the  principal  servant  at  the  Consulate  at  Mo9ambique. 


AS  mentioned  in  a  preceding  chapter,  there  were  345  Europeans  at  the 
end  of  the  year  1896  settled  in  the  eastern  part  of  British  Central  Africa, 
of  whom  about  thirty  were  non-British  subjects.  These  Europeans  are 
divisible  into  four  classes — officials,  missionaries,  planters  and  traders. 

The  missionaries  and  their  work  will  be  dealt  with  in  Chapter  VII.  The 
officials  have  been  referred  to  in  the  Appendix  to  a  preceding  chapter  ;  there 
remain  therefore  the  planters  and  traders  to  be  now  considered. 

The  planters  come  from  very  much  the  same  class  which  furnishes  the  coffee 
planters  of  Ceylon,  India,  Fiji,  and  Tropical  America.  They  are  most  of  them 
decent  young  fellows  of  good  physique  and  good  education,  who,  possessed 
of  a  small  capital,  desire  to  embark  on  a  life  which  shall  combine  a  profitable 
investment  for  their  money,  with  no  great  need  for  elaborate  technical  education, 
and  an  open-air  life  in  a  wild  country  with  plenty  of  good  sport,  and  few  or 
none  of  the  restraints  of  civilisation.  One  of  our  planters  can  look  back  on 
something  like  twenty-two  years'  experience  of  British  Central  Africa,  another 
on  eighteen  years'  experience,  a  third  ten,  a  fourth  nine;  but  most  of  the 
men  did  not  arrive  in  the  country  before  1890  or  1891.  The  planters  now 
probably  number  nearly  100.  The  chief  thing  grown  is  coffee;  but  tea 
has  been  started  on  two  estates  (on  one  of  which  it  has  been  growing  for 
about  six  years;,  and  on  others  cinchona  and  ceara  rubber,  cotton  and 
tobacco  are  cultivated.  Some  planters  go  in  a  great  deal  for  cattle  keeping 
and  breeding.1 

The  coffee  plant  was  originally  introduced  into  British  Central  Africa  by 
Mr.  Jonathan  Duncan,  a  horticulturist  in  the  service  of  the  Church  of  Scotland 
Mission,  but  the  idea  owes  its  inception  to  the  late  Mr.  JoTm  Buchanan,  C.M.G., 
who  was  at  the  time  also  in  the  service  of  the  Church  of  Scotland  Mission, - 

1  During  the  past  two  or  three  years  the  use  of  cattle  by  the  European  settlers  in  the  Protectorate 
lia>  greatly  increased.  When  I  first  came  to  British  Central  Africa  in  1889  no  one  except  at  two  or  three 
mission  stations  and  at  the  African  Lakes  Company's  establishments  at  Mandala  and  at  Karonga  kept  any 
cattle.  A  few  native  chiefs  had  herds  of  20  or  30  beasts  hidden  away  in  the  mountains,  afraid  to  avow 
their  existence  in  case  they  should  be  raided  by  the  Angoni  or  the  Yao.  At  the  north  end  of  the  lake 
the  Wankonde  had  enormous  herds,  as  was  the  case  with  the  Angoni  in  the  west  of  the  Protectorate,  but 
no  one  came  forward  to  trade  in  cattle  and  distribute  oxen  among  the  Europeans  in  the  Shire  Highlands. 
All  thih  is  now  changed.  Many  Europeans  have  been  up  into  the  Angoni  country,  and  certain  Adminis- 
tration officials  have  interested  themselves  in  the  introduction  of  cattle  into  the  Shire  province.  The 
price  of  milch  cows  now  stands  at  a  little  more  than  t\\o  or  three  pounds  a  head,  while  oxen  may  fetch  as 
little  as  I5/.  each.  The  chief  inducement  in  keeping  cattle  is  to  use  the  manure  for  the  coftee  plantations, 
but  of  course  the  supply  of  milk  and  butter  is  a  valuable  adjunct  to  health. 

-  Which  he  joined  as  a  lay  member  specially  in  charge  of  horticultural  work  in  1876. 

1 60 



and   who   on   his   arrival  at   Blantyre    had    arranged    with    the  curator  of   the 
Botanical  Gardens  at  Edinburgh  for  the  sending  out  of  coffee  plants. 

Three  small  coffee  plants  of  the  Mocha  variety  (Coffcca  Arabica)  which 
were  leading  a  sickly  existence  at  Edinburgh  were  entrusted  to  Mr.  Duncan  to 
transport  to  Blantyre.  Two  of  these  plants  died  on  the  voyage,  the  third 
survived  and  was  planted  in  the  Blantyre  Mission  gardens,  where  until  quite 
recently  it  was  still  living.  Two  years  after  it  was  thus  replanted  it  bore  a 
crop  of  about  IOOO  beans  which  were  all  planted,  and  from  which  400  seedlings 
were  eventually  reared.  In  1883,  14^  cwts.  of  coffee  was  gathered  from  these 
young  trees.  Mr.  Henry  Henderson  of  the  Blantyre  Mission  brought  out  a 
small  supply  of  Liberian  coffee  seed  in  1887;  but  this  variety  has  never  met 
with  much  success  in  British  Central  Africa,  as  it  will  not  grow  well  on  the 
hills,  though  it  answers  well  in  the  plains.  Moreover,  it  does  not  fetch  nearly 
such  good  prices  as  the  small  Mocha  bean.  Later  on  varieties  of  Jamaica 
coffee  were  introduced  by  the  Moir  Brothers  whilst  managers  of  the  African 


Lakes  Company  at  Mandala.  The  "  blue  mountain  "  variety  of  Jamaica  has 
succeeded  very  well  in  the  Shire  Highlands,  and  to  a  less  extent  the  "orange" 
coffee  in  the  same  locality  has  prospered.  Still  the  bulk  of  the  coffee  trees 
now  existing  in  this  Protectorate  owe  their  origin  to  the  one  surviving  coffee 
plant  introduced  from  the  Edinburgh  Botanical  Gardens.  It  may  therefore 
be  said  without  much  exaggeration  that  it  is  Scotch  coffee  which  is  the  staple 
growth  of  British  Central  Africa. 

Owing  to  the  troubles  which  broke  out  in  the  Church  of  Scotland 
Mission  (briefly  referred  to  in  a  previous  chapter),  much  of  the  Society's 
work  in  connection  with  planting  was  suspended,  though  not  before  it  had 
introduced  coffee  into  the  Zomba  district  through  Mr.  Buchanan  ;  but  when 
Mr.  Buchanan  left  the  Mission  in  1880  he  determined  to  establish  himself 
independently  as  a  coffee  planter.  For  years  he  and  his  brothers  -(who 
eventually  joined  him)  struggled  on  with  a  very  limited  capital,  having 
almost  insuperable  difficulties  to  contend  with  in  the  shape  of  recalcitrant  chiefs, 
ill-health,  and  invasions  of  the  Angoni,  which  drove  away  all  their  native  labour. 
They  remained  however  without  any  rivals  in  the  field  until  Mr.  Eugene 
Sharrer,  a  British  subject  of  German  origin,  arrived  at  Blantyre  in  1889,  bought 
land  and  started  coffee  planting.  The  Lakes  Company  also  commenced 



planting  about  the  same  time,  but  the  shipments  of  the  Buchanan  Brothers  had 
already  established  the  fact  that  coffee  of  the  very  best  quality  could  be  grown 
in  British  Central  Africa.  Moreover,  the  labour  difficulty  was  being  gradually 
solved.  When  the  natives  around  the  infant  settlements  of  Blantyre  and 
Zomba  were  convinced  that  the  white  men  would  pay  fairly  for  their  labour, 
they  began  to  come  in  increasing  numbers  to  work  in  the  plantations,  and 
strangest  of  all,  the  warlike  Angoni  came  down  with  their  slaves,  not  to  raid 

and  ravage  as  before,  but  to  obtain 
employment  for  three  or  four  months 
in  the  year  in  the  coffee  plantations. 

The  total  amount  of  coffee  ex- 
ported from  this  Protectorate  in  1896 
was  320  tons.  This  coffee  was  sold 
in  London  at  prices  ranging  between 
99-r.  and  1 1 5.$-.  per  cwt.,  much  of  it 
fetching  prices  over  100  shillings. 
The  lowest  price  ever  fetched  by 
British  Central  Africa  coffee  was  86s. 
per  cwt. 

The  coffee  undoubtedly  varies 
according  to  the  amount  of  rainfall, 
the  fertility  of  the  soil,  and  the  manner 
in  which  it  is  plucked,  pulped,  dried 
and  packed.  Manure  and  shade1  seem 
to  be  absolutely  necessary  to  complete 
success.  Artificial  manures  are  now 
being  imported,  and  as  already  stated 
cattle  are  kept  in  increasing  quantities 
so  that  their  dung  may  be  used  for 
the  coffee  plantations,  and  guano 
has  recently  been  discovered  on  the 
islands  of  Lake  Nyasa,  which  will 
prove  very  useful.  It  is  also  necessary 
that  the  plantations  shall  be  scru- 
pulously weeded.  When  the  soil  is 

fertile,  and  all  these  conditions  of  manure,  shade  and  weeding  have  been  fulfilled, 
a  yield  of  as  much  as  17  cwt.  per  acre  has  been  taken.  On  the  other  hand,  in 
much  neglected  gardens  no  more  than  50  or  60  Ibs.  per  acre  has  been  realised. 
The  average  yield  in  the  plantations  is  3^  cwt.  per  acre,  though  it  is  the  opinion 
of  experts  that  this  yield  would  be  greatly  increased  if  more  care  was  shown 
in  the  cultivation  of  the  coffee. 

In  some  years  of  poor  rainfall  or  where  the  first  rains  have  fallen  early, 
and  have  brought  coffee  prematurely  into  blossom  leaving  the  newly-formed 
seed  to  suffer  from  the  subsequent  drought,  the  berry  grows  diseased  or  the 
husk  is  found  to  be  empty  with  no  kernels  at  all  inside.  Some  people  are  of 
opinion  that  this  empty  husk  or  diseased  berry  is  caused  by  the  presence 
of  a  small  beetle.  Others  assert  that  it  is  the  result  of  a  plague  of  green 

1  To  attain  this  end,  I  believe,  in  new  plantations  for  every  two  coffee  shrubs  inserted  in  the  ground 
one  African  fig  tree  is  planted.  Thts_-  splendid  wild  fig  trees  grow  to  a  great  height  and  give  absolute 
shade.  They  also  serve  to  protect  the  coffee  trees  from  being  wind  blown  or  seared  by  the  hot  air  coming 
off  the  plains  in  the  dry  season. 




bugs   which   suck   the  sap  of  the   coffee  tree.      All  are  agreed,  however,  that 
the  only  preventative  of  the  defective  berry  is  plenty  of  shade  and  manure. 

A  system  of  "topping"1  has  now  been  almost  universally  adopted,  though 
perhaps  not  to  the  same  extent  to  which  it  is  carried  on  in  Ceylon  and  India, 
for  it  is  difficult  to  train  immediately  a  sufficient  staff  of  natives  who  will  handle 
and  prune  the  coffee  in  a  proper  manner ;  and  careless  topping  does  more  harm 
than  good.  The  effect  of  the  soil  of  this  Protectorate  on  the  coffee  shrub 
is  apparently  to  bring  it  into  bearing  at  three  years  of  age  or  under,  and  to 
cause  it  in  its  second  crop  to  exhaust  its  vitality,  if  it  be  not  previously  pruned. 
Left  to  itself  the  coffee  shrub  in  this  main  or  second  crop  would  give  an 
enormous  yield  from  the  primary  shoots  and  as  a  result  of  this  exhaustion 
no  secondary  branches  would  be  developed  from  which  the  next  year's  crop 
would  come;  consequently  instead  of  bearing  year  after  year  for  something 
like  fourteen  years  the  coffee  shrubs  would  be  useless  when  four  or  five  years 
old.  The  coffee  tree  generally  blossoms  during  the  dry  season  in  the  months 
of  September  and  October,  especially  if  a  few  showers  of  rain  fall,  as  they 
often  do  at  this  time  of  the  year.  The  berries  are  usually  ripe  and  ready  for 
picking  at  the  end  of  June. 

In  my  report  to  the  Foreign  Office  on  the  trade  of  British   Central  Africa 
during   1895   and    1896   I   have  estimated  that  a  planter  requires  a  capital  of 
about  ,£1000  for  the  upkeep  and  bringing  into  bearing  of  100  acres  of  coffee. 
This  sum  should  purchase  an  estate  of  say  500  acres  and  provide  for  the  cost  of 
clearing  it,  obtaining  coffee  seedlings  and  planting  them,  and  building  a  fairly 
comfortable  house,  and   of  meeting  the  expense  of  the   planter's   living   on   a 
moderate  scale  during  the  three  years.     It  would  not,  however,  provide  for  the 
erection  of  a  substantial  brick  house, 
nor  of  the  pulping  vats,  and  special 
machinery  for  pulping.     With  this  he 
would  have  gradually  to  supplyhimself 
out  of  the  profits  his  plantation  would 
make  after  the  first  three  years.     Per- 
haps  it    may  enable    my   readers   to 
obtain   a   clear    idea  of   the    average 
experience  of  a  young  coffee  planter ; 
what  difficulties  he  has  to  face  ;  what 
are  the  chances  of  success — what  in 
fact    any    reader    of    my    book    who 
intends  to   become  a  coffee   planter 
in  British  Central  Africa  would  have 
to  undergo — if  I   give  here  extracts 
from  the  imaginary  letters  of  a  typical 
planter,  so  far  as  my  imagination  will 
enable  me  to  enter  into  the  mind  of  A,  B,  C,  or  D,  and  reveal  their  thoughts 
and  the  impressions  which  are  made  on  them  by  what  they  see  and  feel. 


"  DEAR  FRED, — As  I  have  failed  in  my  last  chance  for  the  army,  the  governor  has 
decided  that  I  am  to  go  coffee  planting  somewhere  in  Central  Africa.  He  has  heard  all 
about  it  from  old  Major  McClear,  who  it  appears  has  gone  out  there  with  his  son  (he  is 
a  widower  you  know)  and  is  going  to  supplement  his  pension  by  making  money  out  of 

1  "Topping"  means  cutting  about  four  inches  off  the  top  of  the  tree,  so  as  to  throw  it  hack  and 
cause  the  secondary  branches  to  develop  and  come  into  bearing. 




coffee.  You  see,  as  I  have  failed  finally  to  pass  my  exams  for  the  army,  I  must  not  be 
too  particular,  as  there  are  younger  brothers  and  sisters  to  be  educated  and  put  out 
in  the  world,  and  my  father  is  not  over  well  off;  besides,  I  hear  there  is  capital  sport, 
and  the  climate  is  not  so  bad  though  one  gets  a  touch  of  fever  every  now  and  then. 
The  governor  can  only  afford  ^1000  to  start  me,  and  I  am  going  to  do  my  best 
not  to  cost  him  another  penny  before  I  am  self-supporting.  ...  I  think  the  country 
is  called  the  British  Central  Africa  Protectorate;  it  is  close  to  Lake  Nyasa,  and  is 
about  300  or  400  miles  inland  from  the  east  coast.  I  am  getting  my  equipment  ready, 
and  shall  leave  on  the  ist  of  May  by  the  Edinburgh  Castle  for  Durban,  where  I  change 
into  the  "  Rennie  "  boat  lnditna,  and  so  travel  up  the  east  coast  to  a  place  called  Chinde 
which  is  at  the  mouth  of  the  Zambezi.  Here  I  change  into  the  river  steamer,  and 
travel  up  the  Zambezi  and  the  Shire,  and  so  on  to  Blantyre  where  I  shall  stay  with 
the  McClears  and  look  about  me.  ...  As  to  equipment,1  I  am  not  taking  very  much 
as  I  am  told  that  most  things  can  be  got  fairly  good  and  cheap  out  there,  and  it  saves 
one  the  bother  of  a  lot  of  luggage,  and  the  risk  of  loading  yourself  with  things  that  you 
don't  want.  I  shall  simply  take  along  with  me  all  my  old  clothes  and  a  dress-suit  in  case 
there  is  any  'society.'  Of  course  I  am  taking  guns— a  doubled-barrelled  i2-bore  shot 
gun,  and  an  express  rifle.  I  have  been  strongly  advised  not  to  take  a  helmet,  as 
it  is  said  to  be  a  ridiculous  kind  of  headgear  for  Central  Africa,  where  one  requires 
something  like  a  light  Terai  hat,  and  where  it  appears  you  should  always  carry  a  white 
cotton  umbrella  when  the  sun  shines.  The  helmet  is  cumbersome  and  ugly  and  does 
not  shield  the  body  from  the  sun.  It  seems  from  what  I  can  gather  that  a  chap  gets  far 
sicker  from  the  effect  of  the  sun  on  his  body  than  on  his  head,  and  that  the  best  way 
to  avoid  sun  fever  and  sunstroke  is  to  carry  an  umbrella  wherever  one  goes.  I  shall 
take  a  good  saddle  with  me  and  riding  gear,  as  most  of  the  people  in  the  Shire 
Highlands  (the  name  of  the  coffee  district)  ride  about  on  ponies.  I  think  as  I  pass 
through  Durban  I  shall  invest  in  a  Basuto  pony  (they  are  said  to  be  the  best  for  the 
purpose)  and  take  him  along'  with  me  up  to  Blantyre.  I  hear  they  are  very  cheap 
at  Durban,  about  £$  will  buy  a  good  one,  and  it  only  comes  altogether  to  about  ^25  or 
£26  to  convey  the  little  beast  up  river  to  a  place  called  Katunga,  and  there  you  get  on 
his  back  and  ride  up  to  Blantyre.  I  shall  also  take  out  my  bicycle  as  some  of  the  roads 
are  fit  for  cycling.  Nearly  everything  else  can  be  got  on  the  spot,  but  my  mother 
insists  on  giving  me  a  small  medicine  chest,  so  that  I  can  dose  myself  with  quinine  and 
other  things  if  there  is  no  doctor  handy.  I  shall  also  take  out  a  small  photographic 
camera  and  plenty  of  books. 

"  And  now  good-bye  for  a  bit  in  case  I  don't  see  you  again,  but  as  soon  as  I  get  out 
there  I  will  write  and  let  you  know  what  it  is  like." 


"DEAR  FRED, — I  am  now  in  British  Central  Africa,  and  before  I  get  any  further  into 
the  country  as  I  have  a  day  or  two  to  spare  here  I  will  give  you  an  account  of  what  my 
journey  was  like. 

"I  managed  to  get  my  pony  all  right  in  Durban  through  Messrs. and  -  — , 

who  seem  to  be  universal  providers  in  that  city.  I  had  to  give  £9  for  him  but  he  is  an 
extra  good  little  beast.  We  changed  into  the  Indnna  at  this  place.  She  was  very 
crowded  and  therefore  not  very  comfortable,  but  the  journey  to  Chinde  only  occupied 
five  days  as  we  ran  through  direct. 

"  Chinde,  you  know,  is  one  of  the  mouths  of  the  Zambezi,  and  the  only  one  which  has 
a  bar  that  can  be  crossed  without  risk  by  a  well-navigated  steamer.  The  Indnna  crossed 
the  bar  all  right  and  landed  us  on  the  British  Concession,  a  piece  of  land  which  was 
granted  by  the  Portuguese  Government  for  the  use  of  the  British  Central  Africa 
Protectorate  so  that  goods  can  be  transhipped  here  from  the  ocean-going  steamers 

1  vide  Appendix  II.,  p.  185.— H.  H.  J. 


into  the  river  boats.  I  did  not  stay  on  the  Concession,  however,  but  on  a  place 
called  the  Extra  Concession  which  has  no  privileges  regarding  exemptions  from  Customs 
dues  I  put  up  at  an  hotel  which  is  run  by  -  — .  Of  course  everything  seems  very 
rough  to  me  who  have  never  been  farther  away  than  Switzerland  before,  but  fellows 
here  tell  me  that  Chinde  is  simply  luxurious  to  what  it  was  a  few  years  ago.  In 
1890  it  was  practically  unknown  to  Europeans,  and  there  was  not  even  a  hut  on  the 
present  sandspit,  which  is  the  site  of  the  town — everything  was  covered  with  thick 
bush  ;  now,  although  the  place  is  horribly  ugly,  being  built  almost  entirely  of  corrugated 

iron,  it  is  fairly  neat  and  clean.     Most  of  the  houses  are  of  one  story,  but 's  hotel 

is  not  half  a  bad  place,  a  sort  of  bungalow  built  of  iron  and  wood  with  broad  shady 
verandahs.  The  food  is  anything  but  good,  however,  as  fresh  provisions  are  scarce  and 
most  of  the  things  we  eat  come  out  of  tins. 

"  Chinde  is  a  great  peninsula  of  sand  intersected  with  marshy  tracts,  which  projects 
into  the  Indian  Ocean,  having  the  sea  on  one  side  and  the  Chinde  mouth  of  the  Zambezi 
on  the  other. 

*  *  *  *  *  -h  *  * 

"Two  days  after  our  arrival  at  Chinde  we  started  in  the  Lakes  Company's  steamer,  the 
James  Stevenson,  which  conveyed  us  up  river  as  far  as  Chiromo.  After  leaving  Chinde 
we  pursued  a  tortuous  course  up  the  Chinde  River  till  we  got  into  the  main  Zambezi. 
Here  the  country  was  very  uninteresting.  The  Zambezi  is  extremely  broad  and  you  are 
never  sure  whether  you  are  looking  at  the  opposite  bank  or  a  chain  of  long  flat  islands. 
Islands  and  shore  are  equally  covered  at  this  season  of  the  year  by  grass  of  tremendous 
height,  and  except  an  occasional  fan-palm  you  see  nothing  behind  the  grass.  Hippos 
are  very  scarce  and  shy  now  owing  to  the  way  they  have  been  shot  at.  Occasionally 
however  you  see  little  black  dots  at  a  distance,  and  if  you  are  looking  through  glasses  you 
can  distinguish  a  hippo  raising  his  head  and  stretching  his  jaws,  but  they  always  duck 
when  the  steamer  gets  anywhere  near.  At  the  end  of  our  second  day  we  got  to  a  place 
called  Vicenti,  a  sort  of  Portuguese  station.  A  little  while  before  we  got  there  we 
began  to  see  something  more  interesting  than  the  grass  banks — the  outline  of  a  blue 
mountain  called  Morambala,  which  overlooks  the  Shire  River.  Morambala  is  the 
only  hill  to  be  seen  for  miles  farther  on  beyond  Vicenti.  You  hardly  notice  where  you 
get  into  the  River  Shire,  as  the  country  seems  to  have  become  quite  demoralised  at  the 
junction  of  the  Shire  with  the  Zambezi  by 
the  intersection  of  innumerable  channels 
of  water  and  swamps.  Morambala  looks 
a  splendid  mountain,  however  (about  4,000 
feet  high),  as  it  rises  up  above  the  foetid 
Morambala  marsh.  Beyond  Morambala 
the  banks  are  dotted  with  innumerable 
tall  palms  which  I  could  not  help  thinking 
very  picturesque  with  their  lofty  whitish- 
grey  stems,  and  their  crowns  of  elegantly- 
shaped  blue-green  fronds. 

ijf  Mf  ijt 

MT.     MORAMBALA,     I- KnM    THK    RIYKR    SHIRK 

"The   first   place   we   stopped   at  in 

British  territory  was  Port  Herald  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Shire,  a  pretty  little  settlement 
with  very  rich  vegetation.  The  steamer  had  to  stop  here  for  a  day  for  some  reason 
or  other  so  I  and  two  of  my  fellow  passengers  went  out  for  a  shoot.  The  Administration 
official  at  the  station  lent  us  a  guide,  and  we  had  awfully  good  sport,  coming  back 
with  a  large  male  waterbuck, — a  beast  as  big  as  a  red  deer — and  two  reedbuck  which 
are  somewhat  the  size  of  a  roe  and  very  good  eating  The  meat  of  the  waterbuck  is  no 
good,  so  we  gave  it  to  the  natives ;  but  as  I  had  shot  the  beast  1  kept  the  horns  which 
are  very  fine  though  not  at  all  like  a  stag's,  being  quite  simple  without  branches  and 


with  an  elegant  curve  and  ever  so  many  rings.  Jones,  one  of  my  fellow  passengers,  saw 
a  lion  whilst  we  were  out  shooting  on  this  occasion,  but  was  in  too  much  of  a  funk  to 
fire,  so  the  beast  got  away.  He  says  his  cartridge  jammed  !  but  I  don't  believe  him. 

"  Chiromo  is  an  awfully  pretty  little  place.  The  roads  are  broad  and  bordered  with 
fine  shady  trees  planted  close  together.  Some  of  the  buildings  are  quite  smart,  though 
of  course  at  home  we  should  think  them  small. 

"  Up  to  the  present  the  climate  has  been  lovely  and  I  have  not  had  a  touch  of  fever. 
It  is  quite  cool  at  nights  and  one  seldom  gets  mosquitos,  but  I  am  told  that  in  the  rainy 
season  they  are  an  awful  pest.  In  the  middle  of  the  day  it  is  about  as  hot  as  a  summer's 
day  at  home,  but  not  too  hot  to  walk  about  with  or  without  an  umbrella.  This  is  the 
beginning  of  the  cool  season  of  the  year." 

"BLANTYRE,  June  3o///. 

"I  got  up  to  Blantyre  on  June  i8th.  The  small  steamer  of  the  Lakes  Company 
took  us  on  from  Chiromo  to  Katunga,  up  the  Shire.  You  cannot  go  beyond  Katunga 
by  water,  or  at  least  much  beyond,  because  of  the  rapids  and  falls.  The  Steamer 
Company  arranged  about  the  transport  of  my  baggage  and  I  simply  saddled  my  pony, 
which  was  in  capital  condition,  and  rode  him  gently  up  to  Blantyre.  The  distance 
is  about  25  miles.  I  had  sent  a  telegram  from  Katunga  to  say  I  was  coming  and  old 
McClear  rode  out  and  met  me  half-way.  His  plantation  is  not  in  Blantyre  but  about 
seven  miles  out.  However,  we  slept  that  night  at  an  hotel  in  Blantyre  and  went  on  to 
his  plantation  the  next  morning.  The  country  is  awfully  pretty — very  thickly  wooded 
in  parts  and  with  hills  and  mountains  of  bold  outline.  Water  seems  to  be  most 
abundant ;  every  few  miles  you  cross  a  running  stream  or  rivulet.  As  far  as  climate  goes 
you  might  think  yourself  back  in  England,  anywhere  near  Blantyre,  at  this  season  of  the 
year.  All  the  houses  are  built  of  brick  and  every  room,  nearly,  has  a  fireplace. 

"  It  is  very  jolly  at  night  to  sit  round  a  huge  log  fire  and  enjoy  it,  with  the  tempera- 
ture outside  almost  down  to  freezing  point.  In  fact  some  mornings  there  is  a  white  rime 
on  the  ground  when  you  first  go  out. 


"  I  have  almost  settled  on  buying  a  piece  of  land  adjoining  McClear's  plantation. 
It  belongs  to  the  Crown  and  I  shall  have  to  take  these  steps  to  buy  it:— First  of  all 
I  have  to  get  one  of  the  surveyors  here  to  go  over  the  land  with  me  and  make  a  rough 
plan  of  the  boundaries  so  that  we  can  get  at  some  idea  of  the  area  and  furnish  the 
Commissioner's  Office  with  sufficient  information  to  enable  the  officials  to  decide  where 
the  land  is  and  whether  it  can  be  sold.  With  these  particulars  I  send  a  fee  of  £2, 
which  includes  the  surveyor's  fees  and  the  cost  of  inserting  an  announcement  in  the 
Gazette.  If  the  Commissioner  decides  to  sell  the  land  he  will  put  a  notice  to  that  effect 
in  the  Gazette  and  an  upset-price  will  be  fixed  (probably  55-.  an  acre)  and  notice  will  be 
given  that  the  estate  will  be  sold  by  public  auction  a  fortnight  after  the  announcement 
appears.  The  sale  will  take  place  at  the  Court  House  in  Blantyre.  I  shall  have  to 
go  there  and  if  nobody  bids  against  me  I  shall  get  the  estate  knocked  down  to  me 
at  the  upset-price. 


"  BLANTYRE,  August  \st. 

"  I  have  bought  my  land — nobody  bid  against  me— but  I  have  had  my  first  attack 
of  fever.  Perhaps  it  is  just  as  well  to  get  it  over,  as  they  say  you  have  it  all  the  worse 
if  it  is  bottled  up  in  your  system.  I  think  mine  must  have  come  on  from  a  chill.  I  had 
played  in  a  tremendous  cricket  match  got  up  at  Blantyre,  "The  Administration  v. 
Planters,"  and  after  getting  very  hot  went  and  sat  about  in  the  cool  breeze,  which 
is  about  the  most  fatal  thing  you  can  do.  The  next  day  after  breakfast  I  began  to  feel 
a  bit  cheap— very  shivery  and  a  horrid  pain  in  the  back,  and  rather  a  sensation  as  though 



I  was  going  to  have  a  tremendous  cold.  I  am  staying  at  Major  McClear's  and  he  told 
me  at  once  I  was  in  for  a  doss  of  fever,  made  me  go  to  bed,  gave  me  a  purge  and  put 
hot  water  bottles  at  my  feet.  Then  I  began  to  get  awfully  hot  —  my  temperature  went  up 
to  102  degrees— and  after  that  came  a  sweat  which  soaked  all  the  bed  clothes,  and  then 
I  felt  a  bit  better  and  wanted  to  get  up  but  they  advised  me  to  stay  in  bed.  I  seemed 
all  right  the  next  morning  except  that  my  ears  were  singing,  but  towards  evening  again 
I  felt  beastly  bad.  I  went  to  bed  and  vomited  ever  so  many  times,  and  thought  I  was 
going  to  die.  A  doctor  came  to  see  me  and  found  my  temperature  103  degrees  ;  he 
brought  it  down  with  a  dose  of  phenacitine.  Eventually  I  got  to  sleep  and  woke  up 
much  better,  but  I  was  down  again  the  third  day  though  not  so  bad.  After  that  I  felt 


very  weak  and  looked  very  yellow  for  a  day  or  two,  and  then  my  appetite  came  back  and 
now  I  am  just  as  fit  as  it  is  possible  to  be — a  tremendous  appetite  and  think  the  country 
is  the  finest  in  the  world  though  I  can  tell  you  whilst  I  had  the  fever  on  me  I  made  an 
awful  ass  of  myself,  telling  them  all  I  was  going  to  die  and  sending  all  sorts  of  messages 
to  my  people!  I  hear  everybody  does  that  when  he  has  fever  and  no  one  seems 
inclined  to  make  fun  of  you  on  that  account. 

"Well :  I  have  bought  my  land— 500  acres  at  5^.  makes  ,£125.  I  shall  have  to  pay 
the  Stamp  Duties  and  eventually  the  cost  of  a  survey.  All  this  will  come  to  about 
another  £20—  say  in  all  ^"150.  I  have  arranged  to  live  with  old  McClear  (it  is  awfully 
kind  of  him  to  propose  it)  and  learn  the  business  whilst  my  own  estate  is  being  got 
ready.  He  will  give  me  a  room  and  my  board,  and  during  all  the  time  that  I  can  spare 
off  my  own  land  I  am  to  help  him  and  his  son  on  their  estate  :  this  of  course  will  teach 
me  something  about  coffee  planting. 

"Blantyre  is  not  half  a  bad  place  but  it  seems  to  me  a  good  deal  of  hard  drinking 


goes  on  there.  Smedley,  the  Missionary  doctor,  says  a  white  man  ought  not  to  touch 
alcohol  in  Africa  except  when  it  is  given  to  him  as  a  medicine.  That  is  all  very  well  but 
I  can't  see  that  a  little  lager  beer  does  much  harm,  or  a  glass  of  good  claret ;  and  as  the 
drinking  water  at  Blantyre  is  not  first  rate  and  one  can't  always  be  swilling  tea  the  entire 
teetotal  plan  does  not  suit  me  ;  at  the  same  time  I  am  willing  to  admit  that  a  deal  too 
much  whisky  is  consumed  here.  Somehow  or  other  most  of  the  chaps  who  come  out 
here  to  plant  seem  to  get  into  the  way  of  it.  Perhaps  I  shall  do  the  same.  I  must  say 
on  these  very  cold  nights  before  one  turns  in,  whilst  you  are  sitting  round  the  pleasant 
log  fire  a  glass  of  hot  whisky  and  water  is  very  tempting  and  surely  can't  be  harmful  ? 
The  Doctor  says  it  is,  under  all  circumstances,  and  that  all  spirits  have  a  most  prejudicial 
effect  on  the  liver  in  Central  Africa. 

"  PAZULU,  September  loth. 

"  This  is  the  name  of  old  Major  McClear's  plantation.  I  believe  it  means  '  up 
above.'  It  is  on  a  hill-side  looking  down  on  the  River  Lunzu  and  the  bush  is  being 
burnt  in  all  directions.  I  am  awfully  fit  and  have  been  very  busy  clearing  my  land 
of  bush.  This  is  how  I  have  had  to  set  about  it.  I  found  that  a  man  named  Carter 
had  just  come  down  from  the  Atonga  country  on  the  west  coast  of  Lake  Nyasa  with 
a  huge  gang  of  Atonga  labourers.  Some  of  the  chaps  do  this  every  now  and  then  when 
they  have  got  time  on  their  hands  —  go  up  the  west  coast  of  Nyasa  (where  they  get 
very  good  sport)  and  come  back  with  a  gang  of  men  for  work.  After  supplying  their 
own  plantations  they  pass  on  the  others  to  planters  and  traders  who  want  men.  All 
these  men  are  registered  at  the  Government  office,  either  in  the  country  they  come  from 
or  at  some  place  like  Blantyre.  You  have  to  engage  them  before  a  Government  official 
and  everything  is  written  down  fair  and  square — the  time  you  engage  them  for,  the 
amount  you  are  going  to  pay  them,  and  so  on.  Each  man  gets  a  copy  of  the  contract 
and  you  have  to  pay  a  shilling  for  the  stamp  on  it,  that  is  to  say  a  shilling  for  each 
labourer.  You  may  not  engage  them  for  more  than  a  year  even  if  you  want  to,  and 
if  they  want  to  stay.  Ordinarily  one  takes  them  for  six  months  and  you  have  to  give 
a  deposit  or  a  bond  to  provide  for  the  cost  of  their  return  passage  money  to  their  homes. 
If  a  man  runs  away  before  the  time  of  his  contract  is  completed  without  any  breach 
of  the  agreement  on  your  part  he  can  be  punished  and  you  can  proceed  against  him  for 
damages  up  to  a  certain  amount  if  he  refuse  to  complete  the  term  for  which  he  is 
engaged  ;  of  course  you  have  a  further  hold  over  them  because  you  do  not  pay  them  the 
full  sum  for  their  services  till  their  time  is  up.  When  you  pay  them  off  you  have  to 
do  so  before  the  Government  officer  who  sees  that  what  you  give  them  is  that  which 
is  owing  to  them. 

"  I  have  got  a  gang  of  fifty  men  and  a  '  capitao.'  They  are  all  Atonga — a  cheery 
lot  though  rather  unruly  at  times  and  ready  to  knock  off  work  if  you  do  not  keep  a 
sharp  look  out.  The  head  man  of  any  gang  is  called  a  'capitao'  which  I  believe  is 
a  Portuguese  word — the  same  as  'captain.'  My  'capitao'  when  he  is  at  work  wears 
precious  little  clothing,  but  on  Sundays  he  puts  on  a  long  coat  with  brass  buttons  and 
a  red  fez  which  he  has  bought  at  a  store  or  which  was  part  of  his  last  year's  payment. 
His  name  is  Moses.  Of  course  he  has  got  an  Atonga  name  of  his  own  but  the 
missionaries  in  this  country  will  give  them  all  Biblical  names  (which  I  think  is  awfully 
bad  taste,  but  the  Atonga  do  not  share  my  views  and  Mosesi,  as  he  calls  himself,  admires 
his  Bible  name  tremendously).  1  am  to  pay  these  men  three  shillings  a  month  each  and 
the  'capitao'  five  shillings.  Besides  this  they  get  their  food  allowance  or  'posho'  as 
it  is  sometimes  called.  This  I  generally  give  to  them  in  white  calico  (which  costs  me 
2\d.  a  yard).  I  give  my  men  four  yards  a  week  each  with  six  yards  for  the  'capitao.' 
This  with  occasional  extras  brings  up  the  cost  of  their  food  to  2d.  a  day  with  a  little 
extra  for  the  head  man.  Some  of  the  other  traders  here  only  give  out  food  allowance 
at  the  rate  of  three  yards  a  week  per  man,  but  food  has  become  very  dear,  relatively 



speaking,  round  Blantyre  ;  and  if  our  labourers  do  not  receive  sufficient  food  cloth 
or  money  in  lieu  thereof  they  are  bound  to  steal  from  the  native  gardens  and  so  get  into 
trouble  I  wonder  some  of  the  planters  and  traders  here  do  not  see  that  it  is  far  and 
away  the  best  policy  to  treat  one's  labourers  generously  in  the  way  of  food.  There 
is  nothing  which  will  attach  the  negro  more  to  your  service  than  to  give  him  plenty 
to  eat.  A  man  who  feeds  him  well  may  beat  him  as  much  as  he  pleases  in  moderation 
and  the  man  will  still  remain  attached  and  return  to  the  same  plantation  year  after  year : 
besides  you  can  get  a  lot  more  work  out  of  the  men  if  they  are  well  nourished,  and 
really  I  assure  you  no  one  ever  did  such  credit  to  good  food  as  a  negro  whose  eyes 
are  bright  whose  skin  is  clear  and  whose  temper  is  sunny,  when  he  is  well  fed. 

"Talking  about  beating;  of  course  it  goes  on  to  some  extent  though  it  is  illegal 
in  the  eyes  of  the  Administration,  but  a  certain  amount 
of  discipline  must  be  kept  up  by  the  head  man  of  a 
gang  and  trifling  corrections  are  not  noticed  by  the 
authorities  provided  the  men  make  no  complaint ;  but 
in  old  days,  I  am  told,  before  there  was  any  Government 
here  the  amount  of  flogging  that  went  on  was  a  great 
deal  too  bad,  and  some  cases  were  downright  savage. 
The  instrument  used  is  a  'chicote'1 — a  long,  thin, 
rounded  strip  of  hippopotamus  hide  about  the  thickness 
of  a  finger  ....  stiff  but  slightly  pliant.  If  this  is 
applied  to  the  bare  skin  it  almost  invariably  breaks  it 
and  causes  bleeding.  For  my  part  I  am  jolly  careful 
not  to  get  into  trouble,  and  when  one  of  my  chaps  was 
caught  stealing  the  other  day  I  preferred  to  bring  him 
up  before  the  Police  Court  and  have  him  punished  there 
instead  of  taking  the  law  into  my  own  hands. 

"  The  first  part  of  the  estate  we  began  to  clear  was 
the  possible  site  for  a  house.  I  chose  this  on  a  little 
knoll  overlooking  the  Lunzu  and  about  fifty  feet  above 
the  bank  of  the  river  which  is  seventy  yards  distant.  I 
flattened  the  top  of  the  knoll  and  had  to  cut  down  one 
or  two  trees.  After  this  I  selected  the  site  of  my 

nurseries  and  resolved  to  thoroughly  clear,  in  addition,  \  '•«  \IITAO" 

about  100  acres  for  planting.     The  process  of  clearing 

is  now  going  on  briskly.  I  get  up  every  morning  at  six  and  walk  over  from  McClear's 
house  to  my  own  plantation  and  turn  out  my  Atonga  who  are  living  in  tnisasa  (ram- 
shackle shelters  of  sticks  and  thatch  which  they  make  to  house  themselves).  Then  the 
men  turn  out  with  cutlasses  and  axes  and  set  to  work  cutting  down  the  terribly  rampant 
grass  and  herbage,  and  here  and  there  a  useless,  shadeless  tree  or  shrub.  I  am  carefully 
leaving  all  the  big  trees  for  the  shade  they  will  give  to  the  coffee ;  they  will  grow  all  the 
finer  for  the  clearing  of  the  growth  around  them. 

"All  the  bush  which  is  thus  cut  down  will  be  left  to  lie  in  the  sun  and  dry. 
Then  the  Atonga  will  pile  it  into  heaps  a  few  yards  distant  one  from  the  other  and 
set  fire  to  it,  and  when  it  is  burnt  to  ashes  they  will  spread  the  ashes  over  the  soil 
and  dig  it  in.  I  am  advised  to  get  native  women  of  the  district  to  do  this  for  me 
with  native  hoes.  The  women  here  work  exceedingly  hard — -much  better  than  the 
men  —  and  ask  less  pay.  A  little  while  later  on  they  will  be  beginning  to  prepare 
their  own  plantations  before  the  big  rains  so  it  is  as  well  to  get  them  now  if  1  can. 
For  chance  labour  like  this,  for  any  term  less  than  a  month  and  within  their  own 
district  I  shan't  have  to  register  them." 

1    A  Portuguese  word.  —  II    II.  J. 


"PAZULU,  November  2o///. 

"  I  have  been  much  too  busy  to  write  any  letters  for  the  last  two  months — awfully  busy 
but  wonderfully  well  and  not  the  least  bit  dull.  When  I  had  cleared  my  ground  for  the 
plantation  I  had  it  lined  out  in  regular  rows  from  six  feet  to  seven  feet  apart,  and  at 
intervals  of  about  six  feet  along  these  rows  we  dug  pits  18  inches  wide  and  18  inches 
deep.  The  pits  were  left  open  for  some  six  weeks  '•  to  weather,"  then  we  filled  them 
up  with  soil,  which  was  mixed  with  a  manure  made  of  cow-dung  and  wood  ashes.  After 
each  pit  had  been  filled  up  we  stuck  into  the  middle  of  it  a  bamboo  stick  (bamboos  grow 
in  abundance  along  the  stream  bank  and  on  the  hill-sides  and  are  very  useful)  to  mark 
the  place  where  the  coffee  plant  was  to  be  put  it.  I  made  arrangements  with  a  neigh- 
bouring planter  to  buy  sufficient  coffee  seedlings  of  a  year's  growth  to  plant  up  the 
50  acres  I  have  cleared.  Every  day  we  expect  the  rainy  season  to  begin  now — in  fact 
to-day  the  soth  November  is  the  date  on  which  the  big  rains  ordinarily  begin  near 
Blantyre  (we  had  occasional  showers  in  July  and  August  and  one  or  two  in  September, 
but  no  rain  at  all  in  October,  only  a  lot  of  thunder  and  lightning  and  an  occasional  dry 
tornado).  As  soon  as  the  rains  have  really  broken  I  shall  put  the  coffee  plants  in  these 
pits.  I  am  told  that  whilst  the  coffee  grows  the  weeds  grow  even  quicker,  and  that  the 
hardest  time  I  shall  have  with  my  own  men  will  be  during  December,  January  and 
February,  keeping  the  weeds  down.  If  we  are  not  incessantly  at  work  hoeing  in 
between  the  coffee  plants  they  will  be  smothered  by  the  growth  of  weeds. 

"  It  is  so  very  good  of  old  McClear  to  put  me  up  in  his  house  that  I  have  been 
doing  my  best  to  help  him  in  between  working  on  my  own  plantation.  He  gathered 
his  first  coffee  crop  this  year,  and  is  very  pleased  at  the  result.  The  berries  were 
picked  off  the  trees  (which  are  three  years  old)  at  the  end  of  June  and  the  beginning  of 
July,  and  all  this  was  over  before  I  arrived  on  the  scene ;  but  I  saw  the  berries  when  they 
were  being  pulped  by  machinery.  By  this  process  the  sweet  fleshy  covering  of  the 
berries  is  taken  off  and  the  bean  is  disclosed  encased  in  its  parchment  skin.  You  know 
of  course  that  this  splits  into  two  seeds  when  you  take  off  the  dry  skin  and  it  is  merely 
these  seeds  which  you  see  when  the  coffee  reaches  you  at  home.  I  shall  not  get  a 
pulper  till  I  have  owned  my  plantation  for  about  four  years,  as  it  is  hardly  worth  while 
for  a  poor  man  to  have  a  maiden  crop  off  a  small  plantation  pulped  by  machinery. 

"After  the  beans  are  pulped  they  are  passed  into  a  brick  vat  where  they  are  left  to 
ferment  for  between  24  and  36  hours.  Then  they  are  removed  to  a  second  vat  and 
thoroughly  washed  in  water.  Then  they  are  taken  out  and  dried  on  mats.  After  this 
they  are  further  dried  in  a  drying  house  and  constantly  turned  over  to  prevent  anything 
like  mould.  All  through  the  end  of  September  and  the  beginning  of  October  we  were 
busy  packing  the  coffee  in  stout  canvas  bags,  weighing  about  56  Ibs.  each.  Each  bag 
was  numbered  and  marked  with  McClear's  initials  by  stencil  plates,  and  handed  over  to 
one  of  the  transport  companies  here  to  be  shipped  direct  to  London,  via  Chinde.  It 
will  of  course  be  carried  partly  on  men's  heads  and  partly  in  waggons  down  to  Katunga, 
and  then  they  will  send  it  down  river  to  Chinde.  It  is  to  be  hoped  they  will  be 
careful  not  to  put  the  bags  into  a  leaky  boat  or  steamer,  because  if  they  are  wetted 
the  coffee  will  be  quite  spoiled.  The  cost  of  sending  this  coffee  from  Blantyre  to 
London  is  about  ^"8  a  ton. 

"  BLANTYRE,  January  ist. 

"  In  spite  of  the  rainy  season  which  is  well  on  us,  we  have  spent  a  very  jolly 
Christmas  at  Blantyre.  Most  of  the  planters  from  Cholo  and  the  other  districts  round 
Blantyre  have  congregated  here  for  Christmas  week.  We  had  a  little  mild  horse-racing 
and  a  shooting  competition.  Like  most  of  the  other  Europeans  here  I  belong  to  the 
Shire  Highlands  Shooting  Club,  but  I  did  not  score  over  well  on  this  occasion,  because 
I  was  a  bit  off  colour,  having  had  another  little  touch  of  fever— caused  by  the  beginning 


of  the  rainy  season  I  expect.  We  had  a  smoking  concert  in  the  Court  House  which 
was  lent  to  us  for  the  occasion,  and  the  missionaries  got  up  a  big  bazaar  in  aid  of  their 
school-house,  and  afterwards  a  lot  of  us  were  entertained  at  the  Manse  by  the  senior 
missionary  where  we  heard  some  really  good  music.  You  have  no  idea  what  a  pretty 
place  the  Manse  is.  It  is  rather  a  rambling  house  with  a  low  thatched  roof,  but  all  the 
rooms  open  on  to  the  verandahs  with  glass  doors  and  plenty  of  windows  so  that  they  are 
very  light  inside  though  shielded  from  the  sun. 

"There  is  a  fairly  good  club  here  with  lots  of  newspapers.  1  belong  to  the  club  and 
get  a  bedroom  there  whenever  I  come  into  Blantyre.  I  cannot  say  I  think  much  of  the 
hotels.  Perhaps  when  more  Europeans  come  to  the  country  it  will  be  worth  while 
building  a  good  place  to  receive  them  where  a  check  will  be  set  on  the  unlimited 
consumption  of  whisky,  which  at  present  tends  to  a  good  deal  of  noise  and  brawling 
of  a  not  very  creditable  kind.  Whisky  is  the  curse  of  this  country  as  far  as  Europeans 
are  concerned,  and  is  the  cause  of  more  than  half  the  sickness. 

"  One  of  the  chief  drawbacks  to  this  place,  after  all,  is  the  lack  of  news.  Blantyre 
is  a  hot-bed  of  gossip  and  rumours  simply  because  it  has  no  daily  newspaper.  There 
are  no  Reuter's  telegrams  to  read  at  the  club  every  day  because  we  are  not  in  direct 
telegraph  communication  with  the  outer  world.  The  mails  arrive  with  much  uncertainty; 
this  is  partly  owing  to  the  irregular  way  in  which  the  ocean-going  steamers  call  at  Chinde. 
There  are  supposed  to  be  two  mails  from  Europe  landed  at  Chinde  in  the  month,  but 
sometimes  they  both  come  together  and  then  there  is  a  month's  interval  before  another 
mail  arrives ;  or  when  the  mail  is  landed  at  Chinde  there  may  be  no  steamer  ready  to 
start  up-river  with  it.  Again,  in  the  dry  season  the  steamers  may  stick  on  a  sandbank 
before  they  reach  Chiromo,  and  then  the  mails  have  to  be  sent  overland  to  Blantyre,  but 
the  mail-carriers  may  have  to  ford  flooded  rivers,  or  they  may  be  scared  by  a  lion,  so  the 
time  they  take  varies  from  two  and  a  half  to  five  days.  Usually  our  letters  and  papers 
from  England  are  six  to  seven  weeks  old  when  they  reach  us  and  I  suppose  my  letters 
take  the  same  time  to  reach  you.  Yet  it  is  wonderful  how  much  up  to  date  people  are 
here  in  information.  It  is  astonishing  what  a  lot  everybody  reads,  and  what  heaps 
of  newspapers  and  magazines  are  taken  in.  The  Administration  has  started  a  lending 
library  with  a  very  decent  collection  of  books,  and  although  this  is  supposed  to  be 
primarily  for  Administration  officials  outsiders  may  by  permission  be  allowed  to  join. 
We  have  a  Planters'  Association  and  Chamber  of  Commerce. 

"The  best  fun  I  think  is  shooting.  Game  near  Blantyre  is  getting  scarce  though 
there  are  heaps  of  lions  and  leopards,  but  it  is  so  difficult  to  see  them  in  the  long  grass 
and  thick  bush.  What  I  enjoy,  however,  is  going  from  a  Saturday  to  Monday  towards 
a  mountain  called  Chiradzulu,  and  along  the  river  Namasi.  \Ve  always  give  our  labourers 
on  the  plantations  a  Saturday  half-holiday,  and  I  can  generally  trust  the  capitaos  to  see 
that  the  men  do  a  fair  amount  of  work  in  the  Saturday  morning,  so  that  I  can  sometimes 
get  away  on  the  Friday  night  with  a  companion  or  two.  We  take  tent,  beds,  folding 
chairs  and  table,  a  few  pots  and  pans  and  a  basket  of  provisions.  One  of  the  chaps  who 
generally  comes  with  me  brings  his  cook  with  him,  a  native  boy  trained  at  the  Mission 
and  not  half  a  bad  cook  either.  We  usually  ride  out  on  our  ponies  as  far  as  the 
Administration  station  on  the  Namasi  river,  as  there  is  a  good  road  there.  Here  we 
leave  the  nags  under  shelter  and  then  strike  off  into  the  bush.  Of  course  the  rains  are 
now  on  us  and  this  sort  of  thing  is  not  so  pleasant  in  wet  weather,  but  it  was  very  jolly 
at  the  end  of  the  dry  season  when  the  dense  grass  and  bush  were  burnt,  after  the  bush 
fires,  and  one  could  get  about  easily  and  see  the  game.  We  generally  chose  a  place  by 
the  banks  of  a  stream  with  plenty  of  shade,  for  our  camp.  The  next  day  we  would  walk 
something  like  twenty  miles  in  the  course  of  our  shooting,  and  although  our  luck  varied 



we  seldom  failed  to  get  two  or  three  buck  at  least.  As  to  the  guinea  fowl,  they  were 
there  in  swarms !  It  was  awfully  jolly  sitting  smoking  round  a  huge  camp  fire,  so 
perfectly  safe  and  yet  in  such  a  wild  country  with  lions  roaring  at  intervals  not  far  away, 
and  the  queer  sounds  of  owls  and  tiger-cats  and  chirping  insects  coming  from  the  thick 
bush.  Our  boys  used  to  build  rough  shelters  of  branches  to  sleep  in  and  try  to  keep  up 
fires  through  the  night,  more  to  scare  away  wild  beasts  than  for  any  other  reason. 
Recently  these  little  jaunts  have  been  more  charming  on  account  of  the  gorgeousness 
of  the  wild  flowers,  for  this  is  the  spring  of  the  year.  I  am  a  bit  of  a  botanist,  you 
know,  but  even  if  I  was  not  I  could  not  help  admiring  the  gorgeous  masses  of  colour 
which  the  different  flowers  produce  among  the  young  green  grass,  on  the  bushes,  and  on 
the  big  trees." 


"  PAZULU,  February  \<\th. 

"  We  have  had  an  anxious  time  here  with  young  McClear.  He  went  down  the 
Upper  Shire  to  look  at  some  land  that  his  father  is  thinking  of  investing  in  for  growing 
sugar  (as  the  sugar  cane  grows  there  in  tremendous  luxuriance  and  there  is  a  great 
local  demand  for  sugar),  but  he  is  a  very  careless  chap,  you  know,  and  what  with  getting 
wet  through  with  rain  and  exposing  himself  too  much  to  the  sun  and  drinking  whatever 
water  he  comes  across,  he  has  fallen  ill  with  black-water  fever  since  he  came  back  to 
Blantyre.  Nobody  can  quite  account  for  this  peculiar  disease.  Some  people  say  it 
comes  from  turning  up  the  new  soil  of  a  very  rank  kind ;  others — and  they  are  generally 
doctors — assert  that  the  germ  is  quite  different  from  that  in  malarial  fever,  and  enters  the 
system  from  water,  either  through  the  pores  of  the  skin  in  bathing  or  through  the 
stomach,  if  the  infected  water  is  drunk.  Therefore  there  should  be  one  very  simple 
preventative  by  having  all  one's  washing  and  drinking  water  boiled.  However  it  may  be, 
young  McClear  went  down  with  it  very  suddenly  only  two  days  after  he  got  back.  He 
seemed  quite  well  in  the  morning,  ate  his  breakfast  as  usual,  and  went  out  to  the 


plantation,  but  at  eleven  o'clock  I  met  him  coming  back  to  breakfast  (we  have  an  early 
breakfast  at  six  and  a  big  breakfast  at  eleven — no  luncheon)  an  hour  before  the  usual 
time.  I  thought  he  looked  awfully  queer.  There  was  a  grey  lock  about  his  face  and  he 
was  very  dark  about  the  eyes.  He  told  me  he  felt  a  frightful  pain  in  his  back  and  was 
very  cold.  Instead  of  coming  to  breakfast  he  went  to  bed.  Presently  his  boy  came  down 
to  tell  us  that  '  Master  was  very  bad.'  Old  McClear  went  up  and  found  that  his  son  had 
got  the  '  black-water '  fever.  He  vomited  steadily  all  that  day,  and  at  night-fall  was  as 
yellow  as  a  guinea,  besides  being  dreadfully  weak.  Of  course  we  had  the  doctor  over  as 
soon  as  possible,  but  in  this  disease  doctors  at  present  can  do  very  little.  Quinine  is  of 
no  avail  and  all  that  you  can  aim  at  is  keeping  up  the  patient's  strength.  Young  McClear 
was  smartly  purged  and  then  given  champagne  and  water  to  drink,  and  he  went  on 
vomiting  all  night  and  the  greater  part  of  next  day.  The  doctor  then  injected  morphia 
into  his  arm  and  this  stopped  the  vomiting  and  gave  him  a  little  sleep.  After  that  he 
managed  to  keep  down  some  chicken  broth,  and  the  third  and  fourth  days  he  mended. 
In  six  days  he  was  seemingly  all  right,  though  a  little  weak,  and  on  the  seventh  day  he 
was  actually  up  and  about,  and  his  skin  had  almost  regained  its  normal  colour. 

"  After  a  go  of  black-water  fever  it  is  always  better  to  leave  the  country  for  a  change 
if  you  can,  but  you  ought  not  to  hurry  away  too  soon  lest  the  fatigues  of  the  journey 
should  bring  on  a  relapse,  and  therefore  McClear  will  wait  till  April  and  then  run  down 
to  Natal  and  back  for  a  trip.  Many  men  who  come  to  this  country  never  get  black-water 
fever,  either  because  they  take  great  care  of  themselves  or  because  the  germs  which  cause 
the  disease  by  attacking  the  red-blood  corpuscles  cannot  get  the  mastery  over  their 
systems,  but  where  a  man  finds  himself  to  be  subject  to  attacks  of  this  disease  I  should 
advise  him  to  quit :  Central  Africa  is  not  for  him." 

"  PAZULU,  May  2nd. 

"  Our  rainy  season  came  to  an  end  a  couple  of  weeks  ago  and  I  want  to  lose  no  time 
about  building  my  house  as  a  large  quantity  of  bricks  will  have  to  be  made  during  this 
dry  season.  I  have  hired  some  native  brickmakers  from  Blantyre.  They  will  be  able 
to  make  about  1,000  bricks  a  day.  I  shall  need  about  45,000  bricks  for  my  house.  I 
have  been  cutting  timber  on  McClear's  land  by  arrangement,  for  joists  and  beams.  The 
doors,  match-board  skirting,  &c.,  I  shall  buy  at  one  of  the  stores  in  Blantyre,  where  I 
shall  also  get  corrugated  iron  for  the  roof  and  the  timber  for  the  inner  ceiling,  without 
which  the  bare  iron  would  be  a  great  deal  too  hot  in  the  summer  and  too  cold  in  the 
winter.  I  shall  take  care  that  all  the  rooms  have  fire-places.  I  cannot  tell  you  how 
necessary  fires  are  here  for  health  and  comfort.  Fortunately  we  have  any  quantity  of 
fire-wood.  As  I  am  trying  hard  to  keep  within  my  thousand  pounds  I  shall  not  build  a 
house  of  more  than  three  rooms  with  a  nice  large  verandah,  and  a  portion  of  the 
verandah  will  be  cut  off  as  a  bath-room  and  communicate  with  the  bed-room  by  a  door. 

"  The  other  two  rooms  will  be  respectively  dining-room  and  office  in  one,  and  private 
sitting-room.  I  shall  also  run  up  a  small  brick  store  with  a  strong  roof  and  a  strong 
door  (to  prevent  thieving).  My  kitchen  will  be  wattle  and  daub  with  a  thatched  roof 
and  a  brick  chimney  and  will  stand  at  a  little  distance  from  the  house  connected  with  it 
by  a  covered  way.  Another  corner  of  the  verandah  beside  the  bath-room  will  be 
enclosed  as  a  pantry  and  private  store-room  for  provisions.  In  building  my  house  I  am 
strongly  cautioned  to  avoid  "a  through  draught."  The  principle  on  which  the  oldest 
planters'  houses  were  built  was  a  very  unhealthy  one.  The  front  door  opened  into  a 
kind  of  hall  which  was  used  as  a  dining-room,  and  immediately  opposite  the  front  door 
was  a  back  door  by  which  the  food  was  brought  in  to  the  table.  The  result  was  that 
persons  sitting  at  the  table  sat  in  a  draught,  and  to  sit  in  a  draught  in  this  country  or  to 
get  a  chill  in  any  way  is  the  surest  cause  of  fever. 

"  My  verandah  will  be  paved  with  tiles  which  I  can  obtain  in  Blantyre  from  the  men 
who  make  them.  The  foundations  of  the  house  will  be  brick,  over  which  I  shall  put  a 
good  layer  of  cement  to  stop  any  nonsense  on  the  part  of  white  ants,  though  on  my 



estate  \ve  are  not  troubled  with  these  pests  so  far  as  I  know,  but  Thomas,  of  Blantyre, 
who  lives  near  here,  after  building  a  very  nice  house  has  been  awfully  troubled  with  the 
white  ants,  who  in  a  few  nights  would  build  up  a  huge  ant-hill  in  the  middle  of  the 
drawing-room,  if  he  was  away  and  the  house  shut  up.  They  also  came  up  under  his 
bed  and  broke  out  all  through  the  walls.  The  result  was  he  had  to  take  up  his  carefully 
laid  floors,  and  dig  and  dig  and  dig,  until  he  rooted  out  at  least  three  separate  nests.  In 
one  case  he  was  obliged  to  tunnel  down  something  like  ten  feet  before  he  found  the 
queen  ;  and  until  you  have  found  and  extirpated  the  queens  your  work  has  been  for 
nothing,  for  if  you  fill  up  the  hole  the  white  ant  community  soon  gets  to  rights  again 
and  recommences  operations.  The  worst  of  it  is,  you  never  know  whether  there  may 
not  be  more  than  one  queen  in  the  nest  and  whether  you  have  destroyed  them  all  ! 


"  In  front  of  my  house  I  intend  to  have  a  small  terrace,  which  I  shall  plant  in  an 
orderly  way  with  flower  beds.  Last  month  I  ran  over  to  Zomba  for  a  visit  and  stayed 
with  one  of  the  officials  of  the  Administration,  and  there  I  saw  old  W—  -  who  is  in 
charge  of  the  Botanical  Gardens,  who  has  given  me  lots  of  flower  seeds,  and  promised 
me  any  amount  of  plants  and  strawberries,  as  soon  as  my  garden  is  ready  to  receive 
them.  W—  -  is  giving  away  strawberry  plants  to  everyone  and  I  wonder  that  they  are 
not  more  run  after  as  those  planted  at  Zomba  produce  excellent  crops  year  after  year, 
the  fruit  season  lasting  about  five  months.  They  are  not  large  strawberries  like  those  at 
home,  but  a  small  Alpine  kind.  Yet  they  are  very  fragrant  and  very  sweet. 

"Down  in  the  lower  country  near  Lake  Chilwa,  you  see  a  most  extraordinary 
Euphorbia  growing,  which  I  am  afraid  most  of  the  planters  call  "cactuses."1  These  are 
both  quaint  and  ornamental,  and  I  am  going  to  plant  some  of  them  along  the  bottom  of 
my  garden.  In  the  centre  of  my  flower  beds  I  shall  put  wild  date  palms,  which  grow 
in  the  stream-valleys,  and  at  each  corner  of  the  terrace  there  shall  be  a  raphia  palm. 

1  There  are  no  cacti  in  Africa,  except  the  Opuntia  (prickly  pear)  introduced  from  America  into  North 
and  South  Africa.— H.  H.  J. 



There  is  one  attraction  in  this  country  for  people  who  like  flowers  and  palms  on  the 
table  and  about  the  house.  Here  they  cost  absolutely  nothing.  You  have  only  to  send 
a  boy  into  the  bush  and  he  will  come  back  with  a  young  palm  which  would  cost  at  least  a 
guinea  at  home,  or  with  a  handful  of  flowers  such  as  you  might  see  in  a  horticultural  show. 

"My  coffee  presents  a  most  thriving  appearance.     I  keep  it  studiously  free  from 
weeds.     Next  October  I  shall  be  ready  to  plant  up  another  fifty  acres. 

"You  asked  me  to  give  you  some  idea  of  Blantyre.  It  seems  hardly  correct  to 
speak  ot  it  as  a  town  as  the  houses  are  still  very  scattered,  yet  it  is  now  constituted 
as  a  township,  and  rather  well  laid  out  with  roads.  When  all  the  blanks  between  the 
present  dwellings  are  filled  up,  it  will  be  a  very  large  and  important  city.  At  present  its 
future  greatness  is,  as  the  French  would  say,  only  ebauche.  The  most  striking  feature  is 
the  church,  which  is  a  very  handsome  red  brick  building,  apparently  a  mixture  of  Norman 
and  Byzantine  styles  with  white  domes.  It  is  really  an  extraordinarily  fine  church  for  the 
centre  of  Africa,  and  is  appropriately  placed  in  the  middle  of  a  large  open  space  or 
square,  without  any  other  buildings  near  at  hand  to  dwarf  its  proportions.  When  we  had 
the  Kawinga  scare  two  or  three  months  ago  (I  forgot  to  tell  you  that  Kawinga  the  old  slave- 
raiding  chief  to  the  north  of  Zomba 
attempted  to  try  conclusions  with 
the  British  two  months  ago),  it 
was  reported  by  the  natives  that 
Kawinga's  object  in  invading  Blan- 
tyre would  be  to  secure  the  church 
to  himself  as  a  residence  !  It  is 
at  present  the  mean  by  which  all 
natives  measure  their  ideas  of  a 
really  fine  building.  On  one  side 
of  the  square  there  are  gardens  be- 
longing to  the  mission ;  on  the 
other  side  a  very  handsome  school 
designed  somewhat  in  the  Moorish 
style  of  architecture.  Along  the 
Zomba  road  to  the  north  of  the 
church  are  the  residences  of  the 
European  missionaries.  This  church 
square  is  connected  with  the  rest  of 
Blantyre  by  a  handsome  avenue  of 
cypresses  and  eucalyptus.  The 
growth  of  the  cypresses  is  astonish- 
ing, as  well  as  their  lateral  bulk,  and 
the  road  is  completely  shaded  and 
delightful  for  a  stroll,  because  of  a 
strong  wholesome  perfume  from 
these  conifers.  The  soil  about  here 
is  very  red,  and  the  neatly -made 
roads  branching  off  in  all  directions 
passing  through  very  green  vegeta- 
tion give  a  pretty  effect  to  the  eye. 
There  are  no  buildings  along  this  road  until  you  reach  the  vicinity  of  the  Administration 
headquarters  which  are  locally  known  as  the  'Boma.'1  Here  we  come  to  a  good  many 
buildings,  and  all  of  them  red  brick  with  corrugated  iron  roofs  and  of  one  storey. 
The  corrugated  iron  is  not  as  ugly  as  you  might  think  as  it  is  mostly  painted  red,  which 
gives  it  more  the  appearance  of  tiles. 

"  Boma"  is  a  Swahili  word  for  "stockade."     The  first  settlement  of  the  Government  here  was  on  n 
)f  property  belonging  to  a  native  which  had  a  stockade  of  thorn  around  it.     Soon  after  this  wtis 
purchased,  however,  the  thorn  hedge  was  done  away  with.  — H.  H.  J. 




"  Continuing  along  the  straight  road,  and  leaving  the  Government  buildings  to  the 
right,  you  cross  the  Mudi  stream  by  a  fine  bridge,1  built  by  the  African  Lakes  Company. 
On  the  other  side  of  the  Mudi  one  is  on  the  property  of  the  African  Lakes  Company 
which  is  a  large  suburb,  called  Mandala,  on  rising  ground,  from  which  a  fine  view  can  be 
obtained  of  the  Mission  settlement.  At  Mandala  there  are  many  houses  and  stores  and 

workshops  and  stables  —  all  very 
neatly  made  of  brick,  with  iron  roofs. 
There  are  handsome  roads  and 
gardens  and  a  perfect  forest  of 
eucalyptus.  The  company  has  ex- 
tensive nurseries  there  which  extend 
down  to  the  banks  of  the  Mudi,  and 
has  had  the  good  taste  to  preserve 
a  bit  of  the  old  forest  which  covered 
the  site  of  Blantyre  when  the 
missionaries  first  arrived.  This 
forest  chiefly  consisted  of  a  species 
of  acacia  tree  which  has  dense  dark 
green  foliage  in  flat  layers  giving  to 
it  at  a  distance  almost  the  appear- 
ance of  a  cedar.  Beyond  Mandala 
one  joins  the  main  road  to  Katunga, 
and  the  scenery  becomes  absolutely 
beautiful  as  you  mount  up  towards 
the  shoulder  of  Soche  mountain. 
Here  in  all  directions  there  is  a 
beautiful  forest,  and  the  views  in 
the  direction  of  the  Shire  river 
might  vie  with  the  average  pretty 
scenery  of  any  country.  There  are 
still  numbers  of  coffee  plantations 
on  the  outskirts  of  Blantyre,  though 
the  tendency  of  the  planters  would 
naturally  be  to  keep  their  future 
plantations  farther  away  from  the 
vicinity  of  the  town.  The  natives  of 
Blantyre  are  a  rather  heterogeneous 
lot.  The  foundation  of  the  stock 
is  of  Mang'anja  race,  crossed  with 

Yao,  who  invaded  the  country  some  years  ago ;  but  for  many  years  refugees  from  other 
parts  of  the  Protectorate  have  been  gathering  round  the  Mission  station,  the  Lakes 
Company,  Sharrer's  Traffic  Company,  and  other  large  employers  of  labour,  all  of  whom 
have  brought  men  down  from  the  lakes  and  up  from  the  Zambezi,  who  have  gradually 
made  their  permanent  homes  at  Blantyre.  Morality  is  very  low,  and  although  they  are 
not  strikingly  dishonest  still  they  are  not  above  petty  pilfering,  and  the  coffee  plantations 
which  are  too  near  the  town  are  apt  to  have  their  berries  picked  by  the  black  Blantyre 
citizens  at  night,  and  the  coffee  thus  acquired  is  sent  out  and  sold  to  native  planters — 
for  some  of  the  educated  natives  and  small  chiefs  have  started  coffee  plantations. 

"  Unfortunately,  the  water  supply  here  is  very  bad,  though  a  little  energy  would  set 
it  all  right.  There  is  the  Mudi  stream,  for  instance,  which  flows  perennially  without  much 
diminution,  even  in  the  dry  season  ;  but  the  upper  waters  of  the  Mudi  flow  through 
native  villages  and  the  settlements  of  the  missionary  scholars,  and  all  these  people  wash 
their  clothes  and  persons  in  the  river,  besides  emptying  into  it  all  kinds  of  filth.  The 

1  The  Mudi  is  crossed  higher  up  by  another  bridge  which  the  Administration  has  just  made. — II.  II.  J. 




result  is  that  its  waters  are  quite  unfit  for  drinking  purposes.  A  few  of  the  settlers  have 
wells,  but  all  of  these  except  two  seem  to  produce  slightly  brackish  unwholesome  water. 
Away  to  the  north  of  Blantyre  arises  another  very  fine  stream,  the  Likubula.  This  is 
rather  too  much  below  the  level  of  Blantyre  to  make  it  easy  to  convey  the  water  to  the 
township.  The  simplest  expedient  would  seem  to  be  the  purification  of  the  Mudi. 

"  But  if  the  Mudi  be  at  present  unwholesome  its  banks  are  charming  for  the  foliage 
of  the  trees  and  the  loveliness  of  the  wild  flowers.  I  would  notice  specially  one  crimson 
lily  which  gives  a  succession  of  flowers  for  many  months  of  the  year. 

"  And  yet  how  extraordinary  people  are  in  regard  to  wild  flowers  !  I  remember  when 
I  had  just  been  admiring  these  red  lilies  on  the  Mudi's  banks  I  went  to  dinner  with  one 
of  the  married  couples  in  Blantyre,  and  the  lady  of  the  house  apologised  to  me  for  the 
bareness  of  the  table,  complaining  that  her  garden  as  yet  produced  no  flowers.  Yet  she 
had  only  got  to  send  one  of  the  servants  out  to  the  banks  of  the  stream  and  to  the 
adjoining  fields  and  she  could  have  decked  her  table  with  red  lilies,  mauve,  orange,  and 
white  ground-orchids,  and  blue  bean  flowers  in  a  way  which  would  excite  anyone's  envy 
at  home. 

"My  reference  to  'married  couples '  reminds  me  to  tell  you  that  a  good  many  of 
the  men  settled  here  are  married  and  their  wives  seem  to  stand  the  climate  as  well 
as  if  not  even  better  than  their  husbands,  because,  I  imagine,  they  are  exposed  less  to  the 
sun  and  do  not  have  so  much  outdoor  work.  Although  it  is  not  consistent  with  the 
duties  of  the  planter  still  it  is  borne  in  on  my  mind  that  the  healthiest  life  in  Central 
Africa  is  an  indoor  life.  People  who  keep  very  much  to  the  house  and  do  not  go  out 
or  go  far  afield  between  9  a.m.  and  4  p.m.  never  seem  to  get  fever.  At  the  same  time 
you  should  not  remain  out  after  sunset  as  you  are  apt  to  get  a  chill. 


I  do  not  know  whether  in  the  foregoing  extracts  from  supposititious 
letters  I  have  succeeded  in  giving  a  fairly  correct  idea  of  the  life  that  Europeans 
lead  under  present  conditions  in  British  Central  Africa.  More  will  be  said 
on  this  subject  in  dealing  with  the  Missionaries. 

For  the  trader  and  the  planter  I  think  it  may 
be  said  that  the  country  offers  sufficiently  sure  and 
rapid  profits  for  their  enterprise  to  compensate  the 
risk  run  in  the  matter  of  health.  The  various 
trading  companies  in  the  country  appear  to  be 
doing  well  with  an  ever-extending  business  and 
to  be  constantly  increasing  the  number  of  their 
establishments.  Even  traders  in  a  small  way,  if 
they  have  energy  and  astuteness,  may  reap  con- 
siderable earnings  with  relatively  small  outlay. 
One  man,  for  instance,  went  up  to  Kotakota  on 
Lake  Nyasa  with  a  few  hundreds  of  pounds  at  his 
disposal,  bought  a  large  number  of  cattle  at  a 
very  low  price  in  the  Marimba  district  and  pur- 
chased all  the  ivory  the  Arabs  at  Kotakota  had 
to  dispose  of,  and  on  his  total  transaction  made  a 
clear  profit  of  £2000  by  selling  the  cattle  and 
ivory  at  Blantyre;  but  it  appears  to  me  that  as 
time  goes  on  the  European  trading  community 
will  be  limited  to  the  employes  of  two  or  three 
gj6!*  .trading  companies  commanding  considerable  capital,  and  to  a  number 
of  British  Indians  who  will  not  in  any  way  conflict  with  the  commerce  of  the 
Europeans  because  they  will  often  act  as  the  middlemen  buying  up  small 




quantities  of  produce  here  and  there  from  the  natives  which  they  will  re-sell 
in  large  amounts  to  the  European  firms  and  agencies. 

The  remainder  of  the  European  settlers  will  be  rather  planters  than  traders, 
disposing  likewise  of  their  produce  to  the  commercial  companies  in  British 
Central  Africa.  Originally  when  there  was  very  little  or  no  cash  in  the  country 
every  planter  had  likewise  to  be  a  trader  on  a  small  scale  as  all  labourers 
were  paid  in  trade  goods,  and  all  the  food  that  he  bought  from  the  natives  was 
purchased  in  the  same  manner.  Now  the  country  is  full  of  cash,  and  in  many 
districts  the  natives  refuse  to  accept  any  payment  except  in  money,  preferring  to 
go  to  the  principal  stores  and  make  their  purchases  there.  To  a  certain  extent, 
moreover,  money  payments  are  now  compulsory  between  European  employers 
and  their  native  employes  ;  moreover  a  planter  often  objects  to  taking  out  a 
trading  licence  and  prefers  instead  to  relinquish  his  small  commerce  in  this  respect. 

Briefly  stated,  the  only  serious  drawback  to  British  Central  Africa  as  a 
field  of  enterprise  for  trader  or  planter  is  malarial  fever,  either  in  its 
ordinary  form,  or  in  its  severest  type  which  is  commonly  known  as  black- 
water  fever.  I  shall  have  a  few  words  to  say  about  this  malady  further  on. 


The  advantages  are,  at  the  present  time,  that  land  is  cheap ;  the  country 
is  almost  everywhere  well  watered  by  perennial  streams,  and  by  a  reasonable 
rainfall ;  the  scenery  is  beautiful  in  many  of  the  upland  districts  ;  the  climate 
is  delicious — seldom  too  hot  and  often  cold  and  pleasant ;  there  is  an  abundance 
of  cheap  native  labour ;  transport,  though  offering  certain  difficulties  inherent 
in  all  undeveloped  parts  of  Africa,  is  growing  far  easier  and  cheaper  than  in 
Central  South  Africa,  as  the  Shire  river  is  navigable  at  all  times  of  the  year, 
except  for  about  80  miles  of  its  course,  and  Lake  Nyasa  is  an  inland  sea  with 
a  shore  line  of  something  like  800  miles.  Moreover,  the  cost  of  simple  articles 
of  food  such  as  oxen,  goats  or  sheep,  or  of  antelopes  and  other  big  game, 
poultry,  eggs,  and  milk  is  cheap,  together  with  the  prices  of  a  few  vegetables 
like  potatoes  or  grain  like  Indian  corn  ;  and  all  the  European  goods  are  not  so 
expensive  as  they  would  be  in  the  interior  of  Australia,  in  Central  South  Africa, 
or  in  the  interior  of  South  America  because  of  the  relative  cheapness  of 
transport  from  the  coast  and  of  the  very  low  Customs  duties. 

To  sum  up  the  question,  I  might  state  with  truth  that  but  for  malarial  fever 
this  country  would  be  an  earthly  paradise  ;  the  "  but "  however  is  a  very  big  one. 
Whether  the  development  of  medical  science  will  enable  us  to  find  the  same 
antidote  to  malarial  fever  as  we  have  found  for  small-pox  in  vaccination, 
or  whether  drugs  will  be  discovered  which  will  make  the  treatment  of  the 
disease  and  recovery  therefrom  almost  certain,  remains  to  be  seen.  If  however 


here,  as  in  other  parts  of  tropical  Africa,  this  demon  could  be  conjured,  beyond 
all  question  the  prosperity  of  Western  Africa,  of  the  Congo  Basin  and  of  British 
Central  Africa  would  be  almost  unbounded. 

Ordinary  malarial  fever  is  serious  but  not  so  dangerous  as  that  special  form 
of  it  which  is  styled  "  black-water  "  or  haematuric.  The  difference  between  the 
effects  of  the  two  diseases  is  this.  Ordinary  malarial  fever  is  seldom  immediately 
fatal  but  after  continued  attacks  the  patient  is  often  left  with  some  permanent 
weakness.  Black-water  fever  is  either  fatal  in  a  very  few  days  or  has  such 
a  weakening  effect  on  the  heart  that  the  patient  dies  during  convalescence  from 
sudden  syncope;  but  where  black-water  fever  does  not  kill  it  never  leaves 
(as  far  as  I  am  aware)  permanent  effects  on  the  system  of  the  sufferer.  One 
attack,  however,  predisposes  to  another  and  as  a  rule  each  succeeding  attack  is 
more  severe  than  its  predecessor.  Consequently  a  man  who  has  had,  say,  two 
attacks  of  black-water  fever  should  not  return  to  any  part  of  Africa  where  that 
disease  is  endemic.1 

The  origin  and  history  of  bilious  haemoglobinuric  or  "  black-water  "  fever  are 
still  obscure.  No  mention  of  this  disease  would  appear  to  have  been  made 
until  the  middle  of  this  century  when  it  was  described  by  the  French  naval 
surgeons  at  Nossibe  in  Madagascar.  According  to  Dr.  Wordsworth  Poole,  the 
principal  medical  officer  of  the  British  Central  Africa  Protectorate,  true  black- 
water  fever  has  occurred  in  parts  of  America  and  in  the  West  Indies  besides 
those  portions  of  Africa  and  Madagascar  to  which  I  have  made  allusion  in 
the  footnote.  Dr.  Poole  states  that  he  has  seen  a  case  of  it  in  Rome  and  that 
it  is  said  to  occur  in  Greece.  The  cases  occurring  in  tropical  America  which 
Dr.  Poole  cites  I  should  be  inclined  to  ascribe  to  a  variation  of  the  ordinary 
type  of  yellow  fever.  Now  yellow  fever,  in  my  opinion,  is  a  very  near 
connection  of  black-water  fever,  and  some  writers  on  Africa  have  stated  that 
yellow  fever  was  actually  engendered  on  the  slave  ships  which  proceeded 
from  West  Africa  to  South  America,  and  have  suggested  it  was  simply  an 
acute  development  of  the  ordinary  African  haemoglobinuric  fever. 

One  remarkable  feature  in  this  disease  appears  to  be  that  assuming  it  is 
only  endemic  in  certain  parts  of  Africa,  its  germs  would  seem  to  be  capable 
of  lying  dormant  for  some  time  in  the  human  system  and  then  to  suddenly 
multiply  into  prodigious  activity  and  produce  an  attack  of  black-water  fever 
some  time  after  the  individual  has  left  the  infected  district.  For  instance, 
in  1893  after  having  been  absent  nearly  two  months  from  British  Central 
Africa  in  Cape  Colony  and  in  Natal,  I  had  a  most  severe  attack  of  black-water 
fever,  which  commenced  at  Durban  on  board  a  gunboat  and  finished  at  Delagoa 
Bay.  Again,  when  travelling  through  the  Tyrol  in  the  autumn  of  1894,  I 
was  suddenly  seized  with  a  slight  but  obvious  attack  of  this  fever  after 
returning  from  a  mountain  ascent.  Although  only  ill  for  about  twenty-four 

1  At  the  present  time  black-water  fever  is  endemic  on  the  West  Coast  of  Africa  from  the  Gambia 
on  the  north  to  Benguela  on  the  south,  and  inland  as  far  as  the  limits  of  the  forest  country  of  West  Africa. 
It  extends  over  the  whole  of  the  Congo  basin.  I  believe  a  few  cases  were  noted  on  the  White  Nile  and 
the  western  tributaries  of  the  Nile  before  the  Mahdi's  revolt  expelled  the  Europeans  from  these  parts. 
It  is  endemic  in  the  regions  round  the  Victoria  Nyanza  and  Tanganyika ;  in  the  eastern  half  of  British 
Central  Africa ;  along  the  whole  course  of  the  Zambezi  between  Zumbo  and  its  mouth  ;  in  the  Portuguese 
province  of  Mocambique  ;  in  German  East  Africa  ;  and  in  British  East  Africa.  It  is  said  not  to  be 
endemic  in  the  islands  of  Zanzibar  and  Pemba  and  that  those  persons  who  have  suffered  from  it  there  brought 
the  germs  of  it  from  some  other  part  of  Africa.  I  have  not  heard  that  it  exists  at  Beira  or  south  of  the 
Zambezi,  but  should  not  be  surprised  to  learn  that  cases  of  it  occasionally  occur  there.  Roughly  speaking, 
it  may  be  said  that  as  far  as  we  know  the  Upper  Niger  regions,  the  North  Central  and  Eastern  Sudan, 
Abyssinia,  Somaliland,  Galaland,  Egypt,  Northern  Africa  and  Africa  South  of  the  Zambezi  are  free  from 
it.  It  is  said  to  occur  in  Madagascar. 


hours  I  had  every  symptom  of  black-water  fever  in  a  marked  form.  A  case 
occurred  with  one  of  the  ladies  of  the  Universities  Mission  at  Zanzibar  who 
had  an  attack  of  black-water  fever  which  came  on  after  her  return  to  England. 
The  mortality  in  black-water  fever  is  about  40  per  cent,  among  those  who 
have  the  disease  for  the  first  time  ;  50  per  cent,  among  those  who  have  it  for 
the  second  time  ;  75  per  cent,  among  those  who  have  it  for  the  third  time  ;  and 
it  is  very  rare  that  anyone  survives  more  than  three  attacks.  Not  counting  the 
trifling  little  touch  in  the  Tyrol,  I  have  had  four  attacks  of  this  disease  at 
different  periods  from  1886  to  1896.  I  know  one  of  the  German  officials  in 
East  Africa  who  has  survived  five  attacks  and  is  apparently  in  robust  health, 
and  Dr.  Kerr  Cross  mentions  an  European  in  North  Nyasa  (in  good  health  at 
the  present  time)  who  has  had  this  fever  ten  times  ! 

On  the  last  occasion  when  I  had  black-water  fever  I  derived  very  great 
benefit  from  a  single  injection  of  morphia,  which  checked  the  vomiting  and 
gave  the  body  time  for  repose  and  recuperation.  Otherwise  I  know  of 
absolutely  no  drug  which  has  been  proved  really  efficacious  in  treating  this 
dangerous  disease.  All  we  can  say  at  the  present  time  is  that  good  nursing 
and  a  good  constitution  will  generally  pull  patients  through  an  attack.  Quinine 
appears  to  be  of  little  use,  unless  during  convalescence. 
The  symptoms  of  the  disease  are  the  following  :— 

The  patient  ordinarily  complains  of  a  severe  pain  in  his  back  and  a  general 
sense  of  malaise.  This  is  often  succeeded  by  a  violent  shivering  fit.  Upon 
passing  urine  the  latter  is  found  to  be  a  dark  sepia  colour,  and  subsequently 
becomes  a  deep  black  with  reddish  reflexions,  which  accounts  for  the  popular 
name  given  to  the  fever.  Sometimes  the  colour  is  almost  the  tint  of  burgundy 
or  claret.  Not  many  hours  after  the  attack  has  begun  the  colour  of  the 
patient's  skin  becomes  increasingly  yellow.  The  temperature  may  sometimes 
be  as  high  as  105  degrees  following  on  the  shivering  fit,  but  high  temperatures 
are  not  necessarily  a  very  marked  or  serious  symptom  in  black-water  fever.  A 
most  distressing  vomiting  is  perhaps  the  most  customary  symptom  next  to  the 
black  water. 

The  best  way  to  treat  this  fever  is  to  put  the  patient  immediately  to  bed, 
placing  hot-water  bottles  at  his  feet,  and  to  give  him  a  strong  purge.  At  first 
the  vomiting  should  not  be  checked,  but  as  soon  as  it  tends  to  weaken  the 
patient  it  ought  to  be  stopped,  if  not  by  some  opiate  drug  administered  through 
the  stomach,  then  by  an  injection  of  morphia.  When  it  is  deemed  that  the 
patient  has  vomited  sufficiently  to  get  rid  of  the  poison  in  the  system,  and  the 
further  vomiting  has  been  to  some  extent  checked,  nourishment  should  then 
be  administered  at  frequent  intervals— strong  beef-tea,  milk  and  brandy,  eggs 
beaten  up  with  port  wine,  &c.  Champagne  and  water,  especially  if  this  drink 
can  be  iced  and  made  into  a  champagne-cup,  is  excellent.  Champagne  is  often 
of  great  use  in  this  disease  in  restoring  the  patient's  strength.  Once  the 
dangerous  crisis  of  the  disease  is  passed  and  any  relapse  is  guarded  against 
by  the  most  careful  nursing,  the  patient  is  pretty  sure  to  recover,  unless  he  has 
naturally  a  very  weak  heart.  The  recovery  is  often  pleasantly  quick.  In  all 
my  attacks  of  black-water  fever  there  has  rarely  elapsed  more  than  a  week 
between  the  commencement  of  the  disease  and  the  power  to  get  up  and  walk 
about,  and  convalescence  in  other  ways  has  come  rapidly. 

Undoubtedly  much  ill-health  might  be  avoided  in  tropical  Africa  by  the 
adoption  of  very  temperate  habits.  I  have  written  strongly  on  the  drink 
question  in  such  Reports  to  the  Government  as  have  been  published  ;  I  do  not 



therefore  propose  to  repeat  my  diatribes  in  this  book.  But  it  should  be  added 
that  what  I  object  to  is  not  the  drinking  of  good  wine  or  beer,  but  the  con- 
sumption of  spirits.  Whisky  is  the  bane  of  Central  Africa  as  it  is  of  West 
Africa,  South  Africa  and  Australia.  I  dare  say  brandy  is  as  bad  as  whisky 
but  it  has  passed  out  of  fashion  as  a  drink,  and  therefore  it  has  not  incurred 
my  animosity  to  the  same  extent  as  the  national  product  of  Scotland  and 
Ireland.1  Moreover,  brandy  is  invaluable  in  sickness.  If  any  spirits  are  drunk 
it  seems  to  me  that  gin  is  the  least  harmful,  as  it  has  a  good  effect  on  the 
kidneys.  In  hot  climates  like  that  of  Central  Africa  whisky  seems  to  have 
a  bad  effect  on  the  liver  and  on  the  kidneys. 

I    do   not   suppose   these   words   will   have   much   effect    on    my   readers. 


Alcoholic  excess  is  our  national  vice,  and  while  we  are  ready  enough  to 
deplore  the  opium-eating-or-smoking  on  the  part  of  the  Indians  or  Chinese, 
— a  vice  which  is  not  comparable  in  its  ill  effects  to  the  awful  abuse  of  alcohol 
which  is  so  characteristic  of  the  northern  peoples  of  Europe, — we  still  remain 
indifferent  to  the  effects  of  spirit-drinking  which  has  been  the  principal  vice  of 
the  nineteenth  century.  The  abuse  of  wine  or  beer,  though  bad  like  all  abuses, 
is  a  relatively  wholesome  excess  compared  to  even  a  moderate  consumption  of 
spirits.  Though  I  think  of  the  two  extremes  total  abstinence  is  the  better  course 
to  follow  in  Central  Africa,  I  do  not  recommend  total  abstinence  from  all  forms 
of  alcohol.  I  think,  on  the  contrary,  the  moderate  use  of  wine  is  distinctly 
beneficial,  especially  for  anaemic  people. 

Trading  with  the  natives  on  a  large  scale  is,  as  I  have  said,  chiefly  confined 
to  two  or  three  large  companies — the  African  Lakes,  Sharrer's,  the  Oceana 
Company  and  Kahn  &  Co.  But  a  small  amount  of  barter  chiefly  for  provisions 

1  Which  alone,  I  believe,  among  strong  waters  develops  the  poisonous  Fusel  Oil. 


is  still  carried  on  by  all  Europeans  residing  in  the  less  settled  parts  of  British 
Central  Africa.  The  imported  trade  goods  consisted  chiefly  of  cotton  stuffs 
from  Manchester  and  Bombay,  beads  from  Birmingham  and  Venice,  blankets 
from  England,  India  and  Austria,  fezzes  from  Algeria  and  from  Newcastle- 
under-Lyne,  boots  from  Northampton,  felt  hats  from  various  parts  of  England, 
hardware  and  brass  wire  and  hoes  from  Birmingham,  cutlery  from  Sheffield, 
and  various  fancy  goods  from  India. 

The  trade  products  which  British  Central  Africa  gives  us  in  exchange  for 
these  goods  and  for  much  English  money  in  addition  are  :  Ivory,  coffee,  hippo, 
teeth,  rhinoceros  horns,  cattle,  hides,  wax,  rubber,  oil  seeds,  sanseviera  fibre, 
tobacco,  sugar  (locally  consumed),  wheat  (ditto),  maize  (ditto),  sheep,  goats  and 
poultry  (ditto),  timber  (ditto),  and  the  Strophanthus  drug. 


It  only  remains  to  say  a  few  words  about  the  relations  between  the 
Europeans  and  the  natives.  I  am  convinced  that  this  eastern  portion  of 
British  Central  Africa  will  never  be  a  white  man's  country  in  the  sense  that 
all  Africa  south  of  the  Zambezi,  and  all  Africa  north  of  the  Sahara  will 
eventually  become — countries  where  the  white  race  is  dominant  and  native  to  the 
soil.  Between  the  latitudes  of  the  Zambezi  and  the  Blue  Nile,  Africa  must  in 
the  first  instance  be  governed  in  the  interests  of  the  black  man,  and  the  black- 
man  \vill  there  be  the  race  predominant  in  numbers,  if  not  in  influence.  The 
future  of  Tropical  Africa  is  to  be  another  India ;  not  another  Australia.  The 
white  man  cannot  permanently  colonise  Central  Africa ;  he  can  only  settle  on  a 
few  favoured  tracts,  as  he  would  do  in  the  North  of  India.  Yet  Central  Africa 
possesses  boundless  resources  in  the  way  of  commerce,  as  it  is  extremely  rich 
in  natural  products, — animal,  vegetable  and  mineral.  These  it  wrill  pay  the 
European  to  develop  and  should  equally  profit  the  black  man  to  produce. 
Untaught  by  the  European  he  was  living  like  an  animal,  miserably  poor  in  the 
midst  of  boundless  wealth.  Taught  by  the  European  he  will  be  able  to  develop 


this  wealth  and  bring  it  to  the  market,  and  the  European  on  the  other  hand 
will  be  enriched  by  this  enterprise.  But  Central  Africa  is  probably  as  remote 
from  self  government  or  representative  institutions  as  is  the  case  with  India. 
It  can  only  be  administered  under  the  benevolent  despotism  of  the  Imperial 
Government,  though  in  the  future  and  developed  administration  there  is  no 
reason  to  suppose  that  black  men  may  not  serve  as  officials  in  common  with 
white  men  and  with  yellow  men,  just  as  there  are  Negro  officials  in  the  adminis- 
tration of  the  West  African  colonies,  and  Malay  officials  in  the  Government  of 
the  Straits  Settlements. 

It  must  not  be  supposed  that  the  Administration  of  British  Central  Africa 
has  always  had,  or  will  always  command  the  unhesitating  support  of  the  white 
settlers  now  in  the  country.  It  sometimes  seems  to  me  that  the  bulk  of  these 
sturdy  pioneers  (excellent  though  the  results  of  their  work  have  been  in  develop- 
ing the  resources  of  the  country)  would,  if  allowed  to  govern  this  land  in  their 
own  way,  use  their  power  too  selfishly  in  the  interests  of  the  white  man.  This 
I  find  to  be  the  tendency  everywhere  where  the  governing  white  men  are  not 
wholly  disinterested,  are  not,  that  is  to  say,  paid  to  see  fair  play.  From  time  to 
time  a  planter  rises  up  to  object  to  the  natives  being  allowed  to  plant  coffee,  in 
case  they  should  come  into  competition  with  him,  or  urges  the  Administration 
to  use  its  power  despotically  to  compel  a  black  man  to  work  for  wages  whether 
he  will  or  not. 

The  ideal  of  the  average  European  trader  and  planter  in  Tropical  Africa 
would  be  a  country  where  the  black  millions  toil  unremittingly  for  the  benefit  of 
the  white  man.  They  would  see  that  the  negroes  were  well  fed  and  not  treated 
with  harshness,  but  anything  like  free  will  as  to  whether  they  went  to  work 
or  not,  or  any  attempt  at  competing  with  the  white  man  as  regards  education  or 
skilled  labour  would  not  be  tolerated. 

As  a  set  off  against  this  extreme  is  the  almost  equally  unreasonable  opinion 
entertained  by  the  missionaries  of  a  now  fast-disappearing  type,  that  Tropical 
Africa  was  to  be  developed  with  English  money  and  at  the  cost  of  English 
lives,  solely  and  only  for  the  benefit  of  the  black  man,  who,  as  in  many  mission 
stations,  was  to  lead  an  agreeably  idle  life,  receiving  food  and  clothes  gratis,  and 
not  being  required  to  do  much  in  exchange  but  make  a  more  or  less  hypocritical 
profession  of  Christianity.  This  mawkish  sentiment,  however,  no  longer  holds 
the  field,  and  there  is  scarcely  a  mission  in  Nyasaland  which  does  not  inculcate 
among  its  pupils  the  stern  necessity  of  work  in  all  sections  of  humanity.  The 
great  service  that  Christian  missions  have  rendered  to  Africa  has  been  to  act  as 
the  counterpoise  to  the  possibly  selfish  policy  of  the  irresponsible  white  pioneer, 
in  whose  eyes  the  native  was  merely  a  chattel,  a  more  or  less  useful  animal, 
but  with  no  rights  and  very  little  feeling. 

It  is  the  mission  of  an  impartial  administration  to  adopt  a  mean  course 
between  the  extreme  of  sentiment  and  the  extreme  of  selfishness.  It  must 
realise  that  but  for  the  enterprise  and  capital  of  these  much-criticised,  rough 
and  ready  pioneers  Central  Africa  would  be  of  no  value  and  the  natives 
would  receive  no  payment  for  the  products  of  their  land,  would,  in  fact, 
relapse  into  their  almost  ape-like  existence  of  fighting,  feeding  and  breeding. 
Therefore  due  encouragement  must  be  shown  to  European  planters,  traders 
and  miners,  whose  presence  in  the  country  is  the  figure  before  the  ciphers. 
Yet,  it  must  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  negro  is  a  man,  with  a  man's  rights  ; 
above  all,  that  he  was  the  owner  of  the  country  before  we  came,  and  deserves, 
nay,  is  entitled  to,  a  share  in  the  land,  commensurate  with  his  needs  and 


numbers ;  that  in  numbers  he  will  always  exceed  the  white  man,  while 
he  may  some  day  come  to  rival  him  in  intelligence  ;  and  that  finally  if  we 
do  not  use  our  power  to  govern  him  with  absolute  justice  the  time  will 
come  sooner  or  later  when  he  will  rise  against  us  and  expel  us  as  the 
Egyptian  officials  were  expelled  from  the  Sudan. 


BY    DR.    D.    KERR   CROSS,   M.B. 

THIS  form  of  fever  has  been  met  with  in  the  Mauritius,  Senegal,  Madagascar,  the 
Gold  Coast,  French  Guiana,  Venezuela,  in  some  parts  of  Central  America,  and  the  ^rest 
India  Islands.  It  is  even  said  to  have  been  seen  in  some  parts  of  Italy  and  Spain.  It 
has  been  carefully  studied  in  Nosi-be,  on  the  north-west  of  Madagascar,  where  it  is 
estimated  that  one  in  fourteen  of  the  Malarial  Fevers  treated  there  were  Hoemoglobinuric. 
Some  cases  observed  in  Rome  have  been  carefully  studied,  with  the  result  that  some  are 
associated  with  the  Plasmodium  Malaria — the  Bacterium  in  Malarial  Fever — while  others 
are  not.  The  same  has  been  the  case  on  the  Gold  Coast.  The  generally  accepted 
opinion  is  that  Hsemoglobinuric  fever  may  arise  apart  from  any  malarial  affection. 
Any  bacterium  which  destroys  the  Red  Blood  Corpuscles  and  sets  free  the  red  colouring 
matter — Haemoglobin — will  bring  about  this  form  of  fever.  Haemoglobin  is  an  irritant 
to  the  kidneys,  and  brings  on  a  congested  state  of  that  organ.  In  this  form  of  fever  we 
always  find  the  kidneys  abnormal  both  in  size  and  in  weight,  while  there  is  a  bleeding  into 
the  tissue  under  the  capsule  and  in  the  interstitial  cortical  substance,  or  with  the  discolora- 
tion which  we  know  to  result  from  these  conditions.  The  Epithelia  lining  the  convo- 
luted tubes  of  the  kidney  are  larger  than  normal  and  are  cloudy,  while  the  tubes 
themselves  contain  casts  that  are  stained  yellow ;  this  yellow  staining  being  in  a  very 
fine  state  of  division  or,  in  some  cases,  in  large  granules.  There  is  a  marked  obstruction 
of  the  tubules  of  the  kidney,  both  in  the  cortical  and  pyramidal  portion.  The  blood 
vessels  and  capillaries  are  often  found  to  contain  corpuscles  that  are  deeply  stained.  This 
is  also  the  case  with  the  glomeruli  of  the  organ.  The  serum  of  the  blood  contains  great 
quantities  of  free  haemoglobin  which  gives  it  a  yellow  colour.  This  yellow  colour  is 
seen  in  the  serum  obtained  from  the  application  of  a  blister  to  the  surface  and  in  blood 
drawn  for  microscopic  purposes. 

This  form  of  fever  begins  as  a  regular  remittent.  There  is  usually  severe  vomiting  of 
bilious  matter — indeed,  my  experience  is  that  in  a  severe  case  there  is  vomiting  every 
half-hour  night  and  day.  There  are  bilious  stools  of  a  frothy  yellow  substance.  There 
is  very  marked  jaundice  over  the  whole  body.  There  is  delirium  of  a  violent  form. 
Sometimes  there  is  a  free  discharge  of  black  urine  or,  it  may  be.  of  actual  blood. 
Towards  the  close  of  a  fatal  case  there  is  suppression  of  the  urine  resulting  in  coma  and 
convulsions.  Everything  in  this  affection  points  to  the  wholesale  destruction  of  the 
Red  Blood  Corpuscles,  and  to  a  desperate  effort  on  the  part  of  the  system  to  throw 
something  off.  From  the  suddenness  with  which  the  tissues  of  the  whole  body  become 
yellow,  we  might  say  that  every  tissue  takes  on  itself  the  power  of  secreting  bile.  Bile  is 
eliminated  by  the  bowels,  by  the  skin,  by  the  kidneys,  and  by  the  liver.  The  patient 
vomits,  purges,  sweats,  and  in  some  cases  bleeds.  The  gums,  it  may  be,  become  spongy 
and  sore,  and  may  even  shed  blood.  There  may  be  bleeding  from  the  mouth  and  nose 
and  over  purple  spots  on  the  skin.  As  in  the  case  of  yellow  fever,  there  may  be  a 


bleeding  from  the  mucous  membrane  of  the  stomach  and  bowels,  which,  acted  on  by 
the  digestive  fluids,  may  lead  to  a  Black  Vomit.  A  marked  feature,  too,  in  some  cases 
is  that  the  attacks  are  paroxysmal.  They  come  on  with  a  shivering  fit,  with  pains  in  the 
back,,  retention  of  the  testes,  vomiting,  and  lowered  temperature.  Two  hours  afterwards, 
when  the  urine  is  passed,  it  is  bloody,  contains  albumin,  and  deposits  a  thick  sediment. 
The  dark  urine  may  continue  to  be  passed  for  three  or  four  days,  but  in  other  cases  after 
a  few  hours  there  is  a  return  to  the  normal  state.  I  have  known  of  seizures  to  come  on 
every  morning  about  eight  o'clock  for  ten  or  twelve  days  in  succession.  Gradually,  how- 
ever, they  seemed  to  diminish  in  severity,  and  then  to  pass  off.  Between  the  attacks  the 
urine  seemed  perfectly  normal. 

There  is  another  form  where  we  get  actual  blood  in  the  urine.  The  blood  is 
intimately  mixed  with  the  urine,  and  is  like  "porter." 

Then  we  may  get  actual  suppression  of  urine.  The  malarial  poison  acts  on  the 
kidneys  like  a  poison.  The  result  of  this  suppression  is  uraemic  poisoning. 

It  seems  to  be  the  case  that  certain  constitutions  have  a  predisposition  to  this  form  of 
fever.  There  are  many  who  have  resided  in  British  Central  Africa  for  ten  or  more  years 
who  have  not  once  suffered  from  its  effects,  while  others  have  not  been  resident  as  many 
months,  and  have  suffered  from  several  attacks.  It  is  not  the  case  that  quinine  taken  in 
prophylactic  doses  every  day  arms  the  constitution  against  it.  For  myself  personally  I  take 
this  drug  only  when  I  think  I  need  it,  and  not  as  a  preventative  medicine ;  and  while  I 
have  suffered  from  ordinary  fever  I  have  not  once  in  eleven  years  had  the  more  serious 
affection.  This  also  seems  to  be  an  accepted  fact :  one  attack  of  black-water  fever 
predisposes  to  another,  so  that  eventually  every  attack  of  malarial  fever  will  take  this 
form.  I  think  this  explains  the  fact  of  one  European  at  the  north  of  Lake  Nyasa  having 
had  ten  consecutive  attacks  in  a  period  of  three  years. 

From  the  suddenness  of  its  onset  and  the  equal  suddenness  of  its  disappearance, 
together  with  its  remarkable  tendency  in  some  cases  to  come  on  in  paroxysms,  I  think 
that  the  explanation  is  to  be  found  in  the  study  of  the  neurotic  supply  of  the  kidney. 

It  is  remarkable,  too,  that  women  and  weakly  persons  are  seldom  affected.  It  seems 
to  be  confined  to  young,  healthy  individuals,  in  whom  there  is  great  muscular  waste.  It 
comes  on,  too,  after  a  long  spell  of  the  most  robust  health,  and  that  with  great  sudden- 
ness. I  think,  too,  that  it  is  a  disease  of  mountainous  regions.  It  does  occur  in  the 
lower  parts,  but  my  observation  leads  me  to  affirm  that  it  is  more  prevalent  in  hilly 
districts  in  the  centre  of  malarious  regions. 



i.  FLANNEL  is  a  great  mistake  unless  it  is  mixed  with  a  large  proportion  of  silk.  Pure 
flannel  is  an  abomination  in  the  tropics.  Either  on  account  of  some  inherent  property  of 
the  wool,  or  probably  of  some  chemical  compound  with  which  it  is  prepared,  the  action 
of  perspiration  on  the  flannel  in  a  tropical  country  is  to  at  once  create  a  most  offensive 
smell,  even  in  persons  who  are  constantly  changing  their  clothes,  and  who  attend  to 
personal  cleanliness.  Moreover,  no  flannel  yet  invented  (all  advertisements  on  the 
subject  are  to  be  absolutely  disbelieved)  ever  failed  to  shrink  into  unwearableness  after, 
at  most,  the  third  washing.  Again,  the  feel  of  the  flannel  on  the  skin  in  a  warm  climate 
is  singularly  irritating  and  hurtful.  Persons  going  to  Africa  are  strongly  advised  to 
wear  not  flannel,  but  either  silk  and  wool  underclothing,  or  merino.  Merino  is  excellent. 
It  is  cleanly,  absolutely  odourless,  stands  any  amount  of  washing,  and  is  pleasant  in 
contact  with  the  skin.  Under  almost  all  circumstances  save  those  where  the  temperature 
rises  above  100  degrees  in  the  shade,  a  merino  under-garment  should  always  be  worn 


next  the  skin,  night  and  day,  over  the  chest  and  stomach,  though  for  the  sake  of  clean- 
liness the  garment  should  be  constantly  changed.  Especially  is  this  necessary  at  night 
time,  when  very  dangerous  chills  often  occur  by  the  sudden  lowering  of  the  temperature 
after  midnight  and  the  exposure  of  the  naked  body  to  this  lowered  temperature  when 
covered  with  perspiration.  The  best  form  of  underclothing  of  this  kind  is  merino  vests 
and  merino  drawers.  Pantaloons  are  preferable  to  the  short  drawers  which  are  sometimes 
worn,  which  reach  no  further  down  than  the  knee.  The  reason  of  this  is  that  it  is  as 
well  to  protect  the  calf  of  the  leg  as  much  as  possible  from  the  attacks  of  insects  which 
may  succeed  in  piercing  the  trousers  with  their  probosces,  but  find  it  difficult  to  get 
through  the  merino  as  well.  Many  of  the  ulcers  from  which  people  suffer  in  Central 
Africa  have  their  origin  in  mosquito  bites,  or  in  the  attacks  of  certain  flies  which  deposit 
their  eggs  under  the  skin.  While  a  merino  vest  should  be  worn  next  the  skin  at  night, 
the  drawers,  of  course,  are  removed,  and  it  is  only  the  upper  part  of  the  body  (especially 
the  stomach)  which  requires  careful  protection  from  chill.  Night-gowns  are  quite  obsolete. 
I  believe  these  indecent  inadequacies  still  survive  in  remote  parts  of  the  United  Kingdom 
and  on  the  benighted  "  Continent,"  but  they  have  long  since  been  banished  from  the 
life  of  Europeans  in  the  tropics.  Sleeping  suits  or  paijamas  are  worn.  These  consist  of 
a  jacket  and  trousers.  They  can  be  obtained  at  any  shop  in  London.  The  most  suitable 
material  is  of  silk  and  wool,  but  cotton  paijamas  are  quite  sufficient  for  ordinary  purposes, 
provided  a  merino  vest  is  worn.  Clad  in  paijamas  the  wearer  can  with  perfect  propriety 
walk  about  on  the  deck  of  a  steamer  or  on  the  verandah  of  his  house  in  the  early 

Another  much  praised  invention  which  is  almost  useless  in  Central  Africa  is  the  pith 
helmet.  Such  a  thing,  I  suppose,  is  scarcely  ever  seen  there  now.  By  far  the  most 
suitable  hat  is  a  light  canvas  helmet  or  a  large  thick  felt  hat  with  a  huge  brim,  which  is 
sufficiently  stiff  to  turn  up  or  down  to  shade  the  wearer's  face  or  to  allow  the  cool  air  to 
have  free  access  as  the  case  may  be  The  Terai  hat  is,  on  the  whole,  the  best  kind,  but 
it  does  not  appear  to  me  to  have  a  sufficiently  wide  brim.  I  believe  suitable  felt  hats, 
cheap  and  of  the  kind  I  am  inclined  tc  recommend,  can  be  purchased  at  the  Army  and 
Navy  Stores.  No  hat  should  be  heavy.  All  hats  should,  if  possible,  be  ventilated  by 
small  holes  at  the  top.  Another  kind  of  hat,  which  is  very  useful  and  protects  the  head 
a  good  deal  from  the  sun,  is  the  straw  hat  with  a  wide  brim  supplied  to  the  blue-jackets 
in  the  Navy  in  tropical  countries.  These  are  called,  I  believe,  "  Sennet "  hats.  Besides 
other  places,  they  can  be  obtained  from  Messrs.  S.  W.  Silver  and  Co.,  of  Cornhill. 

A  small  round  polo  cap  is  very  useful  for  wearing  on  the  head  when  sitting  on 
verandahs,  or  under  the  awning  of  a  steamer.  To  go  about  with  a  bare  head  outside  a 
house  is  often  bad,  as  one  is  exposed  to  catching  cold  from  the  breeze,  or  may  even  feel 
the  effect  of  the  sun  through  the  awning  of  a  steamer,  or  by  refraction  from  a  wall 
or  a  piece  of  bare  ground. 

2.  Clothes. — It  is  a  good  thing  for  a  traveller  to  take  out  with  him  all  his  old  English 
clothes,  which  prove  to  be  very  useful  in  the  cool  uplands  of  British  Central  Africa.  A 
warm  great-coat  is  absolutely  essential.  It  should  be  remembered  that  people  suffer  much 
more  from  cold  in  British  ^Central  Africa  than  they  do  from  heat.1  A  macintosh  which 
will  not  come  to  pieces  in  warm  weather  is  also  useful  for  going  about  in  the  rain.  A  man 
should  never  be  without  his  great  coat  in  Central  Africa.  He  may  need  it  at  any  moment, 
especially  if  he  has  been  perspiring  freely  and  evening  is  drawing  near.  The  evening 
dress,  which  is  usually  worn  by  employes  of  the  British  Central  Africa  Administration, 
consists  of  an  ordinary  dress  coat,  white  shirt,  white  tie,  dress  waistcoat  of  yellow  cloth 
with  brass  buttons,  and  black  trousers.  A  short  evening  coat  without  tails  is  often  worn. 
Lounge  coats  and  smoking  jackets  come  in  very  handy. 

Amongst  other  exposed  absurdities  are  knee-boots,  that  is  to  say,  boots  which  are 

i  N.B.— The  great  coat  should  not  fit  tightly  to  the  figure;  it  should  be  comfortably  loose  and  provided 
with  a  very  deep  collar  which  can,  if  necessary,  be  turned  up  to  shield  the  neck  and  throat,  and  reach 
almost  to  the  back  of  the  head. 


continued  up  to  the  knee.  They  are  soon  discarded  in  Central  Africa  as  uncomfortable 
and  umvearable.  Field  boots  should  be  of  tanned  leather,  laced  up  and  only  coming 
to  the  ankle.  The  soles  should  be  thick,  but  the  boots  must  be  light  and  not  cumber- 
some. When  walking  or  riding,  cloth  gaiters  from  the  ankle  to  the  knee,  or  spats 
from  the  instep  to  half  way  up  the  calf  of  the  leg,  are  comfortable,  suitable,  and  usually 
worn.  Cloth  or  canvas  gaiters  are  better  than  leather,  as  leather  becomes  so  hard  in 
this  climate.  Some  people  wear  knickerbockers.  This  involves  stockings  however, 
and  stockings  are  very  hot  for  the  legs,  and  the  attempt  to  keep  them  up  with  garters 
causes  a  disagreeable  constriction  about  the  knee.  It  is  much  better  to  have  trousers 
that  can  be  pulled  up  slightly  and  the  gaiters  buttoned  over  them.  The  trousers 
can  then  be  slightly  folded  over  the  top  of  the  gaiter  or  the  spat.  A  thick  cloth 
cape  to  cover  the  shoulders  and  button  round  the  throat  is  very  convenient  when  riding 
or  bicycling  (and  already  a  good  deal  of  bicycling  is  done  in  Central  Africa)  or  driving, 
when  it  is  not  convenient  to  take  an  umbrella. 

3.  Umbrellas. — One  black  silk  umbrella  for  the  rain  should  be  taken,  but  several 
good  strong  light  sun  umbrellas  must  be  taken.     These  should  be  double-lined,  with  a 
space  between  the  linings — white  outside  and  green  within.     They  must  be  very  light 
to  hold.     The  reason  why  a  helmet  is  such  a  mistake  as  a  protection  from  the  sun 
is  that  besides  being  cumbersome  and  ugly,  it  at  most  shields  the  top  of  the  head,  or 
the  head  and  neck.     Where  the  sun  is  felt  even  more  than  on  the  head  is  on  the 
shoulders  and  along  the  spine.     To  shield  the  body  from  the  sun  in  fact,  the  only  way 
is  to  carry  a  white  umbrella,  and  this  should  be  done  on  almost  all  occasions  except 
when  to  do  such  a  thing  would  be  positively  ridiculous,  as,  for  instance,  in  the  middle 
of  a  battle.     There  is  no  more  effectual  aid  to  the  maintenance  of  health  than  to 
constantly  carry  a  white  umbrella  when  compelled  to  face  the  strong  sunshine. 

4.  Socks,   &c. — Stockings   I  have  already  alluded  to  as  inconvenient  for  various 
reasons.     Socks  should  be  of  merino.     Cotton  socks  though  cool  wear  out  very  rapidly. 
The  merino  socks  should  be  not  too  thick  and  must  be  well-fitting  to  the  foot,  as  if 
they  are  the  least  bit  too  large  the  redundancy  of  sock  makes  walking  uncomfortable, 
and  often  causes  blisters.      Plenty  of  handkerchiefs  should  be  taken,  cotton  and  silk. 
One  or  two  mufflers  for  the  neck  are  good  when  the  traveller  is  on  the  cold  uplands. 

5.  Boots. — In  addition  to  ankle  boots  several  pairs  of  light  shoes  should  be  taken, 
both  shoes  that  can  be  blacked  and  that  look  smart,  and  tennis  shoes.     There  should  of 
course  be  one  pair  of  slippers.     Anyone  who  intends  to  stay  any  length  of  time  at  the 
European  settlements  will  require  at  least  one  pair  of  nice-looking  patent  leather  boots 
and  a  pair  of  pumps  for  evening  wear. 

Generally,  I  may  say  this  about  clothing,  that  a  man  should  always  strive  to  dress 
neatly  and  becomingly  in  Central  Africa,  or  he  will  quickly  lapse  into  a  slovenly  state  of 
existence.  At  Blantyre  and  at  Zomba  people  are  almost  always  expected  to  dress  for 
dinner  at  the  various  dinner  parties,  and  to  appear  nicely  dressed  at  church  on  Sundays, 
and  if  anyone  imagines  he  is  going  out  amongst  a  lot  of  rough  pioneers  who  chiefly  dress 
in  red  flannel  shirts  and  buckskin  breeches,  he  will  be  vastly  surprised  when  he  finds  out 
how  very  carefully  and  becomingly  as  a  rule  the  men  do  dress  in  Central  Africa,  whether 
they  be  officials,  missionaries,  planters  or  traders. 

6.  Guns. — As  a  rule  guns,  rifles  and  revolvers  can  be  purchased  in  British  Central 
Africa  at  the  sales  which  take  place  from  time  to  time  of  the  effects  of  sportsmen  who 
are  returning  home.     Nearly  every  dry  season  a  number  of  people  come  out  to  shoot  big 
game,  and  to  avoid  the  expense  of  the  carriage  often  sell  some  of  their  guns  before  leaving 
the  country.     It  is  not  as  a  rule  wise  for  anyone  who  is  not  going  to  Central  Africa 
specially  for  sport,  to  furnish  himself  with  a  large  armament,  before  he  gets  to  understand 
pretty  clearly  what  kind  of  gun  suits  him  best  for  that  country.     A  double-barrelled 
i2-bore  shot  gun  is  always  very  useful.     The  right  barrel  should  be  choke  bore  and  the 


other  not,  so  that  in  the  left  barrel  bullet  cartridges  can,  if  necessary,  be  used,  as 
sometimes  when  one  is  out  after  guinea-fowl,  one  might  meet  a  lion  or  an  antelope. 
The  best  kinds  of  shot  are  Swan  shot;  "A.  A. A.  ";  No.  i  ;  No.  2  ;  and  No.  5.  No.  5  is 
useful  for  pigeons  and  similar  birds;  as  a  rule  however  most  African  birds  that  the 
average  man  wants  to  shoot  will  succumb  to  little  less  in  size  than  the  No.  2  shot.  It  will 
be  found  that  duck  require  either  No.  2  or  A.A.A.,  and  Swan  shot  is  useful  for  very  big 
water  birds  or  small  mammals.  For  the  average  individual  the  best  rifle  is  the  '450  single 
barrelled.  Some  people  speak  highly  of  the  Lee-Metford,  but  though  very  deadly  if 
the  bullet  comes  in  contact  with  the  bone,  its  cartridge  does  not  seem  to  have  the  same 
stopping  effect  where  it  merely  pierces  through  the  fleshy  parts.  A  Martini-Henry  is  a 
very  useful  weapon.  Elephant  rifles  are  quite  a  special  subject  in  themselves  and  the 
enquirer  is  referred  to  the  various  articles  which  have  appeared  on  the  subject  in  the  Field, 
or  have  been  written  by  Mr.  Selous  and  other  authorities.  The  revolver  is  not,  as  a  rule, 
a  very  useful  weapon,  except  for  accidentally  shooting  oneself. 

7.  Plenty  of  books  should  be  taken  for  reading.      The  traveller  will  miss  books 
terribly  if  he  is  much  alone  in  the  evenings.     Messrs.  Mudie  sell  at  a  very  cheap  rate 
library  books  that  have  been  some  three  months  in  circulation  and  all  the  great  pub- 
lishers nowadays  issue  cheap  "  Colonial "  editions  of  all  new  and  striking  books.     Maps 
of   B.  C.  A.  can  be  obtained  from   Mr.  J.  G.  Bartholomew,   Edinburgh,  and   Messrs. 
Stanford,  Cockspur  Street,  Charing  Cross. 

8.  Boxes. — No  leather  portmanteaus  or  wooden  boxes  should  be  taken,  as  they  are 
liable  to  the  attacks  of  white  ants,  and  also  suffer  from  the  damp  climate.     All  boxes 
should  be  of  tin.     The  Army  and  Navy  Stores  and  Messrs.  Silver  thoroughly  understand 
the  kind  wanted.     No  boxes  should  be  large  and  no  packages  should  weigh  more  than 
55  Ibs.  on  account  of  the  porterage  on  men's  heads.     The  leather  valise  or  dressing  bag 
is  useful  and  permissible.    One  or  more  rugs  should  certainly  be  taken,  and  a  thoroughly 
waterproof  "  hold-all "  is  a  very  useful  thing.     Beds  and  tents  are  best  obtained  locally, 
as  the  right  kinds  are  for  sale  at  the  various  stores ;  but  if  it  is  desired  to  take  one's  own 
tent  out  then  Messrs.  Benjamin  Edgington,  of   London  Bridge,  know  exactly  what  is 
required  for  Central  Africa,  and  can  be  thoroughly  depended  upon.     The  same  firm 
supplies  excellent  camp  furniture.     I  especially  recommend  their  folding  camp  tables. 
A  good  dispatch-box  is  very  useful,  and  Messrs.  Silver,  of  Cornhill,  supply  very  good 
articles  of  this  description. 

8.  Sketching  materials. — If  the  traveller  intends  to  sketch  or  to  photograph  he  should 
get  his  materials  in  London,  as  they  are  amongst  the  few  things  that  cannot  be  purchased 
in  British  Central  Africa.     As  regards  sketching  materials,  Messrs.  Kemp  and  Co.,  near 
Victoria  Station,  S.W.,  have  for  a  long  time  past  been  in  the  habit  of  supplying  me  with 
what  is  required  for  Africa,  and  thoroughly  understand  the  subject ;  and  their  materials 
have  always  proved  to  be  suited  to  the  exigencies  of  the  climate. 

9.  Provisions  of  all  kinds  are  much  better  purchased  at  the  stores  in  British  Central 
Africa ;  almost  the  same  may  be  said  for  drugs,  but  a  small  private  medicine  chest  is  not 
a  bad  thing,  and  can  be  procured  from  Messrs.  Burroughs  and  Wellcome,  of  Holborn. 

I  think  this  constitutes  almost  all  the  things  which  the  average  traveller  should 
burden  himself  with  before  leaving  England  for  British  Central  Africa.  It  must  be 
remembered  that  the  better  extreme  to  go  to  of  the  two  is  to  buy  too  little  rather  than 
too  much,  as  many  more  things  can  be  procured  locally  than  one  would  generally 
suppose,  and  the  prices  at  the  stores  in  British  Central  Africa,  compared  to  Matabeleland 
and  the  inner  parts  of  South  Africa,  are  very  reasonable,  on  account  of  the  cheapness 
of  transport  and  the  low  Customs  duties.  Moreover  it  is  not  until  a  man  is  already 
established  in  Central  Africa  that  he  realises  his  own  wants.  He  is  then  able  to  write 
home  and  order  such  things  as  he  specially  requires. 




THERE  are  at  present  eight  Missionary  Societies  at  work  in  the  eastern 
half  of  British  Central  Africa1  :— 

I.  The  Universities  Mission,  which  is  Anglican,  occupies  the  eastern 
shore  of  Lake  Nyasa,  the  islands  of  Likoma  and  Chisumula,  and  has  a  station 
at  Fort  Johnston  at  the  south  end  of  the  lake.  The  same  mission  is  also 
strongly  established  at  Kotakota  in  the  Marimba  district  on  the  south-west 
coast  of  Lake  Nyasa.  They  are  probably  about  to  build  a  large  station  at  or 
near  Fort  Mangoche  in  Zarafi's  country.  Outside  British  territory  they  have 
(besides  their  stations  in  Eastern  Africa)  an  establishment  on  the  plateau  of 
Unango  in  Portuguese  Nyasaland.  This  mission  is  presided  over  by  Dr.  Hine, 
Bishop  of  Likoma. 

2.  The  Livingstonia  Mission  of  the  Free  Church  of  Scotland  occupies  the 
western  and  north-western  parts  of  the  Protectorate. 

3.  The  Church  of  Scotland  East  African  Mission,  better  known  perhaps  as 
the  "  Blantyre  Mission,"  has  stations  in  the  Shire  Highlands. 

4.  The  London  Missionary  Society  (Independents  or  Wesleyans)  has  been 
long  established  on  Lake  Tanganyika.     Its  settlements  are  now  confined  to  the 
British  coast  of  that  lake  and  to  the  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau  southwards,  but 
I  believe  they  will  be  opening  shortly  a  station  on  Lake  Mweru. 

5.  The  Algerian   Mission  of  the  White  Fathers  (Roman  Catholic),  besides 
being  represented   by  many  stations  on   German  or  Belgian   territory  in  the 
Tanganyika  district,  has  recently  established  itself  on  the  Nyasa-Tanganyika 
plateau  and  at  one  or  two  places  in  the  Luemba  country  in  the  valley  of  the 

6.  The  Dutch   Reformed   Church   Mission  (Dutch  Calvinists),  originally  a 
branch  of  the  Livingstonia  Mission,  has  been  established  for  some  years  in 
Central  and  Southern  Angoniland. 

7.  The  Zambezi  Industrial  Mission  (Undenominational)  works  in  Southern 
Angoniland  in  the  Shire  province. 

8.  The    Nyasa    Baptist    Industrial    Mission    (Baptist)    has   stations    in    the 
Blantyre  district. 

In  addition  to  this  might  almost  be  included  the  Jesuit  Mission  on  the 
Zambezi,  which  was  until  recently  established  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  Mlanje 
district.  Their  stations  were  attacked  and  destroyed  by  the  Yao  chief, 
Matipwiri,  who  was  subsequently  punished  for  this  action  by  the  Administration, 
and  is  now  exiled  to  Port  Herald  on  the  Lower  Shire.  It  is  therefore  expected 
that  the  Jesuit  Missionaries  on  the  Zambezi  will  recommence  their  work  in  the 
south-eastern  portion  of  the  British  Central  Africa  Protectorate. 

1  For  Map  showing  Mission  Stations  see  page  392. 


The  enumeration  of  the  Missionary  Societies  at  work  in  the  whole  of  British 
Central  Africa  might  be  completed  by  citing  the  Jesuits  on  the  Central  Zambezi, 
and  the  French  Evangelical  Mission  which  has  been  so  long  and  successfully  at 
work  in  the  Barutse  country  on  the  Upper  Zambezi. 

A  Missionary  Society  originally  founded  by  F.  S.  Arnot  (Plymouth  Brethren) 
has  been  for  some  years  past  established  in  Katanga,  in  the  south  part  of  the 
Congo  Free  State.  This  mission,  I  believe,  contemplates  founding  stations  on 
Lake  Mweru  within  British  territory,  and  I  believe  it  has  three  stations  on  or 
near  the  River  Kafue  in  Eastern  Barutseland. 

The  past  history  of  the  more  important  and  longest  established  Missions  has 
been  touched  on  in  the  general  review  of  the  history  of  British  Central  Africa. 
Further  details  concerning  the  number  of  their  stations,  the  attendances  at  their 
schools  and  churches  and  other  technical  information  is  given  in  my  report  to 
the  Foreign  Office,  "Africa  No.  5,  1896,"  and  it  would  be  tedious  to  repeat  the 
statistics  here.  I  will  confine  myself  in  the  present  chapter  to  treating  all 
missionary  work  in.  this  part  of  Central  Africa  in  a  more  generalised  manner, 
giving  my  impressions  as  the  opinions  of  any  ordinary,  fair-minded  individual 
who  wishes  to  arrive  at  true  conclusions  uninfluenced  by  sentiment  or 

No  person  who  desires  to  make  a  truthful  statement  would  deny  the  great 
good  effected  by  missionary  enterprise  in  Central  Africa.  Yet  why  is  it  that  in 
some  quarters  missionaries  are  heartily  disliked,  and  the  benefit  of  their  work 
is  denied  or  depreciated,  even  occasionally  by  clerics  who,  from  a  religious  point 
of  view,  should  be  their  natural  supporters?  If,  on  the  one  hand,  the  impartial 
observer  must  pronounce  a  verdict  regarding  the  value  of  missionary  work  in 
Central  Africa  which  is  almost  wholly  in  its  favour,  on  the  other  hand  he  is 
compelled  to  ackowledge  the  existence  of  the  prejudice  and  dislike  with  which 
missionaries  are  regarded  by  other  white  men  not  following  the  same  career. 

The  causes  of  this  feeling  in  my  opinion  are  two — (i)  The  Cant  which  by 
some  unaccountable  fatality  seems  to  be  inseparably  connected  with  missionary 
work,  and  (2)  the  arrogant  demeanour  often  assumed  by  missionaries  towards 
men  who  are  not  of  their  manner  of  thought  and  practice,  though  not  necessarily 
men  of  evil  life. 

I  think  these  two  causes  exist  still,  and  were  so  prominent  in  past  times  that 
they  are  quite  sufficient  to  account  for  what  is  really  a  long  continued  and 
unreasonable  aspersion  of  the  value  of  missionary  work.  It  will  be  seen  from 
the  tenour  of  my  remarks  that  I  am  striving  to  write  on  this  difficult  question 
from  the  point  of  view  of  an  absolutely  impartial  outsider — let  us  say,  for 
a  moment,  from  the  point  of  view  of  one  who  might  be  of  any  religion,  or  none 
at  all.  I  take  up  this  position  because  I  honestly  believe  that  much  of  the  work 
done  by  European  missionaries  in  Africa  is  of  a  kind  which  can  be  appreciated 
and  praised  without  reserve  by  any  fair-minded  Muslim,  Hindu,  or  Agnostic. 
Any  thoughtful  cultured  man  of  no  matter  what  religion,  who  is  alive  to 
the  interests  of  humanity  in  general,  must  after  careful  examination  of  their 
work  accord  this  meed  of  praise  to  the  results  which  have  followed  the  attempts 
to  evangelise  Central  Africa. 

Let  us  take  into  consideration  the  first  count  of  the  indictment  against 
missionaries  :  Cant.  Although  matters  have  much  improved  under  this  heading 
since  the  "  forties,"  when  Cant  reached  an  appalling  pitch,  and  accounts  weie 
written  of  missionary  work  which  are  almost  too  repulsive  for  modern 
taste  on  that  account  (driving  even  sincere  Christians  into  ribaldry  and 



parody,  as  a  natural  relief),  cant  still  exists,  as  can  be  seen  by  anyone 
who  reads  most  missionary  journals  and  hears  many  missionaries  discourse. 
It  exists  ordinarily  amongst  the  rawest  and  newest  of  missionaries  and  in 
the  youngest  of  the  missionary  societies.  In  such  missions  as  those  of 
the  Universities,  the  Church  of  Scotland  and  the  Livingstonia  Free  Church, 
cant  is  extinct  to  a  great  extent  locally,  though  it  still  lingers  in  the  home 
compilations,  in  the  journals  which  professedly  give  an  account  of  the  work  of 
these  establishments  and  which  are  published  for  home  consumption.  Sincere 
friends  of  mission  work,  such 
as  Robert  Needham  Cust  and 
Canon  Isaac  Taylor,  have  at 
times  expressed  their  wonder- 
ment that  missionaries  should 
think  it  right  or  necessary  to 
attach  to  descriptions  of  their 
work  given  verbally  or  in  writing 
such  expressions  of  mawkish 
piety,  and  so  many  statements 
which  are  an  insidious  perversion 
of  the  truth.  In  the  latter  case 
I  can  only  imagine  it  is  done  on 
the  assumption  once  attributed 
to  the  Jesuits,  that  it  is  right  to 
do  evil  that  good  may  come  : 
that  the  missionaries  are  as  con- 
vinced as  I  am  of  the  ultimate 
good  they  effect,  and  that  to 
encourage  the  British  public  to 
find  funds  for  the  carrying  on  of 
such  work  they  think  it  excus- 
able or  even  lawful  to  "gammon" 
them,  if  I  may  put  it  vulgarly, 
to  repeat  speeches  of  high-flown 
piety,  on  the  part  of  savage  and 
uncultured  converts,  which  could 
not  have  been  uttered  with 
serious  consciousness  of  their 
meaning,  and,  indeed,  could 
never  have  been  formulated 
from  such  poor  arrested  brains. 

Then  again — especially  in  the  case  of  newly-formed  missionary  societies 
who,  in  the  rush  of  unreasoning  enthusiasm  have  embarked  on  African 
evangelisation  without  counting  the  cost  or  making  the  necessary  preparations 
— articles  too  profane  to  be  quoted  are  written  of  how  God  has  taken  to  Himself 
"  dear  Sister  So-and-so "  or  "  Brother  Somebody-else,"  to  "  cherish  them  on 
high "  and  give  them  a  reward  for  their  labours,  as  if  there  had  been  a 
special  intervention  of  providence,  when  to  the  outside  observer  it  is  obvious 
that  the  sister  or  brother  would  never  have  died  or  even  been  ill  if  he  or 
she  had  been  properly  housed  or  properly  fed.  My  indictment  on  this  score 
is  not  half  strong  enough.  I  kept  by  me  at  one  time  the  journals  and  records 
of  certain  missionary  societies,  intending  to  quote  them  in  some  such 




book  as  this:  a  few  months  ago,  however,  I  tore  them  up,  as  they  were  not 
wholesome  literature,  and  perhaps  I  should  have  been  flogging  a  dead  horse 
in  laying  bare  to  the  public  this  awful  accumulation  of  Cant,  when  I  knew  such 
cant  to  be  as  strongly  condemned  as  I  can  condemn  it  by  missionaries  of  old 
standing,  and  when  I  began  to  see  so  many  signs  of  its  rapid  disappearance. 
Missionary  work  in  British  Central  Africa,  believe  me,  has  only  to  tell  the  plain 
truth  and  nothing  but  the  truth  to  secure  sympathy  and  support.  Let  the 
societies  cease  to  humbug  the  people,  let  them  tell  frankly  of  their  trials,  their 
sorrows,  their  disappointments,  as  well  as  of  their  successes,  and  the  sympathy 
created  by  the  truthful  picture  which  will  then  be  rendered  of  the  great  struggle 
against  spiritual  darkness  and  savagery  will  be  far  stronger  than  the  limited 
support  which  is  accorded  in  sectarian  circles,  when  the  vulgarest  and  coarsest 
instincts  of  the  unlettered  Christian  are  appealed  to  by  the  aid  of  stupid 
falsehoods,  lies  of  that  worst  kind  which  are  usually  founded  on  a  substratum 
of  truth. 

The  second  complaint  against  missionaries  is  on  the  score  of  their  arrogant 
demeanour.  Some  of  the  average  European  pioneers  are  not,  I  am  sorry  to 
say,  very  creditable  specimens  of  mankind.  They  are  aggressively  ungodly, 
they  put  no  check  on  their  lusts  ;  released  from  the  restraints  of  civilisation  and 
the  terror  of  "  what  people  may  say,"  they  are  capable  of  almost  any  degree  of 
wickedness  ;  but  the  missionary  is  too  apt  to  assume  that  all  new  Europeans 
with  whom  he  comes  in  contact  are  of  this  class,  and  that  because  they  do  not 
belong  to  a  mission  they  are  necessarily  wicked  men  ;  and  he  shows  this  so 
plainly  in  his  manner  that  the  result  is  naturally  a  reciprocal  suspicion  and 
dislike  on  the  part  of  the  stranger  layman.  There  is  an  undoubted  tendency 
on  the  part  of  missionaries  to  hold  and  set  forth  the  opinion  that  no  one  ever 
did  any  good  in  Africa  but  themselves.  That  they  have  done  more  good  than 
armies,  navies,  conferences  and  treaties  have  yet  done,  I  am  prepared  to  admit  ; 
that  they  have  prepared  the  way  for  the  direct  and  just  rule  of  European 
Powers  and  for  the  extension  of  sound  and  honest  commerce  I  have  frequently 
asserted  ;  but  they  are  themselves  to  some  extent  only  a  passing  phase,  only 
the  John-the-Baptists,  the  forerunners  of  organized  churches  and  settled  social 
politics.  It  is  their  belief  that  they  hold  an  always  privileged  position,  that 
they  are  never  to  fit  into  their  proper  places  in  an  organized  European  com- 
munity, which  causes  so  much  friction  between  them  and  the  other  European 
settlers  or  lay  officials  by  whom  they  are  gradually  being  far  outnumbered ;  nor 
are  they  always  ready  to  recognise  that  there  is  some  credit  due  to  the 
missionaries  of  commerce  as  well  as  to  the  missionaries  of  religion  ;  that  the 
savage  man  cannot  live  decently  by  faith  alone  ;  that  he  must  have  something 
to  occupy  his  mind  besides  religion,  and  that  unless  his  attention  is  drawn  to 
hard  work  and  to  gaining  money  in  an  honest  manner,  "  Satan  will  find  some 
mischief  still  for  his  idle  hands  to  do." 

Now  let  me  leave  off  preaching  and  try  to  give  my  readers  some  idea  of 
what  missionary  life  is  like  in  Central  Africa,  always  from  the  point  of  view 
of  the  lay  traveller  and  dispassionate  investigator.1 

Try,  reader,  to  imagine  yourself  in  the  position  of  some  weary  man  travelling 
in  Central  Africa  on  Government  business,  or  as  a  pioneer  trader,  or  engaged  in 

1  To  do  this  I  find  myself  obliged  to  quote  to  some  extent  from  an  article  on  Missionaries  which  I 
wrote  for  the  Nineteenth  Century  Review  of  November,  1887,  but  which,  though  ten  years  old,  still  gives 
what  I  believe  to  be  such  a  faithful  general  picture  of  the  average  missionary  home  in  Central  Africa  that 
in  some  passages  I  find  it  difficult  to  describe  the  same  in  other  language. 


natural  history  research,  or  merely  for  the  sake  of  exploration  or  sport.  You 
have  just  quitted  the  slightly  civilised  coast-belt  for  the  little  known  and 
savage  interior,  and  you  may  have  sickened  with  the  first  touch  of  fever.  With 
all  the  enthusiasm  for  exploration  which  leads  most  white  men  into  this  un- 
healthy but  fascinating  continent,  you  feel  temporarily  depressed  and  saddened 
at  the  snapping  of  all  ties  which  bind  you  to  the  world  of  culture  and  comfort : 
your  new  tent  is  leaky  and  lets  in  the  rain,  or  it  fails  to  mitigate  the  blazing 
heat  of  noontide ;  your  untried  cook  cannot  at  once  acquire  the  art  of  pro- 
ducing a  decent  meal  amid  the  many  difficulties  of  camp  life  ;  you  have  long 
ceased  to  eat  bread,  or  the  fragments  of  mouldy  toast  that  may  be  served  up 
to  you  are  piteous  relics  of  the  pleasant  sojourn  at  some  relatively  civilised 
town  on  the  coast  whence  you  started. 

Or,  it  may  be,  the  circumstances  under  which  you  are  travelling  are 
somewhat  different.  You  are  at  the  end  of  some  great  journey,  some  expedi- 
tion which  has  had  its  moments  of  exhilarating  success,  of  wonderful  discovery, 
but  now  the  excitement  is  over  and  is  succeeded  by  a  dull  apathy  that  is  almost 
despair :  you  no  longer  anticipate  with  a  joy  that  can  scarcely  be  outwardly 
repressed  the  pleasures  which  are  about  to  reward  your  months  of  toil,  privation 
and  danger — the  first  night's  sleep  -in  a  comfortable  and  spacious  bed,  the 
first  well-cooked  meal  into  which  you  will  crowd  all  your  favourite  delicacies, 
the  first  good  concert  or  theatre  you  will  attend  ;  you  are  weary  of  running 
over  in  your  mind  the  public  dinners  that  may  be  given  to  you  or  the  praises 
of  scientific  societies  which  will  reward  your  discoveries  ;  you  merely  confine 
yourself  to  reflecting  dully  on  the  probabilities  of  reaching  your  destination 
alive  and  of  doubting  whether  under  any  circumstances,  and  especially  the 
present  ones,  life  is  worth  living.  In  either  case,  whether  your  work  lies 
behind  you,  finished,  or  before  you,  to  be  accomplished,  you  jog  along  the 
narrow  winding  path,  tired,  alone,  heart-sick,  home-sick,  your  sore  and  weary 
feet  tripping  over  stocks  and  stones,  your  aching  eyes  fixed  on  the  ground, 
seeing  nothing,  your  face  scorched  with  the  hot  wind,  your  hands  scratched 
with  the  grass  blades  that  have  to  be  continually  pushed  aside  in  your  dogged 
progress.  Perhaps  even  you  may  be  enduring  worse  discomfort,  you  may  be 
drenched  to  the  skin — macintosh  notwithstanding — in  some  torrential  downpour; 
and  overweighted  with  your  heavy,  streaming  rain-coat,  you  stagger  along  half 
blindly  through  slushy  mud  and  soaked  vegetation.  Then  you  hear  your  guide 
saying  to  someone  that  he  recognises  the  district,  that  the  white  man's  house  is 
near  at  hand.  "What  white  man?"  you  ask  apathetically,  too  weary  to  show 
an  interest  in  anything.  "  People  of  the  Mission,"  the  guide  replies,  and  then 
if  you  only  know  of  this  modern  type  of  evangelist  by  tradition  you  will  smile 
bitterly  and  say  to  yourself,  "  Oh,  a  missionary !  H'm,  I  don't  feel  much  in 
a  mood  to  pray  or  sing  hymns  just  now  ! "  Then  you  continue  plodding  on 
in  stupid  resignation  to  whatever  fate  awaits  you. 

I  will  suppose,  to  make  this  picture  more  effective,  that  it  is  now  late 
afternoon.  The  sun — if  it  is  the  sun  that  has  chiefly  troubled  you  during 
the  day's  march — is  at  last  sinking  behind  an  imposing  clump  of  forest  trees, 
and  the  fierce  heat  of  noon  is  beginning  to  be  tempered  by  the  rising  breeze. 
Or  the  murky  rain  clouds  are  drifting  away  in  ragged,  piled  up  masses  to 
the  east,  leaving  a  large  space  of  the  western  heavens  clear  ;  and  this  expanse 
of  open  sky  has  become  a  pale  lemon-yellow  through  the  diffused  misty  glory 
of  the  declining  sun.  The  surrounding  country  has  a  more  pleasing  appear- 
ance. Here  and  there  in  the  distance  are  bright  green  and  yellow  patches 


diversifying  the  grey  scrub  and  sombre  forest,  and  these  clearly  indicate  the 
existence  of  plantations,  while  the  vicinity  of  man  is  proved  by  occasional 
puffs  and  spirals  of  blue  smoke  where  the  natives  are  burning  weeds.  The 
path,  too,  is  clearer,  wider,  and  better  made ;  the  obtrusive  wayside  vegetation 
has  been  checked  and  no  longer  impedes  your  progress.  Then  you  begin  to 
meet  occasional  inhabitants  of  the  distant  unseen  settlements — women  with 
babies  slung  on  their  backs  and  earthen  pitchers  poised  on  their  heads  on 
their  way  to  the  spring  to  obtain  their  evening  supply  of  water ;  or  men 
returning  from  the  chase  armed  with  long-barrelled  ancient- looking  guns, 
spears,  assegais,  or  clubs,  and  accompanied  by  several  snarling  curs,  whose 
collars  are  hung  with  little  bells.  To  your  surprise,  instead  of  plunging 
terror  stricken  into  the  bush  or  assuming  a  defiant  and  hostile  attitude,  each 

native  greets  you  politely  with 
"  Morning  !  Goo'  morning !  "  for 
they  have  learned  from  the  mis- 
sionaries our  matutinal  salutation, 
which  they  indifferently  make  use 
of  at  all  hours  of  the  day  and 
night.  On  each  side  of  the  widened 
road  a  straggling  row  of  young 
plantain  trees  begins  to  make  its 
appearance,  evidently  planted  with 
the  view  of  its  forming  ultimately 
a  shady  avenue :  then  behind  a 
wooden  fence  appear  thriving 
plantations  of  vegetables  and 
hedges  of  pine-apples,  and  at  last, 
a  turn  in  the  road  brings  into 
view  a  garden  of  flowers  and 
flowering  shrubs  —  blazing  with 
brilliant  masses  of  colour — and  a  long,  low-built  dwelling  house  of  one  storey, 
with  white-washed  walls,  green  window  shutters,  and  a  wide  overhanging  roof 
of  thatch  forming  a  verandah  round  the  building.  Behind  the  house  are  other 
dwellings  of  a  humbler  architecture,  more  or  less  hidden  with  green  shrubs 
and  trees  ;  and  further  in  the  background  is  a  huge  barn-like  building,  also 
white-washed  and  with  a  thatched  roof,  but  having  about  it  an  indefinably 
ecclesiastical  air,  and  this  is  certain  to  be  a  church,  possibly  used  as  a  school 
also  during  the  week. 

As  you  are  toiling  up  the  red  path  towards  the  house,  taking  in  all  these 
details  with  slow  and  tired  comprehension,  there  comes  towards  you,  half 
striding,  half  running,  a  white  man  whose  outward  presentment  is  something 
like  the  building  you  have  taken  for  a  chapel — a  sort  of  compromise  between 
homely  rusticity  and  ecclesiastical  primness.  Probably  he  wears  a  large 
soft,  grey  felt  hat  with  a  broad  brim,  a  crumpled  white  tie,  a  long  grey 
clerical  coat,  cut  close  up  to  the  neck,  grey  breeches  and  gaiters,  and  heavy 
boots.  His  face  has  homely  features,  but  it  is  pleasantly  lit  up  with  an 
expression  of  hearty  kindliness. 

Behind  your  new  acquaintance  —  who  has  introduced  himself  to  you  as 
the  agent  of  some  well-known  British  Protestant  mission — follow  half-a-dozen 
loutish  boys,  mostly  clad  in  gay  coloured  jerseys  or  shirts,  with  Manchester 
cottons  round  their  lower  limbs,  one  or  two  more  favoured  ones  being 



hideously  clothed  in  coats  and  trousers.  These  lads  have  lost  the  easy 
carriage  and  independent  bearing  of  the  unsophisticated  native,  and  shuffle 
and  slouch  along  in  a  lazy,  loose-jointed  manner  that  is  a  distinct  irritation 
to  a  person  of  energetic,  active  temperament,  and  their  semi-circular  grin  as 
they  lounge  up  to  you  with  a  loud  greeting  produces  on  your  part  an 
involuntary  frown  rather  than  an  answering  smile.  In  a  half-hearted  manner 
they  relieve  your  foremost  porters  of  their  burdens,  and  the  straggling 
procession  proceeds  on  its  way  up  the  red  clay  path  and  through  the  flower 
garden  towards  the  house.  It  is  probable  that  at  the  head  of  the  steps 
leading  to  the  raised  verandah,  the  missionary's  wife  awaits  you,  clasping  and 
unclasping  her  hands,  and  letting  her  smile  wax  and  wane  as  your  slow 
approach  through  the  garden  gives  her  a  slightly  nervous  feeling  of  conscious 
expectancy.  Involuntarily  her  hand  goes  to  her  throat — yes !  the  gold  locket 
is  there  ;  she  has  not  forgotten  it.  She  glances  at  the  little  bouquet  of 
flowers  in  her  bosom— how  quickly  they  are  fading  in  the  hot  air!  She 
smoothes  the  crumpled  pale  blue  ribbons  that  give  her  homely  dress  an 
almost  pathetic  remembrance  of  former  smartness,  and  pulls  out  the  sleeve 
puffs  ;  touches  her  hair  to  ascertain  its  smoothness  ;  shakes  out  the  limp 
folds  of  her  skirt ;  clears  her  throat ;  calls  up  the  smile  again,  now  that  you 
are  close,  and  finally  loses  all  affectation  when  she  takes  your  hand  and 
gazes  into  your  pale,  tired,  spiritless  face,  and  in  a  burst  of  womanly  pity 
bids  you  welcome,  and  hurries  away  to  make  arrangements  for  your  comfort. 

When  you  have  bathed  and  changed  your  clothes,  a  pleasant  languor 
succeeds  your  crushing  fatigue.  The  missionary's  wife  is  busy  in  her 
household,  devising  additions  to  the  evening  meal ;  the  missionary  has 
excused  himself,  and  is  gone  to  wind  up  the  school  affairs,  and  dismiss  the 
scholars  from  the  chapel.  You  are  left  for  a  short,  time  in  not  unwelcome 
solitude.  As  you  sit  in  the  porch,  gazing  dreamily  on  the  glowing  sunset, 
and  inhaling  the  strong,  sweet,  mingled  perfume  of  the  nicotianas,  frangipanis, 
mignonette,  and  lilies  in  the  garden,  your  ears  catch  the  shrill,  clear  voices 
of  children  singing  five  verses  of  an  evening  hymn.  Were  you  with  them 
in  the  building,  the  glib  utterance,  thin  melody,  and  nasal  twang  of  the 
performance  would  jar  upon  you  ;  as  it  is,  here,  softened  by  distance,  it 
strikes  a  sweet  note  in  the  unruffled  harmony  of  your  surroundings.  From 
the  native  village,  half  hidden  among  the  tall  umbrageous  trees,  which  stand 
out  in  velvet  blackness  against  the  western  sky,  comes  the  faint  murmur  of 
voices  ;  and  an  occasional  laugh  of  the  women  and  girls,  returning  with  their 
pitchers  from  the  water-course,  echoes  pleasantly  through  the  air.  In  the 
yellow-flowered  thorn  hedge  at  the  bottom  of  the  garden  a  bulbul l  is  piping 
and  warbling  his  mellow  notes.  You  feel  enveloped  in  an  atmosphere  of 
peace,  which  is  doubly  refreshing  because  of  its  contrast  to  the  weary  tenour 
of  your  past  life. 

The  loud  clanging  of  the  school  bell  disturbs  your  reverie.  The 
missionary  is  once  more  at  your  side  with  many  excuses  for  having  for  a 
brief  while  left  you  to  your  own  devices.  The  evening  meal  is  announced, 
and  you  follow  your  host  to  the  dining  -  room,  or,  rather,  the  one  large 
sitting-room  of  his  house.  Here  his  wife,  seated  at  the  table  before  an  ample 
tea-tray,  welcomes  you  to  the  repast,  and  perhaps  adds  a  quite  unnecessary 
apology  for  its  character.  As  you  unfold  your  clean  napkin,  you  glance 

1  Pycnonotus.  In  parts  of  the  Shire  Highlands  and  other  mountainous  districts  there  are  thrushes 
that  sing  sweetly. 


over  the  table  and  are  quite  satisfied  with  your  present  lot.  There  is,  for 
instance,  to  open  the  repast,  a  tureen  of  good  chicken  soup  ;  and  a  cold  pigeon 
pie,  a  rolled  tongue,  sardines,  and  boiled  eggs  are  other  items.  There 
are  dishes  of  home-grown  potatoes  baked  in  their  skins,  and  golden  slices  of 
fried  plantain.  A  superb  pineapple  imparts  its  fragrance  to  the  mingled 
odours  of  the  steaming  tea  and  the  savoury  broth.  Little  glass  dishes  of 
luscious  jams  and  sweet  biscuits  fill  up  spare  gaps  in  between  the  pieces  dc 
resistance,  and  it  is  probable  that  a  few  bright  flowers  in  a  slender  vase  give 
a  grace  to  the  outspread  meal  which  clearly  indicates  feminine  supervision. 
When  your  thoughts  and  your  gaze  are  wandering  thus,  you  see  your  hostess 
suddenly  pause  in  the  tea-outpouring,  and  lower  her  head  and  clasp  her  hands, 
while  your  host,  who  has  once  or  twice  endeavoured  to  arrest  your  attention, 
rises  somewhat  bashfully  and  pronounces  a  brief  benediction  on  the  repast. 
Then,  this  duty  over,  he  serves  and  carves  and  cuts  with  a  will.  If  you  are 
a  man  of  any  tact,  and  desire  to  administer  a  little  harmless  flattery  to  your 
kind  hosts,  you  will  compliment  your  hostess  on  her  delicious  tea.  Then 
she  will  tell  you  of  the  difficulties  which  attend  the  procuring  of  fresh  milk 
in  Africa,  and  of  how,  in  her  case,  these  difficulties  have  been  met  and 
conquered.  She  will  enumerate  her  nanny-goats,  and  describe  the  vagaries 
of  her  half-wild  cow.  And  you  must  especially  dwell  on  the  excellence 
of  the  cold  pigeon-pie.  This  will  no  doubt  elicit  from  your  hostess  the 
avowal — with  a  little  blushing — that  she  herself  made  it.  Her  husband  shot 
the  pretty  green  fruit-pigeons — "  poor  little  things !  it  seems  a  shame,  doesn't 
it?"— and  she  made  the  pie-crust.  "You  know  the  native  girls  can  learn  to 
cook  most  things,  but  they  never  can  be  taught  to  make  pastry,  so  I  always 
go  into  the  kitchen  and  do  that  myself." 

When  the  meal  is  over,  you  are  doubtless  made  to  take  the  easiest  chair, 
which  is  drawn  up  to  the  open  brick  fire-place,  where  fragrant  logs  are 
burning.  You  really  feel  permeated  with  comfort,  while  gratitude  for  the 
kindness  shown  you  lends,  or  ought  to  lend,  a  brighter  look  to  your  eyes 
and  a  more  sympathetic  tone  to  your  voice.  The  missionary's  wife  has 
taken  up  some  needlework  to  occupy  her  fingers.  Her  husband,  out  of 
politeness,  is  sitting  idle  with  his  hands  before  him,  trying  to  make  con- 
versation ;  but  if  you  question  him  adroitly,  you  will  soon  find  out  that  he 
has  some  hobby  that  he  rides,  some  favourite  pursuit  that  he  follows  in  his 
leisure  time.  Perhaps  it  is  the  study  of  the  native  language  ;  and  on  your 
expressing  an  encouraging  interest,  he  will  bring  out  delightedly  his  bulky 
manuscript  vocabularies  and  chatter  to  you  of  prefixes  and  suffixes  and 
infixes,  of  clicks  and  nasals,  guttural  -  labials,  aspirated  sibilants,  and  faucal 
sounds — all  the  cacophony  of  barbarous  tongues.  Or  you  will  discover  that 
his  passion  is  entomology,  and  a  very  little  persuasion  will  induce  him  to 
open  his  boxes  and  tins,  redolent  of  camphor,  and  to  fetch  down  from  his 
study -shelves  his  spirit -jars,  and  to  display  before  your  somewhat  wearied 
gaze  a  bewildering  collection  of  insect  forms  —  beetles  big  as  mice,  and 
gorgeously  clad  in  golden-green  and  chestnut-brown,  tiny  jewel-like  beetles 
caught  in  the  calyces  of  orchids,  fantastic  longicorns,  clumsy  scarabs,  lovely 
chafers,  brilliant  cantharides,  all  the  coleopterous  forms  of  the  surrounding 
district.  He  will  recall  your  wandering  attention  to  a  marvellous  mantis, 
mimicking  a  large  green  leaf  to  perfection,  or  assuming  the  form  and 
appearance  of  a  dry  "branching  twig.  He  will  show  you  butterflies  from  the 
forest  which,  when  their  wings  are  folded,  can  scarcely  be  distinguished 


from  a  dead  leaf,  or  other  splendid  Papilionidce  of  the  tropics  not  afraid  to 
exhibit  their  beauties  openly,  and  revelling  in  the  display  of  brilliant  colours, 
attractive  markings,  and  eccentric  shapes.  Then  will  follow  for  your 
inspection  rows  of  bugs,  scarlet  and  green,  yellow  and  black  ;  repulsive 
cicadas  with  huge  stupid  heads  and  disgusting  fat  bodies,  giving  a  nasty 
oily  odour  which  even  the  camphor  cannot  suppress  ;  dapper-looking  grass- 
hoppers, neatly  and  prettily  coloured;  and  dragon  -  flies  with  gauzy  wings, 
some  purple-blue,  some  orange,  others  umber-brown  or  crimson. 

If  you  are  not  reviewing  insects  or  discussing  languages,  you  may  be  turning 
over  portfolios  of  dried  plants;  or  it  is  birds  that  the  missionary  shoots  and 
skins,  or  geological  specimens  that  he  collects,  or  he  may  even  concentrate  his 
interest  exclusively  within  the  narrow  domain  of  spiders  or  land  shells.  What- 
ever his  hobby  may  be,  having  once  started  him  off,  it  is  hard  to  arrest  him, 
and  with  the  best  intentions  you  find  yourself  after  a  little  while  arduously 
acting  an  interest  you  cease  to  feel,  and  paralysing  the  muscles  of  your  jaws 
with  suppressed  yawns.  The  missionary's  wife  detects  your  fatigue.  Long  use 
has  accustomed  her  to  regard  her  husband's  favourite  pursuit  with  indulgent 
unconcern;  so  rising,  and  gathering  her  needlework  together,  she  says,  "John, 
it  is  time  for  prayers;  I  am  sure  Mr.  So-and-so  must  be  tired."  The  obedient 
husband  assents,  puts  away  with  a  sigh  his  manuscripts,  or  his  collections,  and 
goes  outside  into  the  verandah,  to  ring  the  bell.  Then  he  returns  with  //;/  visage 
de  circonstance,  gets  down  his  big  Bible  and  seats  himself  in  the  armchair  at  the 
head  of  the  table.  Presently  there  is  a  whispering,  giggling,  and  shuffling  in 
the  passage,  and  in  come  the  loutish  boys  you  have  seen  before.  They  are 
lugging  along  some  wooden  forms,  which  they  place  in  the  room  near  the  door. 
Then  they  retreat  and  return  again,  this  time  bearing  piles  of  Bibles  and  paper- 
covered  hymn-books.  They  are  followed  by  a  small  number  of  lollopy  girls, 
some  clad  in  loose  garments  like  short  nightgowns,  a  few  bearing  still  an 
appearance  of  being  but  half  reclaimed  and  in  their  savage  innocence  scorning 
to  hide  their  virginal  breasts  in  a  frowsy  gown,  while  the  draping  of  the  light 
cottons  round  their  limbs  and  heads  retains  an  element  of  innate  good  taste 
which  the  older,  more  civilised  girls  have  lost.  These  latter,  too,  are  oppressed 
with  a  sense  of  self-consciousness  at  the  sight  of  a  stranger,  and  alternately 
glance  at  you  with  sidelong  languishing  looks,  and  then  make  you  the  subject 
<>f  sniggering  whispers  among  themselves,  until  they  are  checked  by  a  stern 
look  from  their  mistress,  which  makes  their  eyes  drop  with  one  accord  on  their 
open  Bibles.  After  prayers  are  over  the  youths  drag  out  the  forms  again,  the 
maidens  bob  and  curtsey,  and  each  with  shrill  monotony  yelps  out,  "'  Good  night, 
ma'am;  good  night,  sah,"  to  which  your  host  and  hostess  reply,  with  wearisome 
punctiliousness,  "Good  night,  Amelia,  good  night,  Florence,  good  night, 
Susannah,  good  night,  Rebecca,"  and  so  on  to  the  end  of  the  list.  Then 
you  stand  for  a  few  minutes  purposeless,  gazing  at  the  prints  of  Bible  subjects 
hung  round  the  walls,  staring  vacantly  at  your  hostess's  sewing  machine,  opening 
the  gift  books  on  the  table  or  softly  trying  the  harmonium  with  one  finger  and 
an  intermittent  pressure  on  the  pedals.  The  missionary's  wife,  who  has  just 
been  with  her  servants  to  ascertain  that  all  your  requirements  in  your  bedroom 
have  been  anticipated,  returns  and  bids  you  good  night  with  a  kindly-worded 
wish  that  you  may  benefit  by  your  night's  rest.  You  chat  a  few  minutes  longer 
with  your  host,  and  then  repair  to  your  bedroom,  where  you  will  be  sure  to  find 
a  comfortable  bed  and  a  shelf  of  books,  with  one  of  which  you  beguile  the 
moments  till  sleep  comes  to  close  your  tired  eyelids. 


Perhaps  in  the  morning  you  awake  ill  with  threatened  fever.  Sick,  dazed, 
and  trembling,  you  attempt  to  dress,  but  your  host,  who  is  learned  in  the 
treatment  of  such  maladies,  insists  on  your  returning  to  bed  where  for  days 
to  come  you  toss  and  rave,  while  the  vulture  Death  approaches  in  ever-narrowing 
circles,  until  by  patient  nursing,  thoughtful  care,  unwearying  attention  the 
missionary  and  his  wife  have  conquered  the  disease  and  restored  you  to  health. 
Or,  more  probably,  the  first  night's  quiet  rest  under  a  rain-tight  roof,  the  good 
food  and  cheering  kindness  of  your  evening's  entertainment  at  the  mission,  have 
successfully  dispelled  the  incipient  malady,  and  at  the  clanging  of  the  school- 
bell  you  awake  from  slumber,  to  find  yourself  light-hearted  and  full  of  energy, 
braced  by  this  little  interlude  of  comfort  to  face  with  stout  determination  the 
solitude  of  the  wilderness. 

Your  host  and  hostess  are  loth  to  part  with  you,  and  before  you  go,  you 
must  in  very  grace  inspect  the  church  or  chapel  and  the  schools  ;  listen  while 
the  school  children  sing  a  simple  English  glee,  and  "  God  Save  the  Queen  ";  look 
over  their  specimens  of  hand-writing ;  and  give  them  easy  problems  to  solve 
in  mental  arithmetic.  You  may  find  it  hard  to  take  an  interest  in  or  suppress  a 
repugnance  for  the  hulking  youths  or  plump  girls,  who  instead  of  being — as  they 
ought  to  be— engaged  in  hard  wholesome  manual  labour,  are  dawdling  and 
yawning  over  slate  and  primer,  and  in  whose  faces  sensual  desires  struggle 
for  expression  with  hypocritical  sanctimoniousness ;  but  the  little  children, 
the  little,  naked,  bright-eyed  children  just  captured  from  the  village,  and 
now  demurely  ranged  in  rows,  solemnly  picking  out  and  wrongly  naming 
cardboard  A's  and  B's  and  C's — you  surely  can  find  no  difficulty  in  loving 
them,  and  saying  something  to  encourage  the  missionary's  wife,  whose  pets 
they  are?  The  school  inspection  over,  you  yield  to  very  pressing  invitations 
and  stay  to  an  early  luncheon,  after  which  your  host  starts  you  on  the  right 
road  to  your  next  destination,  and  your  hostess  slips  some  dainty  package 
of  eatables  into  your  satchel. 

The  foregoing  sketch  illustrates  perhaps  the  commonest  type  of  missionary 
household  in  Central  Africa,  for  the  bulk  of  our  missionaries  are  Protestants  and 
married.  Most  missionary  societies  distinctly  encourage  their  agents  to  marry  and 
take  their  wives  out  to  live  with  them  in  Africa.  I  only  know  of  one  Protestant 
mission  where  celibacy  is  approved.  That  is  the  Universities  Mission  which 
is  mainly  supported  by  the  High  Church  party  in  England,  and  the  way 
in  which  its  work  is  carried  on  is  very  similar  to  that  of  the  Roman  Catholic 
missions.  In  some  respect  the  system  of  the  Anglicans  and  Roman  Catholics 
has  much  to  recommend  it.  In  their  establishments  there  are  separate  com- 
munities of  men  and  women  who  lead  a  life  which  is  monastic  only  in  its 
best  features,  and  who  not  being  troubled  by  any  family  affairs,  can  devote 
themselves  to  the  work  of  the  mission  as  long  as  health  permits.  But  then 
it  must  be  remembered  that  these  celibate  missions  are  to  some  extent  served 
by  picked  men  and  women,  who  are  mostly  volunteers  and  receive  no  salary 
for  their  services,  and  are  merely  lodged  and  boarded  at  the  expense  of  the 
mission.  This  system  of  celibacy  undoubtedly  does  not  suit  the  British 
missionary  as  a  rule.  Given  an  average  man,  young  and  in  the  prime  of 
manhood,  who  is  sent  to  work  in  Africa  unmarried,  unsolaced  by  the  company 
of  a  wife,  you  will  find  him  prone  to  be  restless  and  discontented,  or  to  find 
a  consolation  which  arouses  scandal.  Married  to  a  wife  of  his  own  nation 
and  rank  his  whole  career  may  be  different.  He  is  happy,  contented,  pure- 



minded,  and  disposed — from  the  fact  of  his  having  made  his  home  there — to 
devote  himself  to  a  life-long  work  in  Africa :  in  fact,  a  married  missionary 
becomes  more  or  less  a  missionary  colonist,  a  result  which  the  parent  society 
is  desirous  to  attain.  Moreover,  it  is  certain  that  a  married  man  has  far  more 
influence  among  the  natives,  for  to  the  African  mind  celibacy  is  either  an 
unnatural  or  dishonourable  condition  provoking  suspicion  or  contempt.  A 
man-missionary,  moreover,  if  he  is  to  avoid  the  breath  of  scandal  must  have 
as  little  to  do  with  the  native  women-folk  as  possible.  Yet  in  the  interest  of 
his  work  it  is  quite  as  — perhaps  more — important  that  the  women  should  be 



instructed  as  the  men.  As  mothers  and  wives  they  wield  an  influence  for 
good  and  bad  which  it  is  hard  to  overrate.  From  an  evangelistic  point  of 
view  women  are  needed  for  missionaries  as  well  as  men.  This  need  is  met 
in  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  and  in  some  Anglican  missions  by  the  employ- 
ment of  good  women  as  nuns  or  teaching  sisters,  and  many  of  the  Protestant 
missions  often  have  attached  to  them  unmarried  women  whose  usefulness  in 
teaching  is  quite  equal  to  that  of  the  men.  But  somehow  I  have  noticed 
that  few  of  these  unmarried  women  helpers,  if  they  were  of  British  nationality, 
were  rigid  advocates  of  celibacy.  Sooner  or  later  most  of  them  have  found 
missionary  husbands,  or  have  married  Europeans  outside  the  mission.  It  is 
a  subject  on  which  I  cannot  dogmatise,  having  before  my  mind's  eye  many 
examples  of  beautiful,  pure,  and  most  useful  lives  led  in  Eastern  and  Central 
Africa  by  devoted  women  who  lived  a  nun's  life  and  were  never  married  ; 
and  yet  I  must  own  these  were  the  exceptions  rather  than  the  rule,  and  that 


personally  I  shrink  from  advocating  the  sending  out  to  Africa  of  young 
unmarried  women.  It  is  far  better  they  should  go  there,  or  live  there,  as 
wives.  Even  in  marriage,  however,  it  is  not  right  to  conceal  the  fact  that 
there  are  drawbacks  to  the  healthy  happy  life  of  the  married  white  woman 
in  a  barbarous  country,  with  a  sickly  and ,  tropical  climate.  A  blithe  pretty 
girl  from  one  of  the  three  countries  which  form  the  United  Kingdom,  with 
the  wild  rose  bloom  on  her  cheek,  arrives  in  Africa  and  espouses  her  missionary 
husband  ;  or,  it  may  be,  that  they  are  married  in  England,  and  make  the 
voyage  out  their  honeymoon.  Everything  in  her  new  life  is  a  shock  to  her 
mental  and  physical  system.  The  unvarying,  enervating  heat  and  the  enforced 
changes  in  her  mode  of  dress  ;  the  strange  tropical  nature,  overpowering  at 
first  sight  with  its  luxuriance  and  its  amazing  growths  ;  the  different  kind  of 
food,  and  even  the  altered  manner  of  passing  the  hours  of  daylight ;  sometimes, 
too,  the  total  absence  of  any  kindred  society  of  her  own  sex — all  these  new 
experiences,  united,  form  a  complete  reversal  of  her  previous  life,  and  must  at 
first  react  on  her  physical  organisation.  Then,  too,  think  of  a  modest  girl 
who  has  been  hitherto  shielded  with  such  jealous  care  from  contact  with 
anything  coarse  or  impure,  so  that  she  has,  in  fact,  grown  up  stupidly  innocent: 
thi'nk  of  her  suddenly  thrust  into  a  barbarous  country  where  the  natives  are 
naked  and  not  ashamed,  and  where  the  conventions  of  decency  are  often 
unknowingly  transgressed  by  them  in  a  way  which  to  her  English  prudery 
must  appear  very  indecent ;  where,  too,  the  women  among  whom  she  has  come 
to  minister,  will,  when  she  understands  their  language,  talk  glibly  to  her  of 
matters  that  the  most  depraved  of  her  sex  at  home  would  hesitate  to  mention 
to  a  young  and  inexperienced  woman.  The  effect  of  this  ordeal  even  on  a 
young  wife  is  not  without  its  risks  of  moral  deterioration,  and  is  sometimes 
only  acquired  at  the  cost  of  a  certain  loss  of  delicacy.1  This  rude  contact 
with  coarse  animal  natures  and  their  unrestrained  display  of  animal  instincts 
tends  imperceptibly  to  blunt  a  modest  woman's  susceptibilities,  and  even,  in 
time,  to  tinge  her  own  thoughts  and  language  with  an  unintentional  coarseness. 

Every  year,  however,  makes  it  easier  for  married  women  to  share  the  lot  of 
their  husbands  in  countries  like  British  Central  Africa,  where  civilisation  is 
rapidly  increasing  and  numbers  are  multiplying.  The  missionary  societies 
working  here  early  recognised  that  it  was  their  bounden  duty  to  supply  medical 
missionaries  to  attend  to  the  health  of  their  European  agents  as  well  as  to  the 
medical  wants  of  the  natives.  In  consequence  of  this  the  missionaries'  wives 
who  have  children  have  not  suffered  as  has  been  the  case  in  earlier  days  in 
other  parts  of  Africa.  Children  are  frequently  born  to  the  married  missionaries, 
and  are  reared  in  the  African  climate  with  fair  success,  and  eventually  grow  up 
healthy  boys  and  girls  in  England.  Every  year  makes  it  easier  for  the 
missionary  to  support  his  wife  in  Africa  with  reasonable  comfort  and  chance 
of  good  health.  Women,  indeed,  seem  to  stand  the  climate  better  than  men. 
Moreover,  nowadays,  our  ideas  on  the  subject  of  women  are  widening;  we  are 
coming  to  see  that  many  burdens  hitherto  borne  by  the  male  can  be  equally 
supported  by  the  female.  On  the  whole,  I  think  women  make  better  mission- 
aries than  men,  and  are  always  much  more  lovable  in  that  aspect.  Let  them, 
therefore,  continue  to  go  out  to  Africa  as  celibates  if  they  are  over  thirty-five, 
but  otherwise  as  married  women. 

If  the  supposititious  traveller,  whose  hypothetical  experiences  in  one  type  of 

1  I  am  writing  of  course  of  the  average  woman,  not  of  exceptional  characters  who  can  walk 
through  any  amount  of  mire  and  come  out  unsoilcd. 


missionary  household  I  have  already  described,  should  stay  at  a  station  of  the 
Universities  Mission  in  Central  Africa  or  with  any  of  the  Roman  Catholic 
Fathers,  he  will  have  very  pleasant  experiences,  though  they  may  be  of  a 
different  nature.  The  good  Fathers  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  and 
the  Anglican  priests  from  our  two  great  Universities,  will  entertain  him  with  a 
whole-hearted  hospitality,  though  he  will  not  perhaps  enter  so  much  into  their 
private  lives  as  with  the  married  Protestant  missionary.  In  the  case  of  the 
Anglican  missionaries  he  will  derive  more  the  impression  that  he  is  staying  at  a 
college,  a  college  where  there  is  very  plain  living  and  high  thinking.  With  the 
Roman  Catholics  the  food  is  thoroughly  good,  well  cooked  and  appetising,  and 
all  reproach  of  luxury  removed  from  it  when  it  is  understood  that  it  is  almost 
all  of  local  production  and  due  to  the  energy  and  husbandry  of  the  Fathers 
and  their  pupils.  I  repeat,  there  is  something  very  suggestive  of  the  English 
public-school  about  the  Anglican  missionaries.  Athletics  bulk  largely  and 
wholesomely  in  their  curriculum.  Their  boy  pupils  are  soon  taught  to  play 
football  and  cricket,  and  to  use  the  oar  rather  than  the  paddle ;  but  it  cannot 
be  truthfully  said  that  these  missionaries  keep  a  good  table  or  care  sufficiently 
for  their  creature  comforts.  Their  houses  are  often  of  poor  construction,  untidy 
and  unattractive :  it  is  obvious  that  they  are  under  no  care  of  womankind. 
The  missionary  snatches  his  meals  hastily,  scarcely  tasting  what  goes  down  his 
throat.  On  his  untidy  bureau  there  will  be  at  one  and  the  same  time  the  newest 
philosophical  treatise  from  England  and  an  ugly  tin  teapot  of  over-stewed  tea. 
But  I  shall  not  continue  my  criticisms  in  this  respect,  as  these  missionaries  are 
now  much  of  the  same  opinion  as  myself  on  the  subject  of  the  sheer  necessity 
of  comfort,  if  one  intends  to  lead  a  healthy  life  in  Africa,  and  I  believe 
steps  are  now  being  taken  to  supply  each  University  Mission  Station  with  one 
or  more  lay  brothers  who  will  attend  to  household  cares. 

I  have  made  many  allusions  to  missionary  hospitality.  Missionaries  and  the 
Portuguese  are  alike  in  this  respect.  As  a  people  the  Portuguese  are  the  most 
hospitable  I  know  in  any  part  of  the  globe's  surface,  showing  their  hospitality  as 
a  kind  of  instinct  alike  to  friend  and  enemy.  The  missionary,  in  the  same  way. 
regards  hospitality  as  a  sacred  duty.  No  matter  whether  his  guest  is  disposed 
to  cavil  at  his  work  or  to  sympathise  with  it  he  gives  him  the  best  he  has,  and 
often  more  than  he  himself  can  afford  ;  and  too  frequently  the  return  both  to 
the  Portuguese  settler  or  official  and  to  the  missionary  is  thankless  abuse,  or 
ridicule,  on  the  part  of  the  passing  traveller.  I  have  known  explorers  who  owed 
their  lives  and  the  success  of  their  journeys  and  the  saving  of  a  vast  amount 
of  expenditure  to  Portuguese  officials,  planters  or  traders,  who  helped  them  by 
the  way.  When  they  returned  to  Europe,  however,  it  was  only  to  dilate  on  all 
that  was  defective  in  the  Portuguese  system  of  government,  or  faulty  in  the 
characteristics  of  the  race.  Likewise  how  many  travellers  and  sportsmen  have 
lived  for  weeks  light-heartedly  at  the  expense  of  a  missionary  or  of  a  series 
of  missionaries,  and  then  have  taken  the  earliest  opportunity  of  sneering  at 
them  and  spreading  calumnious  reports  as  to  their  mode  of  life.  I  remember 
an  instance  of  this  in  one  who  is  now  dead  and  therefore  shall  be  nameless. 
He  had  visited  the  French  priests  at  Bagamoyo,  on  the  East  Coast  of  Africa. 
Wishing  to  do  him  honour  as  an  explorer  and  an  Englishman,  the  good  Fathers 
concerted  together,  and  agreed  to  sacrifice  their  last  bottle  of  champagne  (kept 
as  an  occasional  medicine)  in  his  honour.  What  was  the  result  ?  He  returned 
to  Europe  and  said,  "Those  missionaries  live  like  fighting-cocks,  they  drink- 
champagne  every  clay." 


How  few  of  the  many  hundreds  who  have  enjoyed  missionary  hospitality, 
nursing  and  assistance  have  remembered  that  their  entertainers  were  men 
receiving  salaries  from  ,£80  to  .£300  a  year,  often  with  a  wife  and  family  to 
maintain.  How  many  have  attempted  to  make  any  subsequent  return  for  the 
help  afforded,  not  perhaps  in  monetary  or  other  gifts,  but  in  fair  words. 

It  has  been  so  fine  a  thing  at  first  to  encounter  in  the  wilderness  such 
disinterested  goodness,  such  heroic  attempts  in  the  face  of  the  greatest 
difficulties  and  dreariest  discouragements  to  lead  oneself  and  to  teach  others 
to  adopt  the  higher  life,  that  your  first  impressions  are  of  unbounded  admiration 
for  the  missionaries  and  their  work.  If  you  stay  in  the  country,  say  three  years, 
your  final  verdict  is  likely  to  be  that  of  your  first  impression  ;  but  if  you 
frequent  the  mission  for  merely  three  weeks  you  will  find  yourself  beginning 
to  criticise ;  the  demeanour  of  the  mission  girls  has  lost  all  shyness  and  may 
even  perhaps  be  lacking  in  modesty,  for  these  young  women  when  they  get 
beyond  childhood  have  lost  all  fear  of  the  white  man  and  have  not  been 
subjected  to  the  excellent  native  discipline  which  enforces  amongst  the  women 
a  modest  bearing  and  a  certain  amount  of  deference  towards  people  of  the 
opposite  sex.  You  will,  at  first,  be  disagreeably  impressed  with  the  native 
catechists,  or  readers,  or  deacons,  or  whatever  title  the  trained  native  adherents 
of  the  mission  may  bear :  with  their  profuse  display  of  religious  phrases,  their 
clumsily  cut  European  clothes,1  contrasting  with  an  often  sensual  face,  their  off- 
hand manners  and  great  conceit.  But  pause  a  moment  before  you  too  hastily 
condemn  the  results  of  mission  teaching.  These  clothed  negroes,  whose  very 
clothing  is  an  offence  as  it  often  induces  uncleanly  personal  habits,  and  a  con- 
sequent disagreeable  personal  smell,  and  whose  aping  of  European  ways  is  a 
provocation  to  criticism,  are  nevertheless  more  useful  members  of  the  community 
than  an  untutored  savage.  They  may  be  cheeky  if  you  attempt,  as  many  white 
men  do,  a  bullying  manner,  but  they  are  men  of  the  world.  They  will  not  offer 
you  physical  violence  nor  attempt  to  oppose  your  researches  into  their  country  ; 
on  the  contrary  they  will  make  common  cause  with  you,  and  espouse  your 
cause  if  necessary  against  their  wild  brothers.  They  are  now  British  subjects, 
emphatically  as  much  wedded  to  the  British  policy  with  all  its  mistakes  and 
even  with  any  temporary  injustice  it  may  entail,  as  you  are.  Gradually  they 
or  their  descendants  will  find  their  proper  place.  When  by  education  and 
inherited  culture  they  are  on  the  level  of  the  white  man,  then  by  all  means  let 
them  take  their  place  as  his  equal.  The  British  Empire  is,  or  should  be, 
independent  of  considerations  of  race  and  colour,  and  should  take  as  its  sole 
standard  of  citizenship,  mental,  moral  and  physical  qualifications.  Otherwise 
we  have  no  right  to  interfere  with  these  alien  races,  and  teach  them  to  walk  in 
our  ways,  and  submit  to  our  rule. 

The  fact  is  that  it  takes  at  least  three  generations  before  any  clear  apprecia- 
tion of  the  principles  of  morality,  truth,  gratitude  and  honour  can  penetrate  the 
intellect  and  curb  the  instincts  of  the  negro.  Nor  in  this  disadvantage  is  he 
singular  amongst  the  backward  races  of  mankind.  The  same  statement  applies 
equally  to  the  Red  Indian,  the  Polynesian  or  the  Papuan.  You  cannot  in  a  year 
or  two  convert  a  wolf  into  a  sheep  dog,  or  a  skulking  jackal  into  a  black  and 
tan  terrier ;  this  change  cannot  be  effected  in  the  one  individual,  as  a  rule,  no 
matter  how  long  he  may  live  ;  the  result  can  only  be  attained  by  generations 
of  transmitted  culture,  induced  by  constant  restraint  and  careful  education. 

1  This  item  of  criticism  cannot  be  made  to  apply  to  the  pupils  of  the  Universities  Mission  who  are  very 
wisely  made  to  dress  in  long  "  kanzus,"  or  garments  of  Arab  style. 


Even  then,  when  the  bulk  of  your  subjects  are  firmly  established  in  their  new 
mode  of  life,  and  breed  true,  there  will  be  occasionally  disappointing  reversions. 
A  young  sheep  dog  will  take  to  worrying  sheep,  or  a  black  and  tan  terrier  be 
detected  killing  fowls.1 

I  know  several  ordained  missionaries  who  are  pure  negroes,  and  who 
are  most  worthy  men.  Close  your  eyes  and  you  might  be  talking  to  a 
cultivated  Englishman.  But  I  only  recall,  at  most,  three  instances  of  negro 
priests  of  this  excellent  description  who  have  been,  in  the  one  individual, 
raised  up  from  a  condition  of  utter  savagery  to  that  of  an  educated  civilised 
man,  and  who  have  maintained  themselves  on  this  high  level ;  almost  all 
others  having  undergone  similar  experiences  relapse  at  one  time  or  another  in 
a  manner  very  similar  to  that  described  in  Grant  Allen's  striking  story,  The 
Reverend  John  Greedy.  But  my  hope  for  the  eventual  results  lies  in  the  know- 
ledge of  what  has  been  done  amongst  the  negroes  of  the  West  Indies.  Some 
of  the  best,  hardest-working  and  most  satisfactory,  sensible  missionaries  I  have 
ever  known  have  been  West  Indians — in  colour  as  dark  as  the  Africans  they 
go  to  teach,  but  in  excellence  of  mind,  heart,  and  brain-capacity,  fully  equal 
to  their  European  colleagues.  But  then  these  men  were  at  least  three  genera- 
tions removed  from  the  uncivilised  negro,  and  were  as  much  strangers  to  Africa 
and  African  habits  as  the  average  European.  Per  contra,  what  disappointing 
results  on  a  surface  examination  would  appear  to  him  who  first  commenced 
studying  the  effects  of  mission  work  in  Central  Africa.  If  he  has  really  been 
a  student  of  African  History,  if  he  has  read  old  Blue-books,  old  descriptions  of 
travel,  old  missionary  records,  he  will  have  noted  that  at  the  end  of  the 
"seventies"  or  the  beginning  of  the  "eighties,"  the  missionaries  of  the  day  wrote 
with  rapture  of  the  remarkable  progress  in  learning  and  in  religion  which  had 
been  made  by  John  Makwira,  Joseph  Evangel,  Robert  Ntundulima,  Simpson 
Chokabwino : 2  of  how  John  Makwira  and  Simpson  Chokabwino  had  been 

1  As  an  instance  of  the  disappointing  naughtiness  which  may  occur  even  amongst  people  who  have 
lived  round  the  mission  station  for  years,  I  would  tell  the  following  story.     While  cruising  on  Lake 

Nyasa  in  1895  on  one  of  our  gunboats  I  visited  the  Island  of an  important  station  of  the 

Mission.      We   arrived   on    the   Saturday   evening,    dined   with   the   missionaries  and    were   invited   to 
lunch  with  them  the  next  day.     Early  on  Sunday  morning  a  number  of  youths  came  off  from  the  shore 
in  canoes  bringing  small  tins  and  bottles  of  milk.     I  am  exceedingly  fond  of  milk  and  it  is  not  an  easy 

thing  to  get  in  Africa  as  a  rule,  I  was  therefore  delighted  at  the  enterprise  shown  by  the  natives  of . 

The  Commander   of  the   gunboat   accordingly  bought   up   all   the  milk  that  was  offered  for  sale   and 
that  morning  we  feasted  on  porridge  and  milk  and  cafi-aii-latt,  and  put  aside  plenty  of  milk  for  tea  in 
the  afternoon  and  puddings  in  the  evening.     As  it  is  very  difficult  ordinarily  to  obtain  milk  at  all  from  the 
natives  in  this  part  of  Africa,  as  the  cows  and  goats  are  often  allowed  to  run  about  unmilked,  (the 
natives  not  caring  for  milk  themselves)  we  were  full  of  praise  regarding  the  enterprise  of  these  mission 
boys.     Later  on  we  appeared  at  lunch,  and  the  ladies  and  gentlemen  of  the  mission  apologised  to  us  for 
handing  round  tinned  milk,  than  which  nothing  becomes  more  hateful  to  the  resident  in  Africa,  "but," 
said  the  missionaries  "  our  boys  you  know-  are  very  strict  Sabbatarians.      On  Sundays  they  absolutely 
refuse  to  milk  the  goats,  so  we  have  to  go  without,  though  we  get  plenty  of  milk  on  the  other  days  of  the 
week."     I  was  just  going  to  exclaim  "  How  extraordinary  !  why  lots  of  your  boys  came  off  this  morning 
with  quite  a  large  quantity  of  milk  for  sale "  when  an  idea  struck  the  Commander  of  the  vessel  and 
myself  simultaneously  and  we  held  our  peace.     On  enquiry  we  found  these  youths  of  Sabbatarian  instincts 
reserved  the  Sunday's  milk  for  themselves,  and  on  occasions  were  very  willing  to  sell  it  to  strangers. 

2  The  names  of  course  are  fictitious  but  they  give  some  idea  of  the  want  of  taste  too  often  shown 
by  the  missionaries  in  naming  their  converts.     This  would  be  very  apparent  to  anybody  who  takes  up  one 
or  other  of  the  missionary  journals  published  in  Centra!  Africa  and  reads  the  list  of  baptisms.     I  quote 
haphazard  from  Life  and  Work  in  British  Central  Africa,  the  organ  of  the  Blantyre  Mission  for  September, 
1896,  and  on  the  first  page  amongst  the  baptisms  I  find  the  names  of  "  Mungo  Park  Kalima  and  Tabitha 
his  wife  who  have  just  had  a  little  daughter  christened  '  Bonnie'  ;"  and  of  "  Marcus  Aurelius  Mlnimju." 
Either  let  a  European  Christian  name  and  surname  be  given  straight  away,  or  keep  to  the  child's  existing 
name  or  to  any  other  native  appellation  and  there  is  nothing  to  grate  on  the  ear  ;  but  Agnes  Tanga- 
langa  and  Dora   Chokabwino,   Athanasius   Ndodo  and   Wilfred   Pujapuja   are   incongruous,    absurd    and 


sent  to  the  Lovedale  Institute  in  South  Africa,  and  Robert  Xtundulima  and 
Joseph  Evangel  to  Scotland  ;  and  of  the  great  things  which  were  to  be  expected 
from  the  raising  up  of  a  native  Pastorate.  Then  this  student  will  in  the  later 
"  nineties  "  visit  British  Central  Africa  and  it  will  gradually  dawn  on  him  that 
this  disreputable  scoundrel,  living  with  and  constantly  beating  four  \vives,  and 
so  often  inebriated  with  native  forms  of  alcohol  that  he  is  continually  in  the 
police  courts,  is  Simpson  Chokabwino ;  or  that  this  lying  "  capitaO "  who  is 
brought  before  a  magistrate  charged  with  defrauding  his  employer  (a  coffee 
planter)  by  a  forged  bill  is  Joseph  Evangel.  Perhaps  Robert  Xtundulima  may 
be  found  to  have  settled  in  douce  sloth,  though  still  a  church  goer  with  one 
wife,  but  with  all  religious  enthusiasm  dead  and  an  expensive  education  wasted 
on  market  gardening. 

At  the  present  moment  although  missionaries  have  been  at  work  in  British 
Central  Africa  since  1875,  the  numbers  of  real,  sincere,  believing,  professing 
Christians  amongst  their  native  adherents  are  relatively  small.  The  Universities 
Mission  may  count  300,  the  Church  of  Scotland  400,  and  the  Free  Church 
Mission  500,  because  the  missionaries  themselves  are  grown  far  honester  than 
their  predecessors  of  the  "forties"  and  "fifties"  and  are  very  careful  not  to 
confuse  converts  with  adherents  and  scholars,  therefore  in  their  returns  they 
only  give  the  actual  number  of  baptised  and  confirmed  Christians,  but  this 
in  no  way  gauges  the  real  results  of  their  work.1  Their  scholars  may  be 
numbered  by  the  thousand  though  those  scholars  may  not  be  sufficiently 
advanced  in  their  religious  belief  to  be  baptised  ;  and  their  adherents — that 
is  to  say,  all  the  surrounding  natives  who  more  or  less  follow  their  advice  and 
are  benefited  by  the  example  of  the  mission  in  striving  to  live  peacefully  and 
decently — number  thousands  more.  Even  if  the  actual  religious  results  of  so 
much  labour  and  expenditure  of  lives  and  wealth  seem  inadequate  it  is 
consoling  to  reflect  on  the  immense  service  which  missionary  enterprise  has 
rendered  to  Africa  and  to  the  world  at  large.  When  the  history  of  the  great 
African  states  of  the  future  comes  to  be  written,  the  arrival  of  the  first 
missionary  will  with  many  of  these  new  nations  be  the  first  historical  event 
in  their  annals,  allowing  for  the  matter  of  fact  and  realistic  character  of 
historical  analysis  in  the  2 1st  century.  This  pioneering  propagandist  will 
nevertheless  assume  somewhat  of  the  character  of  a  Quetzalcoatl — one  of  those 
strange  half-mythical  personalities  which  figure  in  the  legends  of  old  American 
empires  ;  the  beneficent  being  who  introduced  arts  and  manufactures,  imple- 
ments of  husbandry,  edible  fruits,  medical  drugs,  cereals,  domestic  animals. 
To  missionaries  rather  than  to  traders  or  government  officials  many  districts 
of  tropical  Africa  owe  the  introduction  of  the  orange,  lime,  and  mango,  of 
the  cocoanut-palm,  the  cacao-bean  and  the  pine  apple.  Improved  breeds  of 
poultry  and  pigeons,  many  useful  vegetables,  and  beautiful  garden  flowers  have 
been  and  are  being  taken  further  and  further  into  the  poorly-endowed  regions 
of  barbarous  Africa  by  these  emissaries  of  Christianity.  It  is  they  too  who 
in  many  cases  have  first  taught  the  natives  carpentry,  joinery,  masonry, 
tailoring,  cobbling,  engineering,  book-keeping,  printing,  and  European  cookery  ; 
to  say  nothing  of  reading,  writing,  arithmetic  and  a  smattering  of  general 

1  In  other  parts  of  Africa,  principally  British  possessions,  large  numbers  of  nominal  Christians  exist, 
but  their  religion  is  discredited  by  numbering  amongst  its  adherents  all  the  drunkards,  liars,  rogues,  and 
unclean  livers.  Among  the  natives  in  or  near  European  settlements  in  one  of  the  oldest  of  our  \Yest 
African  possessions  all  the  unrepentant  Magdalenes  of  the  chief  city  are  professing  ChriMians,  and  I 
remember  when  visiting  the  place  referred  to  in  iSSS  seeing  a  black  Messalina  going  to  church  in  pomp, 
clad  in  a  white  silk  dress  anil  followed  by  a  train  of  negro  admirers. 


knowledge.  Almost  invariably  it  has  been  to  missionaries  that  the  natives 
of  Interior  Africa  have  owed  their  first  acquaintance  with  the  printing  press, 
the  turning  lathe,  the  mangle,  the  flat  iron,  the  saw  mill,  and  the  brick  mould. 
Industrial  teaching  is  coming  more  and  more  into  favour,  and  its  immediate 
results  in  British  Central  Africa  have  been  most  encouraging.  Instead  of 
importing  printers,  carpenters,  store  clerks,  cooks,  telegraphists,  gardeners, 
natural  history  collectors  from  England  or  India,  we  are  gradually  becoming 
able  to  obtain  them  amongst  the  natives  of  the  country,  who  are  trained  in 
the  missionaries'  schools,  and  who  having  been  given  simple  wholesome  local 
education  have  not  had  their  heads  turned,  are  not  above  their  station  in  life, 
and  consequently  do  not  prove  the  disastrous  failures  I  have  introduced  in 
my  foregoing  references  to  typical  individuals  sent  for  their  education  to  South 
Africa  or  the  United  Kingdom.  At  the  Government  press  at  Zomba  there  is 
but  one  European  superintendent — all  the  other  printers  being  mission-trained 
natives.  Most  of  the  telegraph  stations  are  entirely  worked  by  negro  telegraph 
clerks  also  derived  from  the  missions.  As  an  instance  of  the  intelligence  of 
some  of  these  missionary  scholars,  I  have  given  at  the  end  of  the  chapter  dealing 
with  the  flora  of  British  Central  Africa  a  list  and  description  of  the  native  trees 
which  is  a  really  remarkable  essay  sent  to  me  in  the  native  tongue  by  a 
Blantyre  scholar.1 

Who  can  say  with  these  facts  before  them,  with  the  present  condition  of  the 
natives  in  South  Africa  to  consider,  with  the  gradual  civilisation  of  Western 
Africa,2  that  missionary  work  has  been  a  failure  or  anything  but  a  success  in  the 
Dark  Continent  ? 

Is  it  of  no  account,  do  you  think,  is  it  productive  of  no  good  effect  in  the 
present  state  of  Africa,  that  certain  of  our  fellow-countrymen — or  women- 
possessed  of  at  least  an  elementary  education,  and  impelled  by  no  greed  of  gain 
or  unworthy  motive — should  voluntarily  locate  themselves  in  the  wild  parts  of 
this  undeveloped  quarter  of  the  globe,  and,  by  the  very  fact  that  they  live  in  a 
European  manner,  in  a  house  of  European  style,  surrounded  by  European 
implements,  products,  and  adornments,  should  open  the  eyes  of  the  brutish 
savages  to  the  existence  of  a  higher  state  of  culture,  and  prepare  them  for  the 
approach  of  civilisation  ?  I  am  sure  my  readers  will  agree  with  me  that  it  is  as 
the  preparer  of  the  white  man's  advent,  as  the  mediator  between  the  barbarian 
native  and  the  invading  race  of  rulers,  colonists,  or  traders,  that  the  missionary 
earns  his  chief  right  to  our  consideration  and  support.  He  constitutes  himself 
informally  the  tribune  of  the  weaker  race,  and  though  he  may  sometimes  be 
open  to  the  charges  of  indiscretion,  exaggeration,  and  partiality  in  his  support 
of  his  dusky-skinned  clients'  claims,  yet  without  doubt  he  has  rendered  real 
services  to  humanity  in  drawing  extra-colonial  attention  to  many  a  cruel  abuse 
of  power,  and  by  checking  the  ruthless  proceedings  of  the  unscrupulous  pioneers 
of  the  white  invasion. 

Indirectly,  and  almost  unintentionally,  missionary  enterprise  has  widely 
increased  the  bounds  of  our  knowledge,  and  has  sometimes  been  the  means 

1  This  essay  has  been  kindly  translated  for  me  into  English  by  the  Rev.  Alexander  Hethervvick  of  the 
Church  of  Scotland  Mission,  but  I  understand  sufficient  of  Chinyanja,  having  the  original  with  me,  to 
know  that  the  translation  though  a  smooth  one  imparts  no  sense  into  the  text  which  is  not  to  be  found  in 
the  original  document.  To  test  the  intelligence  of  these  scholars  of  the  Blantyre  Mission  Schools  I  had 
offered  a  small  pri/e  for  the  best  essay  on  this  subject.  There  were  many  competitors  and  some  of  the 
essays  were  very  good  besides  that  one  which  I  now  publish,  and  which  was  adjudged  to  lie  the  best. 

-  \\  here  the  Basel  missionaries  have  played  much  the  same  part  as  the  British  missionaries  in  Nyasa- 
land  in  introducing  industrial  teaching. 


of  conferring  benefits  on  science,  the  value  and  extent  of  which  itself  was 
careless  to  appreciate  and  compute.  Huge  is  the  debt  which  philologists  owe 
to  the  labours  of  British  Missionaries  in  Africa !  By  evangelists  of  our  own 
nationality  nearly  two  hundred  African  languages  and  dialects  have  been 
illustrated  by  grammars,  dictionaries,  vocabularies,  and  translations  of  the  Bible. 
Many  of  these  tongues  were  on  the  point  of  extinction,  and  have  since  become 
extinct,  and  we  owe  our  knowledge  of  them  solely  to  the  missionaries'  inter- 
vention. Zoology,  botany,  and  anthropology,  and  most  of  the  other  branches 
of  scientific  investigation  have  been  enriched  by  the  researches  of  missionaries, 
who  have  enjoyed  unequalled  opportunites  of  collecting  in  new  districts  ;  while 
commerce  and  colonisation  have  been  so  notoriously  guided  in  their  extension 
by  the  information  derived  from  patriotic  emissaries  of  Christianity  that  the 
negro  potentate  was  scarcely  unjust  when  he  complained  that  "  first  came  the 
missionary,  then  the  merchant,  then  the  Consul,  and  then  the  man-of-war." 
For  missionary  enterprise  in  the  future  I  see  a  great  sphere  of  usefulness — work 
to  be  done  in  the  service  of  civilisation  which  shall  rise  superior  to  the  mere 
inculcation  of  dogma ;  work  which  shall  have  for  its  object  the  careful  educa- 
tion and  kindly  guardianship  of  struggling,  backward  peoples  ;  work  which, 
in  its  lasting  effects  on  men's  minds,  shall  be  gratefully  remembered  by  the  new 
races  of  Africa  when  the  sectarian  fervour  which  prompted  it  shall  long  have 
been  forgotten. 



THAT  botany  plays  a  very  important  part  in  British  Central  Africa  north 
of  the  Zambezi  will  be  plain  to  the  most  unobservant  traveller.     It  does 
not  take  the  first  rank  in  popular  interest,  as  in  West  Africa,  for  vegetable 
growth  is  less  marvellous  and  fantastic  than  in  the  hot  rainy  countries  along  the 
West  Coast  belt  and  in  the  Congo  Basin.     Zoology,  perhaps,  has  the  first  claim 
on  the  attention  of  the  naturalist  in  South  Central  Africa  ;  still  botany  comes 
in  as  a  good  second  ;  for  all  this  district  (as  I  have  incidentally  pointed  out  in  a 
previous  chapter)  is  a  kind  of  secondary  development  of  the  forest  region  ;  it  is 


1  -'LOWERS    OK    Till-:    ('.ARMENIA    TREK 



on  the  whole  much  more  clothed  with  vegetation  than  is  East  Africa,  North- 
Central  or  South  Africa. 

Flowering  plants  and  trees  are  either  much  more  abundant  or,  owing  to  the 
less  dense  vegetation,  much  more  apparent  than  in  West  Africa.  Perhaps  there 
are  not  colour  displays  quite  as  gorgeous  as  the  evanescent  sheets  of  bloom  to 
be  met  with  in  Temperate  Xorth  or  South  Africa,  but  then  the  show  of  flowers 
is  not  confined  to  a  few  weeks  in  the  year,  but  is  pretty  constant  throughout  all 
the  twelve  months.  Of  course  there  is  a  marked  bursting  into  bloom  at  the 
beginning  of  yearly  rains  and  again  in  the  benign 

autumn  when  the  violence  of  the  rainy  season  ^K^^^^^^^^^^_ 

is  over  and  vet  the  soil  is  still  moist. 

I  have  not  been  able 
to  understand  (as  I  have 
mentioned  in  a  preced- 
ing chapter)  why  certain 
naturalists  have  spread 
abroad  the  impression 
that  singing  birds,  sweet 
smelling  flowers  and  gor- 
geous displays  of  bloom 
are  practically  confined 
to  the  temperate  regions 
and  are  not  characteristic 
of  the  Tropics.  No  doubt 
these  impressions  were 
formed  from  an  exclusive 
acquaintance  with  the 
dense  forests  of  Tropical 

America  and  Malaya,  where,  just  as  in  West  Africa,  (owing  to  the  pre- 
ponderating gloom}-  forest)  there  is  an  immense  display  of  foliage  varied 
by  no  more  than  an  occasional  flower  or  spray  of  blossoms.  And  however 
wonderful  the  orchids  of  these  regions  may  be,  they  rarely  grow  in  sufficient 
numbers  or  near  enough  to  the  purview  of  the  human  eye  to  constitute  a 
blaze  of  colour.  But  no  one  who  has  kept  his  eyes  open  in  the  drier  regions 
of  Central  Africa  can  refuse  to  acknowledge  that  the  flower  displays  are  marked 
and  very  gorgeous,  especially  in  that  part  of  the  country  which  lies  a  thousand 
feet  and  more  above  sea  level.  In  the  swamps  and  on  the  low-lying  land  it  is 
possible  to  pass  through  the  country  seeing  little  sign  of  any  flowers  during 
certain  months  of  the  year  ;  though  here,  again,  the  traveller,  to  be  consistent 




in  his  declaration  that  he  has  seen  no  flowers,  must  be  very  careful  not  to  look 
too  closely  into  the  details  of  the  landscape  or  he  will  falsify  his  own  statement ; 
for  in  the  marshes  there  are  blue  or  white  water-lilies ;  amongst  the  high  reeds 
on  the  forested  banks  of  the  rivers  trailing  convolvuluses  seem  to  be  always  in 
bloom.  The  white  plumes  of  the  reeds  and  the  efflorescence  of  many  rushes 
are  often  beautiful  and  form  a  pleasant  feature  of  the  landscape. 

But  if  these  low- lying  lands  are  visited  in  the  spring-time  the  display  of 
flowers  is  quite  as  gorgeous 
as  elsewhere.  The  acacia  • 
trees  are  loaded  with  small 
orange-coloured  blossoms ; 
a  creeper  (which  some- 
times grows  indepen- 
dently as  a  bush)  has  all 
along  the  under  part  of 
the  stalk  a  continuous 
mass  of  small  crimson 
petalless  flowers.  When 
these  are  fully  out  and 
the  branches  are  twined 
round  some  smaller  tree 
or  trailing  on  the  ground 
they  are  like  great  wreaths 
of  crimson.  A  strange  leaf- 
less shrub  which  resem- 
bles a  miniature  baobab 
tree,  has  large  blossoms 
that  are  rose-coloured  and 
white  ;  every  moist  glade 
teems  with  Crinum  lilies 
of  the  purest  white,  or 
else  white  with  a  line  of 
pink  (the  scent  of  their 
flowers  being  almost  in- 
toxicating when  in  close 
proximity)  ;  the  india- 
rubber  vines  have  sweet- 
scented,  chaste  white 
blossoms;  there  are  shrubs 

allied  to  the  jasmine  with  flowers  like  those  of  that  plant ;  the  Pterocarpus 
trees  for  one  fortnight  in  the  spring  are  loaded  with  immense  masses  of  yellow 
laburnum-like  blossom.  Other  papilionaceous  trees  of  the  genus  Lonchocarpns 
flower  profusely  and  resemble  the  Wistaria  in  colour  and  appearance ;  the 
Gardenia  tree  has,  as  the  reader  will  see  by  the  illustration,  large  handsome 
white  flowers  which  in  the  centre  are  touched  with  pink  and  orange  ;  then 
there  are  the  various  species  of  Erythrina.  One  of  these,  at  least,  has  blossoms 
so  gorgeous  that  I  should  like  to  get  it  introduced  into  cultivation.  The 
tree  belongs  to  the  bean  family ;  the  flowers  which  grow  in  large  clusters 
are  vivid  crimson-scarlet.  It  usually  has  but  few  leaves  on  it  when  it  bursts 
into  bloom.  Suddenly  meeting  with  it  in  the  jungle — great  crimson  splodges 
radiating  from  the  gnarled  grey  trunk — you  rub  your  eyes  thinking  that  it  must 




be  some  optical  delusion.  Then  there  is  a  mighty  tree  of  the  genus  Spat/witen 
(probably  S.cainpaiinlatti).  Its  flowers  again  are  crimson-scarlet  with  a  curious 
velvet  hood  of  even  deeper  and  richer  crimson  ;  and  there  -is  the  Bombax,  whose 
flowers  also  are  vivid  scarlet-crimson  with  a  mass  of  dull-black  anthers  and  a 
calyx  of  yellow-green.  Both  Spathodea  and  Bombax  are  trees  of  great  height 
and  stateliness.  The  Bombax  is  the  more  effective  object  because  the  leaves 
are  not  much  out  when  the  flowers  burst  forth  ;  and  the  spectacle  is  such  that 
if  Linnaeus  gave  way  to  tears  before  a  field  of  gorse,  one  wonders  what  he_ 
would  have  done  in  full  view  of  a  mighty  Bombax  with  its  branches  hung  with' 
pendant  crimson  flowers,  like  innumerable  red  lamps.  Even  the  baobab's 
flowers,  though  they  tarnish  quickly,  are  beautiful  for  a  brief  space,  while  they 
retain  the  creamy  white  of  their  petals  and  the  pale  gold  dazzle  of  their 
multitudinous  stamens. 

There  are  many  beans  of  the  genus  Tephrosia,  growing  as  creepers  or  erect 
shrubs  with  flowers  usually 
a  rich  purple,  but  in  one 
species  (Tephrosia  Vogelii} 
with  the  corolla  snow- 
white  and  the  calyx,  stalks, 
and  ovaries  the  deepest 
purple.  Other  bean  flowers 
(Crotalaria  and  Eriosema] 
are  yellow.  There  are 
Hibiscuses,  with  huge  ____  __ 

flowers  of  lemon  -yellow 
crimson-centred  ;  others  of 
pure  white,  others  of  pale 

There    are    shrubs    of 
the  genus  Copaifera  whose 
flowers  have  large,  crinkly 
petals      of      pure      white 
streaked  with  rose,  and  a 
powerful     aromatic     scent  ;     and     straggling 
cucurbits    with    cold  -  white     blossoms     and 
gaudy-coloured   gourds.     The   Cncstis  shrub 
exhibits  big  seed-vessels,  several  in  a  clump, 
covered  with  orange  or  scarlet  velvet,  through 
the  valves  of  which  the  black-headed  beans 
protrude.      Ground    orchids,    chiefly    of   the 
genus  Lissochilus,  grow  amid  the  grass  with 
columns    of  red,    mauve,    or    sulphur-yellow 
flowers.       Epiphytic     orchids     are     not     so 
common,  and   are  only  found  in   clumps   of 
dense  forest,  where  they  are  chiefly  represented  by  the  genera 
Ansdlia  and  Angnccnm. 

Everywhere  in  moist  places  straggles  the  Commelina  with 
its  blooms  of  cobalt-blue,  yellow,  or  white—  flowers  that 
wither  before  the  noonday  sun,  but  are  lovely  in  the  morning 



This  enumeration  is  wearisome  to  the  eye  from  the  constant 

*  *  Tir*  K  R  ''  ORCHIS 


21  I 

citing  of  Latin  names  ;  but  I  wish  to  substantiate  my  statements  regarding 
the  beauty  of  the  flora  by  enabling  the  reader  to  identify  the  objects  of  my 
admiration.  He  should  derive  from  this  list  the  just  impression  that  throughout 
at  least  six  months  in  the  year  even  the  low-lying  plains  of  Central  Africa  are 

bright  in  colour  with  flowers  and  fruits  ;  but 
if  this  is  the  case  with  the  lowlands  what 
adjectives  can  be  employed  to  adequately 
picture  the  flora  of  the  highlands  ?  One 
sweeping  statement  must  be  made  that  during 
spring-time  they  are  gorgeous  with  their 
flower  displays — gorgeous  with  lakes  of  azure- 
blue  and  mauve,  stretches  of  pinkish-white, 
mounds  of  rose-tint,  columns  of  purple,  sheets 
of  ultramarine,  circles  of  orange,  constellations 
of  pure  white,  stains  of  blood-red,  billows  of 

yellow.      Anything    more   beautiful 

than  these  wild  flower  gardens  in 
the  country  which  lies  between  1000 
and  4000  feet  in  altitude  I  have 
never  seen.  And  as  I  have  already 
remarked,  although  in  its  full  efful- 
gence during  the  spring  months 
(October,  November,  December)  and 
in  the  autumn  revival  (April,  May, 
June),  yet  the  flower  display  in  the 
uplands  maintains  itself  throughout 
the  whole  year.  Why  should  I 
weary  the  reader  further  by  Homeric 
lists  of  scientific  names  ?  All  these 
can  be  found  in  the  Appendix  ;  and 
those  inclined  to  doubt  or  minimise 
statements  may  look  up  the 

A    RED    U IA- 



various  genera  and  species  in  the 
Gardens  and  at  the  Herbarium  at  Kew,  and  (taking  for  granted  the  truth 
of  my  statements  that  the  flowering  plants  frequently  grow  in  masses  which 
contribute  great  effects  of  unbroken  colour)  may  even  without  a  visit  to  British 
Central  Africa  become  once  for  all  convinced  that  whatever  may  be  the  case 
with  the  gloomy  forests  of  the  Amazon  or  Malay  Archipelago,  the  open, 
reasonably-rained-on  parts  of  Tropical  Africa  are  as  splendidly  endowed  with 
flower  shows  as  with  singing  birds.  Up  in  the  high  mountains  this  is  still  more 
marked.  Here  an  emotional  person  would  faint  away  before  the  rocks  hung 
with  blue  lobelias,  and  the  clumps  of  smalt  and  cobalt  Disa  Orchids.1 

There  is  a  tree  lily  (  Vellozia  splcndcns}  which  in  the  spring-time  bears  from 
its  gouty  stems  (ordinarily  finished  by  a  tuft  of  grass-like   leaves)   sprays    of 
creamy-white  blooms,  so  beautiful  that  even  the  botanists  of  Kew  were  touched 
and  called  it  "  splendens."2 

Perhaps  the  loveliest  ground  orchid  in  the  world— Disa  hamatofetala.     This  is  well  figured  from 
our  specimens  in  the  Transactions  of  the  Linn.ean  Society  for  May.  1894. 

Botany  should  he  dealt  with  by  a  class  of  sylphs;  instead' of  which  its   priests  are  often  old  and 

istic  men.      Plod  through  page  after  page  of  botanical  description,  and  where  do  you  find  anv 

as  a  rule  of  the  matchless  beauty  they  should  be  describing?     Little  if  any  mention  is  made  of  the 

the      corolla     (as  u  is  correct  to  call  the  showy  part  of  the  flower),  but' what  the  botanist  likes  to 

,o  much  satisfaction  is  that  the  plant  is  either  glabrous  or  scabrous,  that  it  is  po^ibly  caulescent 




Then  there  are  the  numerous  Coreopses  (relations  of  the  Sunflower) — golden- 

yellow,   creamy -white,  and  blood -red 

pinkish-white  anemones;  purple  iris 
(Aristea};  rosy-tinted,  salmon-tinted, 
apricot  -  tinted  gladioli,  or  even  a 
gladiolus  with  huge  blossoms  of  a  pale 
buff  colour  like  cafc-au-lait.  There  is 
a  great  range  in  the  colour  of  these 
gladioli.  One  has  a  flower  of  purplish- 
green.  The  Hypericuin  shrub,  like  the 
St.  John's  wort  in  England,  has  large 
pale  yellow  blossoms.  In  the  stream 
valleys  there  are  balsams  of  pink- 
mauve  ;  by  the  water  side  at  the 
greatest  altitudes  is  the  blue  Cyno- 
glosstun,  and  there  are  silver  and  gold 
Helichrysums.  And  yet  I  have  only 
signalised  by  name  a  twentieth  part  of 
the  flowering  plants  of  these  high 
mountains  in  Central  Africa. 

and  that  the  outer  whorl  is  covered  with  black  emergences.  He  likes  the  perianth  cup  to  be  short  and 
fleshy  and  prefers  the  anthers  to  be  sessile.  Not  a  single  exclamation  of  praise  or  prayer  at  the  flower 
displayed.  Of  course  he  is  right:  science  must  be  unemotional.  A  good  diawing  of  this  I'ellozia  is 
given  in  the  Transactions  of  the  Linmean  Society  for  May,  1894. 




So  much  for  beauty  of  colour ;  now  for  the  beauty  of  outline.  There  are 
five  species  of  palm  abundantly  represented  in  British  Central  Africa :  the 
Borassus,  the  Hyphaene,  the  Wild  date,  the  Raphia,  and  the  Oil  palm.1  The 
cocoanut  palm  grows  at  one  or  two  places  on  the  Shire  River  and  on  Lake 
Nyasa,  but  it  is  an  introduction  from  the  East  Coast.  The  most  graceful  of 


1  The  oil  palm,  either  the  Elais guineensis  of  West  Africa  or  a  nearly-allied  species  grows  in  North- 
West  Nyasaland.  It  is  found  chiefly  in  the  very  fertile  plain  lying  between  the  Nkonde  mountains  and  the 
Lake  shore ;  also  in  the  well-watered  hill  country  of  the  Atonga.  So  far  as  I  am  aware  it  is  not  found 
further  south  than  the  latitude  of  Bandawe — about  the  middle  of  Lake  Nyasa— nor  does  it  seem  to  reach 
any  part  of  the  east  coast  of  that  lake.  It  may  be  reported  eventually  from  the  Chambezi  River  which 
flows  down  the  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau  and  becomes  the  Upper  Congo,  but  it  has  not  been  recorded  up 
to  the  present.  Therefore,  after  quitting  Lake  Nyasa  and  ascending  to  the  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau  one 
does  not  encounter  the  oil  palm  again  until  the  south  shore  of  Tanganyika  is  reached.  Here  there  are  a 
few  examples  but  it  is  not  abundant.  On  the  Upper  Luapula,  however,  Mr.  Sharpe  found  it  growing  in 
considerable  numbers  and  apparently  identical  with  the  West  Coast  species  ;  but  this  may  be  the  result  of 
direct  introduction  by  the  Alunda — a  West  African  people  who  make  considerable  use  of  its  oil  for  food. 
Mr.  Whyte  and  myself  have  done  our  best  to  introduce  the  oil  palm  into  South  Nyasaland  and  the  nuts 
planted  in  the  Zomba  Botanical  Gardens  have  already  grown  to  the  height  of  a  couple  of  feet.  Even  if 
there  was  no  idea  of  exporting  the  palm  oil  and  thus  competing  with  West  Africa  it  would  be  extremely 
useful  locally  for  cooking  purposes.  The  illustration  I  give  here  is  done  from  a  photograph  taken  of  a 
clump  of  oil  palms  at  the  north  end  of  Lake  Nyasa. 




these  palms  is  the  Raphia,  a  species  as  yet  unnamed.  The  trunk  or  stem 
seldom  reaches  to  any  great  height  above  the  ground  ;  it  has  enormously  long 
fronds  which  rise  into  the  air  and  give  the  idea  of  height.  The  foliage  of  these 
fronds  is  a  glaucous  green,  but  the  midrib  in  the  living  frond  is  bright  orange. 

The  seeds  are  much  like  the  cones  of  certain 
conifers.  They  are  covered  with  glossy  brown 
scales  and  are  extremely  hard,  taking  a  whole 
year  to  germinate  in  the  ground.  This  palm 
would  no  doubt  produce  a  wine-like  sap,  as 
is  the  case  with  its  near  congener  the  Raphia 
vinifcra  ;  but  I  have  not  heard  of  the  natives 
using  it  for  this  purpose  in  Central  Africa. 
The  midribs  of  its  enormous  fronds  are  of 
greatest  service  to  man,  being  very  light, 
easily  straightened,  somewhat  uniform  in 
girth  and  very  strong.  The  Raphia  midribs 
at  once  constitute  a  light  and  effective  ladder 
20  feet  long  by  small  rungs  being  inserted 
in  the  holes  made  on  the  leaf-bearing  surface  of  the  midrib.  This  palm  also 
in  the  same  manner  furnishes  rafters  for  houses.  The  destruction  of  it  at  the 
hands  of  the  natives  has  been  somewhat  wanton,  and  we  have  taken  measures 
in  the  more  settled  districts  to  protect  the  Raphia,  besides  gathering  the  seeds 
and  replanting  them  extensively. 

The  Borassns  flabellifcr  grows  to  a  great  height.  Its  fronds  curl  into 
a  semicircle  and  make  the 
familiar  palm  fan  of  the  East. 
The  fruit  is  large — as  big  as 
a  child's  head — and  the  husk 
is  a  pale  yellowish-green  when 
ripe.  I  believe  the  kernel  to 
be  of  little  use  The  trunk  of 
the  palm  is  very  good  for 
certain  purposes  in  building. 

The  Central  African  Hy- 
prutne  is  so  similar  in  appear- 
ance to  the  Borassus  that  the 
one  is  often  mistaken  for  the 
other  by  the  passing  traveller. 
They  are  distinguished  chiefly 
by  the  difference  in  their  fruit. 
The  fruit  of  the  Borassus  I 
have  already  described.  That 
of  the  Hyphrene  is  much 
smaller  —  the  size  of  a  large 
egg-shaped  Java  orange.  Its 
covering  is  a  rich  chestnut- 
brown  and  has  a  sweetish  taste,  like  gingerbread.  The  kernel  of  the  nut  is  white 
and  extremely  hard  and  can  be  used  as  a  sort  of  vegetable  ivory.  Innumerable 
things  are  made  of  the  tough  and  lissom  fronds,  and  the  trunk  of  this  palm  can 
be  made  very  useful  in  building  as  it  is  easily  split  with  wedges  into  board-like 
segments.  It  takes  a  beautiful  polish,  having  a  very  handsome  grain. 


A    REKD  HRAKK   (Pkragmites  co»imuni>.\ 



I  have  not  observed  in  British  Central  Africa  the  curious  swelling  of  the 
stem  either  of  the  Borassus  or  Hyphaene  which  is  so  noticeable  in  other  parts 
of  Africa,  such  as  the  East  Coast  or  the  Congo  Basin. 

A  wild  date  grows  either  on  high  mountain  slopes  which  are  well  watered 
or  on  the  banks  of  large  rivers  or  the  shores  of  a  lake.  It  is  a  handsome  palm ; 
though  occasionally  when  growing  to  a  great  height  the  stem  becomes  spindly 
and  has  a  tendency  to  curve  and  lean.  The  fronds  are  extremely  green  and 
never  have  that  glaucous  tint  so  characteristic  of  the  date  palm.  The  fruit 
when  ripe  is  just  eatable.  It  looks 
and  tastes  like  a  very  poor  form 
of  date. 

The  cocoanut  palm  should  do 
well  in  the  vicinity  of  all  our 
lakes  and  rivers  judging  by  the 
examples  already  growing  at 
Kotakota  and  on  the  Central 
Shire.  The  fruit  produced  at 
Kotakota  is  excellent. 

Handsome  Cycads  grow  on 
the  lower  slopes  of  Mount  Mlanje. 
I  have  not  observed  them  else- 
where. Wild  bananas  (Musa 
ensete)  grow  on  the  hillsides. 
They  are  really  beautiful  objects  ; 
the  trunk  is  much  thicker  and 
the  foliage  more  statuesque  and 
ample  than  in  the  cultivated 
species.  They  would  be  familiar 
objects  to  Londoners,  as  allied 
forms  are  planted  in  the  London 
parks  during  the  summer. 

Although  it  forms  an  abomin- 
able growth  to  force  one's  way 
through  on  account  of  the  stiff 
spear-blades,  \h&Phragmites  reed1 
can  be  an  object  of  great  beauty 
with  its  enormous  flower-plumes 
of  grey -white.  But  the  leaves 
though  not  exactly  rigid  are  stiff 
and  have  a  sharply-pointed  ter- 
mination, and  these  points  pierce 
the  skin  if  abruptly  encountered. 
There  are  innumerable  other 
grasses,  handsome  in  the  outline 
of  their  growth  and  beautiful  in 
their  flowering.  One  small,  low 
grass  in  the  height  of  the  rainy 
season  spreads  the  ground  with 
a  fleecy  carpet  of  p*ale  mauve,  its 
abundant  inflorescence  being  of 

1   /'.  coiiiiiittnis. 




that  tint.  Still  the  grass  of  Central  Africa  is  one  of  its  great  plagues.  Between 
the  months  of  November  and  February  there  grows  up  a  monstrous  herbage 
under  the  influence  of  the  sun  and  rain.  The  grass  stems  wrill  sometimes 

reach  eight  feet  in  height.  Not  only  do 
many  of  their  leaves  cut  like  razors  or 
stab  like  spears  but  in  the  autumn  months 
of  April  and  May  their  seeds  ripen  and 
in  some  cases  seek  distribution  by  methods 
painful  to  the  human  animal.  There  is 
one  especially — a  species  of  Stipa,  whose 
seeds  I  here  illustrate.  As  you  pass  along 
a  native  path  which  is  almost  invisible 
(for  grass  growing  on  either  side  leaves 
nothing  but  an  obscure  narrow  tunnel), 
the  seeds  of  this  Stipa  easily  detach 
themselves  and  descend  with  a  spiral 
flight  on  to  your  person,  the  slight  im- 
petus of  their  fall  carrying  the  sharp 
barbed  point  of  the  seed  right  into  the 
clothing  ;  here  the  movement  of  the  body 
acting  on  the  barbs  of  the  seed  wrorks  it 

farther  and  farther  in,  so  that  it  eventually  reaches  and  scratches  the  skin.  There 
are  cases  reported  of  this  Stipa  where  the  seed  has  actually  penetrated  the  skin 
of  certain  animals.  At  one  time  the  idea  was  mooted  that  the  seed  germinated 
thus  in  the  flesh,  but  this  is  not  true.  It  is  a  mere  accident  that  the  barbed 

BARBED    SKEI»    nl     >  I  I  I'A 

A    I.AKi.K    in.VKWEEI) 

AFRICA   (Pistia  stratiotfs) 



grain  happens  to  alight  on  an  animal.  What  it  intends  to  do  is  to  pitch,  point 
first,  on  the  ground,  which  is  hardened  by  the  dry  weather,  and  pierce  its  way 
through  the  soil  by  the  same  means  that  will  enable  it  to  pass  through  a  coat 
of  thick  texture.  The  feathery  plume  attached  to  the  seed  acts  as  a  kind  of 
float  to  carry  it  through  the  air  perpendicularly  towards  the  ground. 

There  is  no  lawn  grass  indigenous  to  Central  Africa,  but  the   Dub  grass 
of  Ceylon  has  been  introduced  by  Mr.  Whyte  and  the  late  Mr.  John  Buchanan, 


and  has  thriven  wonderfully.  With  this  we  can  get  excellent  lawns  and  very 
superior  fodder  for  horses  and  cattle. 

Among  rushes  there  is  the  king  of  them,  the  papyrus.  I  have  referred  once 
or  twice  before  in  this  book  to  its  great  beauty,  and  will  not  weary  my  readers 
by  the  repetition  of  my  descriptions.  The  pith  of  the  papyrus  which  was  used 
by  the  Egyptians  as  a  material  on  which  to  write,  and  which  has  given  its  name 
to  "paper,"  appears  to  possess  a  sugary  or  starchy  quality,  so  that  when  the 
flattened  strips  of  rolled-out  pith  are  moistened  the  edge  of  one  can  be  laid  on 
the  edge  of  the  other,  and  will  adhere  to  it  ;  and  this,  I  believe,  is  the  way 
sheets  of  paper  were  made.  Why  it  should  not  once  more  be  brought  into  use 
as  a  paper-making  material  I  do  not  know. 

Amongst  the  graceful  types  of  vegetation  mention  must  nof  be  omitted  of 



the  tree  ferns  on  the  mountains  and  the  many  beautiful  ferns  to  be  found  in 
moist  places.  The  Osmunda  grows  luxuriantly  in  the  stream  valleys,  and  there 
are  many  varieties  of  maiden-hair.  The  dear  familiar  bracken  appears  directly 
an  altitude  of  3000  feet  is  reached,  and  flourishes  thence  up  to  6000  feet ;  in 
company  with  it  grows  the  blackberry  bramble,  and  the  two  together  gladden 

the   exile's  heart  like  emissaries 
from  home. 

There  are  many  noble  forest 
trees  to  be  signalised  for  their 
beauty  of  outline  and  foliage. 

There  are  the  Parinariums, 
which  tower  up  a  hundred  feet 
into  the  air;  the  velvet-foliaged 
Albizsia;  the  Ebony  (Diospyros}; 
the  Khaya  (K.  senegalensis} ;  the 
Pterocarpus,  with  its  glorious  fort- 
night of  efflorescence,  when  the 
whole  tree  is  a  mass  of  large 
yellow  flowers,  and  exhales  an 
intoxicating  odour  of  honey,  at- 
tracting thereby  thousands  of 
bees  ;  and  glossy-leaved  fig  trees 
of  the  genus  Ficus^  These  hand- 
some forest  trees,  however,  are 
generally  restricted  to  the  banks 
of  rivers  or  the  shores  of  lakes, 
or  else  to  moist  mountain  slopes. 
The  bulk  of  the  country  is  covered 
by  a  forest  of  thin  and  poor  type — 
chiefly  Trachylobiums  and  Copai- 
feras,  Hymenocardias,  Anonas 
and  Misuko  (Uapaca  kirkiand], 
besides  certain  vines  of  large  size 
growing  in  the  habit  of  a  shrub, 
and  acacias  which  are  of  various 
forms  and  very  little  foliage. 
Some  of  these  acacia  trees  are 
more  clothed  when  they  grow 
near  water,  and  the  scent  of 

their  flowers  is  delightful  ;  but  in  the  form  of  bushes  they  are  intolerable. 
Were  it  not  that  the  uniform  pale  green  of  the  trunks  and  branches  of  the 
better  developed  acacias  and  their  feathery  light-green  foliage  and  orange- 
coloured  flowerets  class  them  as  beautiful,  I  should  have  been  inclined  to  put 
them  in  the  division  of  the  vicious. 

There  is  malicious  vegetation  in  Africa.  There  is  a  small  plant — a  kind  of 
asafcetida — which  gives  forth  the  most  noxious  smell  of  bad  drains  when  it 
is  trampled  on.  There  are  various  kinds  of  arums  that  give  out  a  sickening 
odour ;  an  euphorbia  which,  when  broken,  spurts  out  a  poisonous  milk,  one 

1  These  are  especially  beautiful  at  the  north  end  of  Lake  Nyasa  where  they  are  grown  by  the  natives 
for  the  sake  of  the  shade  they  give.  Their  branches  have  long  brown  rootlets  which  gradually  reach 
to  the  ground  where  they  make  independent  growth,  as  is  done  by  the  Banyan  tree  in  India. 




drop  of  which  in  the  eye  will  bring  about  severe  inflammation  ;  very  thorny 
mimosas  (sensitive  plant) ;  and  a  horrid  little  vine l  growing  on  all  cultivated 
ground,  and  springing  up  from  underground  tubers  which  are  very  difficult 
to  extirpate.  An  atrocious  pest,  the  "  Spanish  needle,"  has  reached  this 
country.  It  is  found  all  round  the  world  now  in  the  cultivated  regions  of 
the  Tropics.  The  flower  is  a  poor  irregular  composite,  like  a  lanky  daisy, 
with  white  petals  and  yellow  centre,  and  seeds  that  develop  at  one  end 
a  number  of  tiny  hooks,  so  that  passing  through  a  field  where  this  weed 
grows  one's  trousers  bristle  with  innumerable  brown  seeds,  clinging  tightly 

to    the    cloth.       A    still    greater 

pest    is    the    Mucuna'1    bean,    of 
which   I  give  an  illustration.     It 

is  a  creeper  that  grows  over 
bushes  and  trees.  The  seed  pods 
are  covered  with  tiny  silky  hairs 
of  a  reddish  -  brown.  These,  if 
touched  by  the  skin,  cause  a 
most  extraordinary,  most  extra- 
vagant irritation — a  sort  of  nettle 
rash.  The  skin  is  covered  with 
large  white  weals  and  the  irrita- 
tion and  heat  are  so  bad  that 
nothing  but  stripping  and  rubbing 
oneself  with  a  cooling  lotion  afford 
relief.  This  cow  itch  is  of  very 
subtle  dispersal.  Clothes  which 
have  been  washed  are  laid  out  to 
dry  on  bushes,  and  attract  a  few 
of  the  hairs  off  the  seed  pods  of 
the  Mucuna.  To  all  appearance 
they  might  have  nothing  on  them 
to  attract  attention,  but  they  are 
no  sooner  worn  next  the  skin  than  a  sensation  as  of  innumerable  fleas  attacking 
one  begins  to  be  felt  until  at  last  the  irritation  is  unendurable.  The  cow  itch 
is  a  thing  which  particularly  affects  old  clearings  and  abandoned  plantations, 
and  therefore  grows  frequently  by  the  roadside  in  Central  Africa  where  the 
path  traverses  districts  that  have  been  inhabited. 

A  Sinilax  yam  is  a  noxious  thing,  as  it  twines  round  the  shrubs  and  plants 
and  throttles  them  ;  moreover  the  under  side  of  the  stalks  are  armed  with 
sharp  thorns  which  tear  the  skin  when  one  is  forcing  a  way  through  the  bush. 
A  lily,  supposed  to  be  the  species  which  for  inadequate  reasons  was  named  by 
Linnaeus  Gloriosa  supcrba,  is  very  poisonous  to  cattle  or  horses.  But  for 
this  reputation  (which  is  not  absolutely  proved)  it  is  a  pretty  thing ;  the 
flowers  develop,  as  they  expand,  from  yellow-green  to  brownish-crimson  and 
the  terminations  of  the  leaves  are  prolonged  into  fantastic  tendrils. 

The  grotesque  in  vegetation  is  well  represented.  Look  at  the  Baobab  tree 
without  its  leaves !  Is  it  not  as  though  nature  had  perpetrated  a  loathsome 
jest?  Its  enormous  bulk  (they  have  been  measured  80  feet  in  girth)  which 


1  This  Vitis  serpais,  as  it  is  called,  clambers  over  and  throttles  plant  after  plant.  At  the  same  time 
n  it  has  reached  a  fence  and  spread  itself  out  with  its  pretty  red-currant-like  grapes  it  is  very 
--14—  -  Chiles  of  many  parts  of  Nyasaland. 




after  all  is  nothing  but  soft,  fibrous,  pithy  wood  inside  the  hard  rind  ;  its  gouty 

limbs   springing   from    the    massive    trunk    and    so    inadequately   fulfilling  the 

promise  of  majesty  ;  and  the  leprous  look  of  the  whole  object  with  its  smooth, 

shiny,  dirty-pink  bark  make  up  a  total  that  is  wholly 
grotesque.  The  leaves  only  remain  on  this  tree  for 
about  five  months,  and  even  then  they  are  so  thinly 
scattered  as  to  give  no  shade.  The  flowers  are  hand- 
some as  they  open,  but  soon  tarnish  and  turn  brown, 
as  though  the  whole  tree  were  permeated  with  a  sickly 
taint.  The  seed  vessels,  shaped  like  huge  bean-pods, 
hang  perpendicularly  from  the  branches  by  string-like 
stalks  and  are  covered  with  a  thin  grey  plush.  Broken 
open  they  will  be  found  to  contain  a  white  pith,  yield- 
ing a  pleasant  acid  taste,  which  can  be  made  into  a 
drink  faintly  resembling  lemonade. 

Another  grotesque  thing  is  the  EupJwrbia,  which 
grows  in  the  plains  —  a  cube-like  stem  with  a  few  flat 
segments  branching  off  it  ;  or  the  Candelabra  Euphor- 
bia found  in  the  low  country  and  on  the  harsher 
uplands.  The  species  of  this  Euphorbia  which  grows 
in  the  hills  does  not  reach  the  same  size  as  the 
monster  of  the  plains.  It  looks,  with  the  blood-red 
aloes  growing  in  the  same  locality,  a  fit  vegetation  to 
surround  the  entrance  to  a  witches'  cavern.  The 
subsidiary  branches  are  like  innumerable  scorpion 
tails,  as  though  a  congeries  of  immense  scorpions 
were  collected  in  a  knot  with  their  tails  in  the  air. 
There  are  many  other  Euphorbias  not  already 

instanced  which  are  distinctly  quaint,  though  their  absurdity  has  a  dash  of  the 

saturnine.      Their  determination  to  grow  absolutely  green  flowers,  when  nearly 

every  other  plant  goes  in  for  colour, 

shows  a  trait  of  originality. 

The  Aloe  when  it  is  in  blossom 

and    throws    up    its    spike    of   coral 

coloured  tubes,  can  be  almost  pretty  ; 

otherwise  without  flowers   it  is  gro- 

tesque as  it  sprawls  over  the  ground 

and  its  thick-spotted  red  and  green 

leaves  with  sharp  serrated  edges  and 

long  whip-like  terminations  writhe  in 

ascending  whorls  from  the  crouching 

woody  stem. 

The    Kniphofia    (the     "  red  -  hot 

poker"    of   our    gardens)    is    on    the 

borderland    between    the     grotesque 

and  the  beautiful.     When  its  flower 

spike  is  in  full  bearing  and  the  main- 

little  tube-like  flowers  are  scarlet,  lightening  into  yellow,  it  offers  a  fine  body 

of  colour  ;    but  without  the  bloom    the   plant  with  its  limp  attenuated  leaves 

(green   and   spotted  with  white,  having  much  of  the  aloe's  fleshiness  without 

its  pompous  stiffness)  looks  like  some  monstrous  caricature  of  a  lily  made  in 





a  madman's  world.  The  Pro  tea  has  tried  to  be  beautiful  but  it  merely  succeeds 
in  being  strange,  with  its  immense  saucer-shaped  flowers  like  gigantic  daisies. 
These  soon  wither  and  yet  remain  on  the  bush,  hideous  black  objects,  for  many 
months  afterwards.  The  Protea  shrub  is  only  fit  to  look  at  during  one  month 
in  the  year. 

The  many  creepers  of  the  forests  develop  huge  lianas.     These  are  chiefly 
characteristic   of  the  various   rubber-vines   of  the  genus   Landolphia. 

The   Sansevieria   plants   should   be  classed   amongst 
the    grotesque    if  they    did    not    lead    us    by    a    natural 
transition   to   the   useful.      They  are  absurd  things,  just 
segments    of  crude    vegetation    which    might   be    stalks, 
but   which  are,   I    suppose,  leaves   that  come  up  out   of 
the  ground  anyhow.   One  triangular  leaf  may  be  standing 
alone,  although   there   may  be   a   Stonehenge   clump   of 
four  or  five  others  growing  stiffly  together  and  yet  having 
as  little  connection  with  each  other  as  possible.    It  is  very 
rare  to  see  these  things  in  flower.     When  they  do  flower 
the  blossom  comes  out  at  the  side  of  the  leaf,  which  makes 
you  think  that  the  leaf  after  all  is  a  stalk.  Ordinarily 
they  look  as  though  they  had   forgotten  where 
they  came  from  and  what  they  were  doing, 
and  whether  they  should  or  should  not 
have   leaves   or  stalks  or  flowers. 
They    are   fleshy,    but   with    limp 
leathery  edges,  and  they  produce 
excellent  fibre.     A  company  has 
been  started  for  the  cultivation  of 
the  Sansevieria,    which   grows   in 
dry,  stony  ground  ;    but  unfortu- 
nately   at    the    present    time    the 
price  of  fibre  is  so  low  that  the 
export  of  the  Sansevieria  will  not 
yield  large  profits. 

Fibre  is  also  obtained  from  the  A  LANDOLPHIA  LIANA 

Aloes,   Baobab    and   the  arboreal 

Hibiscus  ;  the  extraordinary  Kigclia  tree  (whose  seed  pods  are  sometimes  nearly 
as  thick  as  a  man's  thigh  and  like  a  huge  pendant  sausage  in  shape)  contains  in 
its  seed  pods  a  fibrous  material  like  the  Egyptian  Lufah  which  can  be  used  for 
rubbing  the  skin  after  a  bath,  and  might  be  utilised  for  many  other  purposes. 
The  natives  take  the  seeds  of  these  Kigclia  pods  and  roast  and  eat  them  in 
times  of  scarcity.  A  species  of  hemp,  probably  introduced,  grows  wild  all 
over  British  Central  Africa.  It  is  smoked  by  the  natives,  as  I  have  already 
stated.  This  hemp  might  also  be  got  to  yield  a  fibre,  and  some  of  the  palms 
would  do  the  same. 

Oils  are  produced  by  the  Scsauinin  (a  handsome  flowering  plant  with  large 
mauve-pink  blossoms),  by  several  species  of  Vitex,  by  the  Castor  oil  plant 
(Ricinus)  (which  grows  in  extravagant  abundance  in  and  near  to  the  native 
settlements),  by  the  Oil  palm  found  in  North-West  Nyasaland,  by  the  ground 
nuts  (Arachis  and  Yoand/eia,  which  are  almost  indigenous);  and  by  other 
seeds  and  nuts  not  yet  identified. 

For    timber    there    are    the    African    teak    (Oldficldia}\    the    Klumi ;    the 



Greivia  (often  twelve  feet  in  circumference  with  black  hard  wood  in  the  middle 
through  which  no  insect  can  penetrate);  various  species  of  Vitex ;  the 
Parinariuin ;  the  Afzelia  (whose  bark  is  often  made  into  boxes) ;  the  Ebony 
(Diospyros) ;  the  Ironwood  (Copaifera) ;  the  Msuko  (Vapaca  kirkiand) ;  and  the 
Mlanje  Cedar  (  Widdringtonia  whytei). 



Drugs  are  obtained  from  the  Strophanthus  creeper1  (used  for  poisoning 
arrows  and  killing  fish,  valuable  in  affections  of  the  heart) ;  from  the  Erythroph- 
Icenm  (the  bark  of  which  produces  a  violent  emetic  or  poison  known  as  Muavi}\ 
from  the  roots  of  certain  nettles  (which  furnish  purgatives) ;  from  the  seeds  of 
the  Crotons,  the  Castor  oil  plant,  certain  beans,  euphorbias,  and  innumerable 

1  The  Strophanthus  may  be  recognised  by  the  extraordinary  position  of  its  two  seed  pods  which  grow 
exactly  at  the  end  of  the  stalk  and  opposite  to  each  other  so  that  they  look  like  one  large  pod  placed  at 
right  angles  to  the  end  of  the  stalk. 



roots,  leaves,  flowers,  seeds  and  barks  not  as  yet  identified  and  named.  Many  of 
these  like  the  Strophanthus  may  prove  valuable  additions  to  our  Pharmacopoeia. 
The  natives  eat  the  fruit  of  the  Amomum.  The  flower  of  this  plant 
appears  a  short  distance  above  the  ground  in  the  spring  months.  One  species 
is  a  lovely  purple-red,  another  a  pink-mauve,  a  third  crocus-yellow,  and  a  fourth 

( U'ittciriiigtvnia  wliytei) 

white.      They  look   at   a   distance   like    exaggerated    crocuses.      Preceding  the 

florescence  of  the  yellow  species,  large  flat,  yellow  leaves  appear,  and  spread 

over   the  surface  of  the   soil  ;   but  in  the  case  of  the   purple   Amomums   the 

flower  goes  before  the  leaf,  and  the  tall  foliage  which  then  follows  is  somewhat 

e  a  dwarf  banana,  to  which  genus  the  Amomums  are  distantly  related     Their 

vessels  are  bright  red,  and   are  divided  into  sections,  each  with  a  black 

Ihe  pulp  surrounding  them   is   pleasantly  acid   and    is   chewed   bv  the 



natives.  The  seeds  of  one  A  mo  mum  are  very  aromatic,  and  form  the  "  Mala- 
guetta  "  pepper  from  West  Africa — of  which  our  ancestors  were  so  fond,  that 
it  proved  in  the  beginning  of  our  trade  with  the  Dark  Continent,  a  more 
powerful  motive  for  sending  ships  to  West  Africa  than  the  obtaining  of  slaves 
or  gold. 

The  fruits  of  the  Msuko  (Uapaca\  the  Parinarium,  the  Tamarind  (a  very 
common  tree  in  the  lowlands),  the  Sycomore  fig,  certain  species  of  Strychnos, 



the  Anona  or  Custard  Apple,  and  the  various  kinds  of  Landolphia  are  much 
eaten  by  the  natives.  With  the  exception  of  the  Tamarind,  they  offer  little 
attraction  to  the  European. 

Many  trees  have  a  sweet  or  an  edible  gum,  but  I  have  not  been  able 
to  identify  the  species.  From  the  fact  that  a  TracJiylolnnin  is  found  there 
max-  be  gum  copal,  but  I  cannot  say  that  any  has  been  brought  to  light  as  yet. 
Rubber  is  obtained  from  two  or  more  species  of  Landolphia,  also  from  Ficns, 
and  from  the  handsome  tree  or  shrub  Tabcnueinontana. 



THE  following  essay  on  the  "Useful  Trees  of  British  Central  Africa"  is  the 
prize  essay  among  several  sent  in  from  the  native  scholars  of  the  Blantyre 
Mission  Schools  (Church  of  Scotland)  to  compete  for  a  prize  I  offered  for  the 
best  description  in  the  Ci-nyanja  language  of  the  Useful  Trees  of  the 

The  essay  here  given  was  written  in  Ci-nyanja  by  Harry  Kambwiri,  one  of 
the  native  scholars  of  the  Mission,  and  has  been  kindly  translated  for  me  into 
English  by  the  Rev.  Alexander  Hetherwick,  M.A.,  of  the  Church  of  Scotland 
Mission.- — H.  H.  J. 



Chirama  grows  near  marshy  ground,  or  in  the  middle  of  the  marsh  itself.  It  is  of 
smooth  bark,  in  parts  scaly.  It  bears  a  fruit  which  is  used  as  medicine  for  pleuritic 
or  neuralgic  pains  in  the  chest.  The  fruit  is  plucked,  then  roasted  by  the  fire,  and  applied 
to  the  painful  spot,  for  the  relief  of  the  pain. 

Chandimbo  1  grows  on  any  kind  of  sandy  soil.  It  has  an  edible  fruit,  black  in  colour 
On  removing  the  outer  rind  it  is  found  exceedingly  pleasant,  or  on  simply  chewing  in  the 
mouth  it  resembles  a  sweetmeat.  The  wood  of  it  is  used  for  making  pestles,  spoons, 
pillows  and  drums.  It  is  apt  to  crack.  The  tree  is  not  a  pretty  one ;  it  has  a  lar^e 
number  of  branches  ;  the  wood  is  not  hard ;  it  is  useless  as  a  firewood  ;  cuttings 
planted  out  grow  well,  and  are  employed  as  fencing  poles. 

Msuko '-  grows  on  sandy  soil,  and  nowhere  close  to  water.  Its  fruit  reaches  maturity 
in  October,  and  is  edible  in  November  and  December.  When  the  fruit  is  ripe  it 
tails  of  itself,  and  is  picked  up  as  an  edible  fruit  exceedingly  good.  In  famine  seasons 
people  squeeze  the  fruit  into  a  dish,  mash  it  up,  and  eat  it. 

The  wood  of  it  is  used  for  boards,  which  are  good  for  tables,  chairs,  desks,  etc.,  etc. 
I  he  boards  are  red  in  colour,  but  are  apt  to  crack.  If  left,  however,  till  thoroughly  dry 
it  does  not  crack. 

It  is  used  by  women  as  firewood  for  burning  pots,  plates,  etc.,  but  it  leaves  a  very 
abundant  ash. 

It  is  employed  in  medicine.  Pieces  are  chipped  off  and  steeped.  The  water  is  then 
drunk.  It  has  an  astringent  taste. 

It  is  not  a  deep  rooter— only  the  tap  root  goes  down  any  distance, 
t  is  good  for  charcoal  making;  also  is  used  for  couples,  etc.,  in  house-building,  as 
it  cannot  be  bored  by  wood  insects.     If  the  seeds  are  planted  they  grow  into  a  tree,  but 
very  slowly. 

Mpindimbi*  grows  on  sandy  soil  near  water.  The  fruit  is  edible,  but  bad  smelling 
and  is  usually  only  eaten  by  animals.  The  timber  is  white,  and  is  easily  made  into 
If  cut  green  the  wood  cracks,  but  not  if  cut  dry.  It  is  made  into  spoons, 
mortars,  pillows,  etc.  One  species,  called  chipindimbi,  is  used  in  medicine.  If  a  child 
is  feverish  its  leaves  are  taken  and  pounded  and  mixed  with  water,  in  which  the  child 
is  then  bathed. 

1  Erythrina  tomcntosa  (?).  —  H.   II.  J.          -'    Uafaca  kirkiana.—\\.  II.  J.  '•    Fife*  sp.— H.  M.  |. 


Mnyotiveve1  grows  in  flat,  open,  damp  soil,  or  near  water.  Its  fruit,  when  ripe,  is 
black,  and  is  edible.  I  think  the  Europeans  might  employ  it  after  pounding  in  the 
manufacture  of  ink.  Its  wood  is  used  in  furniture-making. 

Mpingo-  is  a  good  wood,  used  in  making  the  masts  of  dhows.  With  the  inner 
wood  natives  make  canes,  knife-handles,  etc.  It  grows  near  streams,  and  is  always 
seen  on  the  banks  of  big  rivers.  Long  ago  people  employed  this  wood  in  making 
arrow-heads,  as  it  is  exceedingly  hard. 

Mkitndan^ulmve  grows  on  sandy  soil.  Is  used  in  making  knobkerries,  tobacco  pipes. 
It  takes  on  a  good  polish. 

Mpinjipinji  is  a  choice  fruit  tree.  It  is  propagated  from  cuttings,  and  takes  five 
years  before  reaching  maturity. 

Masai/  grows  anywhere  on  high  ground.  The  surface  of  the  tree  is  covered  with 
small  prickles.  It  has  short,  small  leaves  and  a  small  fruit.  When  ripe  the  fruit  is  red. 
It  is  then  plucked  or  picked  off  the  ground  where  it  may  have  fallen.  It  is  boiled  in  a 
pot  into  which  a  gun.-barrel  has  been  inserted.  The  pot  is  covered  up,  and  a  fire 
is  kindled  beneath  it.  Water  is  poured  on  the  gun-barrel,  and  the  distilled  liquid  is 
caught  in  a  bottle  as  Kachaso  (spirits). 

Mkakatuku  grows  on  sandy  soil.  It  is  a  very  hard  wood,  hence  its  name.  The 
wood  is  good  at  the  heart  of  the  stem.  People  scrape  off  the  bark,  steep  it,  and 
drink  the  liquid. 

Mkwesu  grows  near  the  river  or  lake  on  small  ant  hills.  The  wood  is  very  hard. 
The  fruit  is  long  and  finger-like.  The  wood  is  good  for  making  boards  for  furniture,  etc. 

Mtundula  grows  near  a  stream.  Its  fruit  is  edible  and  sweet.  The  bark  is  used 
for  dyeing  cloth  of  a  red  colour,  like  Turkey-red  calico.  The  wood  can  be  made 
into  boards. 

Muungiitwa — a  large  tree  growing  in  the  long  grass  near  a  stream.  It  produces 
a  red  fruit  inedible  save  by  elephants.  The  wood  is  used  for  making  mortars,  and  also 
for  canoes. 

Chitasya  is  a  hard  wood  that  does  not,  however,  grow  to  any  si/e.  It  grows  on  sandy 
soil.  The  wood  is  used  in  making  head-rests  (pillows)  and  lip  ornaments  for  women. 

Mkuyii 3  grows  either  near  a  stream  or  on  high  ground.  If  the  stem  is  cut  it  exudes 
a  white  sap  which  is  used  in  smearing  arrows,  so  as  to  harden  them.  The  fruit  is  called 
/i^in'ii,  and  is  edible.  In  seasons  of  famine  the  fruit  is  plucked  when  still  green,  and 
pounded  and  eaten  as  a  porridge  with  fowl  as  relish.  If  picked  up  hard  and  dry  the  fruit 
is  mashed  up  and  cooked.  The  bark  of  the  tree  gives  good  bark-rope.  It  affords  good 
shade.  The  fruit  is  eaten  by  the  birds.  There  is  another  species  of  fig  called  mpumbe, 
with  a  larger  fruit.  If  many  of  the  fruit  are  eaten  they  are  apt  to  cause  sore  throat. 

Mbawa  4  grows  near  a  stream  or  in  dense  clumps  of  forest.  It  is  a  large  tree.  The 
fruit  is  not  edible,  but  the  seeds  of  it  are  roasted,  pounded,  and  used  in  dyeing  or  softening 
bark-cloth.  The  bark  of  the  tree  is  thick.  The  wood  is  used  in  canoe-making.  The 
Europeans  make  excellent  boards  of  it,  as  it  does  not  crack,  which  they  make  into  articles 
of  furniture.  The  natives  use  it  as  a  medicine  for  the  stomach.  They  chip  off  pieces 
of  bark  and  steep  them  in  a  dish,  and  drink  the  water. 

Mngwenye  is  a  special  large-si/ed  tree,  which  grows  near  streams.  Chips  of  the  bark 
are  used  as  medicine  for  the  stomach.  They  are  steeped  in  water,  and  the  water  is  drunk. 
The  leaves  are  long  and  narrow.  The  fruit  is  small  and  inedible.  The  wood  makes 
excellent  boards,  of  a  light  colour,  which  crack  only  to  a  small  extent.  The  wood  is 
very  hard,  and  is  used  for  making  furniture.  It  is  also  used  in  canoe-making. 

1  Nuxia  congesta.  —  II.  II.  J.  -  Ebony — Diofpyros  sp.—  1 1.  II.  J. 

:!  Ficns  syconiorns.— II.  II.'j.  4  Khaya  xcne^alensis. -  -1  I.   II.  J. 


Msumbuti  grows  anywhere  on  sandy  soil.  Its  bark  is  used  in  making  bark- cloth, 
and  also  bark-rope.  When  dry  the  timber  makes  good  firewood. 

Napiri^  grows  on  flat,  open,  wet  plains,  also  on  higher  ground.  The  natives 
use  the  wood  in  making  pestles  for  pounding  grain,  as  it  is  hard  and  heavy.  It  makes 
good  firewood. 

Mloinlnvn  grows  anywhere  on  sandy  soil  or  on  the  hills.  By  partially  burning  it 
makes  good  charcoal.  The  sap  is  red  and  is  sticky  to  the  touch.  The  natives  make 
mortars,  drums,  spoons,  pestles,  etc.  It  makes  beautiful  boards.  The  bark  is  used  as 
medicine  for  nettlerash.  The  fruit  is  used  in  pleuritic  pains  of  the  chest.  It  is  roasted, 
and  the  ash  is  punctured  into  the  painful  spot. 

Nkomwa  grows  near  a  stream.  It  is  used  in  making  drums,  pestles,  spoons,  pillows. 
It  is  a  very  light  wood,  and  makes  good  boards.  The  leaves  are  small,  and  the  bark 
is  thin. 

+)[joml>o-  grows  near  streams  or  on  sandy  soil.  The  fruit  is  eaten  by  baboons. 
Natives  make  bark-cloth  and  strong  bark-rope. 

Mkalate  grows  on  sandy  soil,  especially  near  the  foot  of  hills.  It  is  used  in  making 
wall  posts  for  houses,  and  roofing. 

Balisa  grows  on  high  ground.  It  makes  into  good  boards.  The  wood  of  it  is  very 
hard.  The  natives  here  make  good  pestles  of  it. 

Xkako  grows  near  streams  or  in  clumps  of  forest  trees.  Natives  make  head-rests  of  it, 
and  wooden  arrow-heads  for  shooting  small  birds.  The  wood  is  good  and  hard. 

Mlendimilo  grows  on  high  ground  or  on  hills.  It  blossoms  into  flowers  on  the 
approach  of  the  rainy  season.  Natives  use  the  wood  for  making  drums,  which  are  strong 
and  give  out  plenty  of  sound.  Chips  of  the  bark  are  used  in  medicine. 

Mt>a//ga  grows  on  high  ground.  It  is  an  exceedingly  hard  wood.  The  leaves  are 
used  as  medicine  in  headache.  They  are  pounded  or  steeped  in  a  pot  or  basin,  and  the 
face  is  washed  with  the  water.  Sometimes  simply  the  smell  of  the  leaves  is  sufficient.  It 
makes  an  excellent  medicine,  and  effects  a  cure  after  repeated  applications.  When  dry 
the  wood  makes  good  firewood  which  leaves  no  ash. 

Mlambe*  the  largest  tree  in  this  country,  grows  near  water.  It  produces  a  fruit  called 
malambe,  the  inside  of  which  is  white  and  is  eaten  thus  : — the  inside  is  scooped  out, 
mixed  with  water,  and  eaten.  Large  strips  of  the  wrood  are  taken  and  beaten,  so  as  to 
form  a  fibre  from  which  cord  is  made.  The  tree  produces  very  few  leaves. 

Mkongomwa  is  a  good  tree  for  shade.  It  grows  near  the  River  Shire,  and  also  in  the 
Mangoni  country. 

Ngosa  grows  on  flat  plains  near  rivers.  The  wood  on  being  cut  is  very  soft.  The 
bark  is  used  in  making  cord  for  weaving  nets  or  sewing  sleeping  mats.  The  fruit  is 
roasted  and  mixed  with  tobacco  snuff  as  a  flavouring. 

Mlnndo  grows  anywhere  on  sandy  soil.  The  leaves  are  small ;  the  wood  is  hard : 
the  fruit  is  inedible.  It  is  used  as  medicine  for  the  stomach  by  steeping  the  bark  and 
drinking  the  water,  or  by  twisting  it  into  a  cord  and  wearing  the  cord  tied  round  the  waist. 

Chikitjumlni  grows  on  sandy  soil  or  near  a  stream.  The  bark  is  covered  with  small 
scales.  One  is  growing  in  the  Square  at  Blantyre  Mission.  The  wood  is  used  for 
making  mortars,  pestles,  spoons  and  pillows. 

Chuiiibu  is  used  as  stomach  medicine.  The  bark  is  chipped  off  and  steeped,  and 
the  water  is  drunk.  It  is  also  used  in  treating  boils.  The  boil  is  opened  with  a  sharp 
point  made  of  this  wood  which  prevents  it  recurring  again.  The  tree  grows  on  sandy 
soil  near  ant-hills.  It  is  a  very  soft  wood. 

1    Copaifera  sp.,  allied  to  the  Mopane  or  "  ironwood  "  tree  of  Livingstone. — H.  II.  (. 

'2  Brachystegia  ion^ijolia.  —  \\.  II.  J.  »  The  Baobab—  Adansonia  digitata.—  II.  II.  |. 


Mfawa  grows  on  any  kind  of  soil.  The  wood  is  not  hard.  When  dry  it  is  not 
heavy,  but  when  green,  natives  make  good  bark-cloth  of  it,  and  rope. 

Msopa  is  used  in  medicine,  and  also  to  make  bows.  It  makes  good  boards.  Chips 
of  it  are  steeped  in  the  water  where  bark-cloth  is  steeped,  so  as  to  dye  it  black.  The 
wood  is  hard  to  cut  and  cracks.  It  grows  close  to  streams  or  in  damp,  marshy  spots. 

Mkwale  grows  on  plains,  as  on  the  bank  of  the  Tuchila.  It  is  used  for  making 
spoons,  pestles,  and  lip-rings  worn  by  native  women.  It  is  very  white,  and  does  not  crack. 

Msolo  grows  on  sandy  soil,  and  makes  good  boards.  Natives  cut  it  into  pestles, 
pipes,  and  spoons.  It  will  not  make  mortars  because  it  is  too  hard.  The  fruit  is  eaten 
by  game  such  as  bushbuck,  etc. 

Msechela  grows  on  sandy  soil  near  a  hill.  It  is  very  like  the  msuku  tree,  but  has 
smaller  leaves.  It  makes  as  good  boards  as  the  msuku  tree.  The  fruit  is  small  and 

Mchenje  grows  on  plains  near  ant-hills.  The  bark  is  rough  and  the  leaves  are  small. 
It  is  used  in  medicine  by  steeping  chips  of  it  in  water,  and  drinking  the  water.  It  is 
used  as  medicine  for  game-traps.  The  fruit  is  pounded  and  placed  in  the  traps.  In 
seasons  of  famine  it  is  eaten  as  a  food. 

Nkungunyanjila  grows  anywhere  near  the  river.  Its  fruit  is  not  eatable.  The  wood 
makes  good  boards.  It  is  used  as  medicine  for  sores,  by  steeping  chips  of  the  wood 
in  water,  and  washing  over  the  wound  by  means  of  a  feather. 

vrs  near  streams.  The  stem  is  light  in  colour.  The  leaves  are  long  and 
narrow.  The  natives  make  the  wood  into  pestles,  spoons,  mortars,  etc.  It  makes  good 
boards  of  a  white  colour.  It  is  also  used  in  making  drums,  and  as  stomach  medicine  in 

Mkwakwa  produces  a  nice  fruit.  It  grows  on  hills  in  dense  clumps  of  trees.  The 
fruit  is  sweet  and  tastes  like  pineapple. 

Mguwanguwo  is  used  in  medicine  by  steeping  the  bark.  It  has  a  very  bitter  taste 
like  quinine.  It  makes  into  good  boards. 

Mseje  cuts  into  good  boards.  It  is  not  hard  to  saw  up.  The  wood  is  red  in  colour. 
It  grows  on  sandy  soil.  When  the  tree  is  small  its  branches  make  good  pestles. 

Mjole  ]  is  a  good  wood  used  in  canoe-making.  It  is  a  very  tall  tree,  with  the  leaves 
all  at  the  top.  It  makes  into  very  strong  canoes.  It  grows  on  the  river  and  at  Linjisi. 

Sanyo  ^  is  a  tree  that  grows  at  the  river,  and  is  used  in  making  wall-posts  of  houses, 
and  in  twisting  into  ropes.  It  is  a  very  common  tree. 

Mtomoni  grows  on  sandy  soil  and  hilly  country.  It  is  used  in  medicine.  It  makes 
a  good  tree  for  fence-posts,  as  it  takes  root  and  grows.  The  sap  is  used  in  smearing  the 
tops  of  drums,  that  the  india-rubber  may  adhere  to  the  skin.  The  fruit  is  inedible. 

Mbewe  grows  on  sandy  soil.  Long  ago  the  wood  was  used  for  arrow-heads.  It  is 
used  also  in  smelting  and  working  iron,  that  the  metal  may  be  made  readily  malleable. 

Mpelele  grows  on  plains  near  the  river.  The  tree  is  one  used  in  canoe-making,  as  it 
does  not  crack. 

Mtondo  is  found  at  the  river,  and  is  used  in  canoe-making,  and  in  making  mortars, 
pestles,  etc.  The  fruit,  which  is  called  Matondo,  is  edible. 

Msichisi-  grows  near  streams.  The  wood  is  used  in  making  stocks  of  guns,  pestles, 

Msangu,  a  canoe  tree.    The  bark  is  rough,  the  leaves  are  small.    It  grows  at  the  river. 

Msumiva  grows  at  the  river;  somewhat  rough  in  the  bark.  The  tree  is  useful  in 

1  Parinarium  sp.—  H.  II.  J.  "  Wild  date  palm,  Phctnix  sp.—  H.  II.  J. 


Mkunde1  grows  near  streams.  Is  useful  in  canoe-making.  The  fruit  is  edible,  but  is 
apt  to  discolour  the  teeth. 

Dulnlu  grows  on  sandy  soil.  It  is  used  in  making  drums,  mortars,  spoons,  etc.  It 
makes  good  boards.  The  root  also  is  used  in  drum-making.  It  is  a  light  wood. 

Mtondewoko  is  used  in  canoe-making.  Elephants  are  fond  of  the  fruit.  The  wood 
is  hard  and  very  heavy.  It  is  used  in  making  the  big  drums  used  by  the  river  people. 

Mtitndu  grows  in  clumps  of  trees  or  on  the  sites  of  deserted  villages.  Cuttings  are 
planted  at  the  chief's  courtyard,  and  grow  very  quickly  into  a  big  tree  which  can  be 
readily  recognised. 

Mkolononjo  grows  on  plains.  The  wood  of  the  stem  is  very  full  of  knots.  It  is 
used  in  canoe-making.  It  is  found  at  the  river  and  at  the  Tuchila. 

Ntepa  makes  excellent  bark-rope.     It  grows  on  flat  grassy  plains. 

Ngachi?  a  leafless  tree.  If  the  sap  drops  into  the  eye  it  causes  inflammation  of  the 
cornea.  It  is  used  as  a  fish  poison.  It  grows  on  the  sites  of  old  villages. 

Mdogodea  cuts  easily  into  boards.  It  is  a  smooth-barked  tree  with  small  leaves,  and 
grows  near  a  stream.  The  fruit  is  named  Mandogodia. 

Mvumo?  or  Ngwalangwa,  is  a  river  tree  of  great  height.  The  fruit  is  edible.  The 
leaves  are  long  like  those  of  the  date  palm.  It  is  propagated  from  the  seed.  The  root 
also  is  used  as  food  in  a  similar  manner  to  the  carsana  plant. 

M-iCaja — a  large  tree  growing  on  the  banks  of  streams.  It  is  red  in  colour,  and 
produces  a  fruit  as  large  as  a  pumpkin.  When  ripe  the  fruit  falls  to  the  ground.  People 
pick  it  up,  take  out  the  seeds,  roast  them,  and  eat  them.  The  tree  is  found  on  Mounts 
Mangoche  and  Nangu. 

Nangwesie  is  a  good  tree  for  bark-cloth.  It  grows  on  sandy  soil.  Its  bark  is  also 
used  for  bark-rope. 

Mtalawanda  is  used  for  bows  and  sticks.  The  bark  is  smooth,  and  the  leaves  are 
small.  It  grows  at  the  river. 

Tcuza  is  used  for  bows  and  sticks.  It  grows  in  sandy  soil  near  streams.  It  is  not  of 
much  use.  In  appearance  it  is  very  similar  to  the  Mtnhuvanda  tree. 

Mtewelewe  grows  an  edible  fruit.     It  is  used  for  wall-posts  of  houses. 

Nkope  is  used  for  making  bows.  The  wood  is  hard,  the  leaves  are  large,  and  the  bark 
smooth.  It  grows  near  streams  in  clumps  of  trees. 

Nkulakula  is  used  in  making  lids  of  covered  baskets.  The  wood  is  adzed  down  thin, 
and  bent  into  a  circular  form.  It  is  also  used  in  making  beer  cups. 

Nabukwi  is  used  for  mortars,  drums,  etc.     It  is  also  made  into  boards. 

Chinyeuyc  is  used  to  make  mallets  for  hammering  out  bark-cloth.  Europeans  may 
use  it  for  wooden  hammers.  It  grows  near  the  river. 

Mpawoni  is  a  large  tree  like  Mbawa.  It  grows  near  streams  on  the  banks  of  the 
Tuchila  and  Nkwakwasa.  In  appearance  it  is  like  the  Mbawa,  but  has  not  the  red 

Mchi/e,  or  Kn/isiu/ic,  grows  anywhere  even  as  a  parasite.  It  makes  very  strong  bark- 
cloth.  It  is  red  in  colour,  and  is  used  also  in  making  bark-cloth.  Its  fruit  is  called  Ngile. 

Chisije. — The  Chikunda  people  at  Michiru  take  chips  of  the  wood,  mix  the  water  in 
which  they  are  steeped  with  Likwanya  plant,  and  use  it  in  dyeing  cloth  of  a  black  colour. 
It  grows  anywhere  on  sandy  soil. 

1   Parhia Jllicoidea.—  H.  H.  J.  -  Euphorbia  sp.—  H.  II.   |. 

:!  Apparently  these  arc  t\v<>  different  palms.  Mvumo  is  the  fiorasnt*  tLibcllifcr,  and  Xi;\valani;wa 
Ifyf>h<rne  sp.  inc.  —  II.  II.  |. 


Lungwe  makes  a  medicine  for  sores.  Chips  are  taken  off,  placed  in  a  pot,  and  heated 
over  the  fire.  The  infusion  is  applied  to  the  sore  by  means  of  a  feather. 

Mkakomtela  makes  lip-rings,  and  is  carved  into  gun-stocks. 

Mkemgusa  (Mlanje  Cedar)  is  a  noteable  tree  in  British  Central  Africa.  It  is  used  in 
making  tables,  chairs,  etc.  It  is  easily  cut  and  planed,  and  has  a  sweet  smell.  It  also 
makes  good  walking-sticks. 

Nkolopochi — a  tree  which  grows  on  the  hills,  and  has  a  fruit  of  the  same  name,  which 
is  bright  red  when  ripe. 

Mchenjilema  is  a  tree  that  grows  on  hilly  ground.  It  is  a  tree  of  great  use.  It  is 
large  in  size,  and  grows  in  forest  clumps.  It  has  very  large  roots  that  grow  down  deep 
into  the  ground. 

Msilanyama — a  fruit  tree,  but  small.  People  take  the  bark  (or  husks)  and  pound  it 
in  a  mortar,  and  make  an  oil  used  in  smearing  their  bodies.  It  grows  on  sandy  soil. 
The  fruit  is  small  like  a  chitalaka  bead. 

Nkuluktitutu  grows  on  sandy  soil  or  near  a  stream.  The  fruit  is  very  edible.  The 
wood  is  used  for  making  wooden  spoons. 

Chipisawago,  like  the  chinyenye  tree,  is   used  for   making   wooden    mallets.  After 

adzing,  they  are  marked  with  a  hot  iron,  and  are  used  for  hammering  bark-cloth.  It  is 

an  exceedingly  hard  wood,  hence   its  name — chipisawago,   "the   blunter  of  the  axe." 
If  Europeans  make  mallets  of  this  tree  they  will  find  it  very  useful. 

Mpandabivalo  is  easily  cut  into  boards.  It  does  not  crack.  The  seeds  are  used  by 
women  for  lip-rings. 

Nakalima  grows  on  hilly  country,  and  makes  into  good  boards. 

Chandafu  grows  on  hilly  country ;  is  a  very  large  tree,  and  makes  good  boards.  The 
tree  is  dark  in  colour,  and  the  bark  is  very  rough. 

Nkangasa — a  canoe-tree  growing  at  the  river  or  on  the  hills.  It  is  found  here,  and 
makes  good  boards. 

Mchelechela  grows  near  streams  or  in  clumps  of  forest  trees.  It  is  a  very  large  tree, 
and  is  used  in  making,  spoons,  mortars,  and  canoes. 

Nkalala  grows  in  forest  clumps.     It  is  used  in  canoe-making. 

Mchenga  is  used  in  making  handles  for  hoes  and  axes.  The  leaves  are  small,  and  the 
bark  is  rough. 







BY   I.    H.    BURKILL,    M.A. 

THE  following  list,  compiled  for  the  most  part  from  the  plants  and  manuscript  records 
in  the  Herbarium  of  the  Royal  Gardens,  Kew,  must  be  regarded  as  provisional.  The 
knowledge  of  the  flora  of  the  British  territory  north  of  the  Zambezi  has  been  so  rapidly 
extended  during  recent  years,  and  is  yet  so  imperfectly  known,  that  any  account 
approaching  completeness  is  at  present  impossible.  Little  has  been  published  hitherto, 
and  the  facts  now  collected  together  will  serve  to  bring  into  one  view  nearly  all  we 
know  of  the  Botany  of  British  Central  Africa. 

The  first  collections  were  made  by  two  members  of  the  Livingstone  Expedition 
in  the  years  1861,  1862.  Dr.  (afterwards  Sir)  John  Kirk  and  Mr.  J.  C.  Meller,  while 
exploring  the  course  of  the  Shire  River  and  wandering  in  the  Mananja  hills,  made 
considerable  collections,  which  were  transmitted  to  Kew,  some  of  them  in  time 
for  description  in  the  Flora  of  Tropical  Africa.  Subsequently  Dr.  Kirk  journeyed 
up  the  Zambezi  into  the  Batoka  country,  from  the  highlands  of  which  and  from  the 
region  of  the  Victoria  Falls  other  plants  were  sent  home.  The  new  species 
gathered  by-  him  were  described  in  a  variety  of  different  publications.  In  the 
following  years  Mr.  Horace  Waller,  residing  in  the  Mananja  hills,  continued  to 
transmit  plants  to  Dr.  Kirk,  who  was  at  that  time  H.M.'s  Consul  in  Zanzibar.  After 
this  comes  a  gap  of  some  years  in  which  nothing  was  added  to  our  knowledge, 
until  Dr.  Emil  Holub,  in  1879,  returned  from  a  journey  during  which  he  had  made 
considerable  collections.  Of  these,  a  few  of  the  plants  had  been  gathered  about 
Sesheke,  almost  the  most  northern  point  which  he  reached,  and  within  the  territory 
under  consideration.  At  the  same  time  (1878)  Major  Serpa  Pinto  made,  in  his 
journey  across  the  continent,  a  small  collection  on  the  table-land  over  the  river 
Ninda,  and  the  plants  of  this  were,  in  1881,  described  in  the  Transactions  of  the 
Linmean  Society.  Again  in  this  year,  1878,  the  late  Mr.  John  Buchanan  sent  to  Kew 
his  first  collection  of  Nyasaland  plants,  and  Mr.  L.  Scott  travelled  collecting  through 
the  Shire  Highlands  to  the  head  of  Lake  Nyasa. 

From  this  date  our  knowledge  has  steadily  grown.  Under  the  influence  and  with 
the  help  of  Sir  Harry  Johnston,  the  region  of  the  Shire  Highlands  has  been 
energetically  explored.  The  frequent  mention  below  of  the  names  of  J.  Buchanan, 
G.  F.  Scott-Elliot,  J.  McClounie,  J.  Last,  A.  Whyte,  and  K.  C.  Cameron  shows  how 
much  has  been  done  in  this  region.  Further  north,  in  1879,  Mr.  Joseph  Thomson 


had  gathered  plants  on  the  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  and  these  reached  Ke\v  in 
1880.  Messrs.  Carson,  Nutt,  Scott-Elliot  and  Sir  Harry  Johnston  have  also  collected 
on  the  plateau,  and  the  first-named  on  a  journey  along  the  Kalungwizi  River  to 
Lake  Mweru. 

The  collection  made  at  Boroma,  on  the  north  of  the  Zambezi,  by  the  Rev. 
L.  Menyharth,  is  only  in  part  known. 

As  a  guide  to  the  distribution,  the  region  has  been  divided  into  four  sections,  as 
follows  : — 

1.  Shire  Highlands. 

2.  Nyasa-Tanganyika    plateau;    some   of    the    plants   probably   collected    on 

the  German  side  of  the  boundary  line. 

3.  Extreme  west,  where  Major  Serpa  Pinto  alone  has  collected. 

4.  Upper  Zambezi. 

It  must  be  understood  that  all  the  plants  collected  by  Buchanan  were  obtained 
in  the  Shire  Highlands ;  all  by  Carson  and  Nutt,  unless  otherwise  stated,  from  the 
region  near  the  south  end  of  Lake  Tanganyika  ;  all  from  Serpa  Pinto  from  the  one 
plateau  near  the  river  Ninda ;  and  all  from  Menyharth  from  Boroma.  It  was  not 
thought  necessary  to  repeat  these  localities  with  the  collectors'  names. 


Clematis  Ktrkti,  Oliv.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 

C.  grata,  Oliv.     (i)  Buchanan. 

C.  simensis,  Fresen.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 

C.  Thunbergii,  Steud.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

Clematis  sp.     (2)  Carson. 

Thalictrum  rhynchocarpum,  Dill,  et  Rich,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 

T.  longipedunciilatum,  Harv.  et  Sond.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Anemone  whyteana,  Baker  fil.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 

Ranunculus  pinnatus,  Poir.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Ranunculus  sp.     (2)  Carson. 

Delphinium  dasycaulon,  Fresen.     (2)  Nutt. 


Anona    senegalensis,    Pers.      (i)    Shire    Valley,    Kirk  ;    (2)    Nyasa-Tanganyika    plateau, 


Anona  sp.     (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot. 
(  '-t'«ria  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 
Xylopia  sp.  ?     (i)  Buchanan. 
Unona  spp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Monodora  stenopetala,  Oliv.     (i)  Rapids  of  Shire  River  and  west  of  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 


Jateorhiza  Cohimba,  Miers.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Tiliacora  (?)  funifera,  Oliv.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  (4)  Victoria  Falls,  Kirk. 
7^iliacora  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Cocculns  -i'illosHs,  DC.     (i)  Rapids  of  Shire  River,  Kirk. 
Cissampelos  Pareira,  L.     (i)  Buchanan;   Shire  Highlands  and  Lake  Nyasa,  Scott-Elliot; 

Zomba,  Whyte. 

C.  nephrophylla,  Bojer.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Stephania  abyssintca,  Rich.  (?)     (i)  Buchanan. 



Nymphaea  steUata,  Wilid.    (i)  Lake  Nyasa  and  Shire  River,  Kirk;  Buchanan;  (2)  Carson. 


Nasturtium  indicum,  L.     (4)  Menyharth. 

Bnissica  juncea,  DC.     (i)  Murchison  Falls,  Shire  River,  Meller ;  Buchanan. 


Cleome  monophylla,  L.     (i)  Zomba  and  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 
C.  chilocalyxi  Oliv.     (i)  Shire  River,  Meller. 

C.  hirta,  Oliv.       (i)  Maravi   country,  Kirk;   (2)  Carson;   Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake 

Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

C.  ciliata,  Schum.  et  Thonn.     (2)  Carson. 
Cleome  sp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 

Gynandropsis  pentaphylla,  UC.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Shire  River,  Meller. 
Thylacinm  afn'cnni/m,  Lour,     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk;  Buchanan. 
Maenia  nervosa,  Oliv.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Maerita  sp.     (i )  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 
Boscia  salici folia,  Oliv.     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk. 

B.  Carsoni,  Baker.     (2)  Mweru,  Carson. 

Capparis  rosea,  L.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot;  by  Lake  Nyasa  and  Upper  Shire, 

C.  tomentosa,  Lam.     (i)  Buchanan. 

C.  Kirkii,  Oliv.     (i)  By  Lake  Nyasa  and  Upper  Shire,  Kirk. 
Capparis  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Ritchiea  sp.     (2)  Carson. 


Caylusea  abyssinica,  Fisch.  et  Mey.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 


lonidium  enneaspermnm,  Vent,     (i)  Blantyre,  Last ;  (4)  Menyharth. 

/.  nyassensc,  Engl.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Viola  abyssinica,  Steud.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 


Motinga  pterygosperma,  DC.     (i)  Lake  Nyasa  and  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 


Oncoba  spinosa,  Forsk.     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk  ;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot ;  Buchanan. 
O.  lasiocaly.v,  Oliv.     (i)  Lake  Chilwa,  Kirk. 
O.petersiana,  Oliv.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 
Flacourtiit  Rui/ioutc/ii,  L'Hcrit.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Aphloia    theaeformis,    Benn.       (i)     Mlanje,    McClounie    and   Whyte;    Zomba,    Whyte; 

Kiggelaria grcmdifoliat  Warb.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Pittosporum  sp.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 


I'olygaln  gomesinnn,  Wehv.      (i)    Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk;    Zomba,  Whyte;    Blantyre,  Last; 

2}  Xutt ;  lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
/'.  ninboinensis,  Gurke.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 



Polygala  tcmdcaulis,  Hook.  fil.     (2)  Carson. 

P.  ranfol/ti,  DC.     (2)  Nutt. 

P.  triflora,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 

P.  polygonifolia,  Chodat.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

P.  brittenituia,  Chodat.     (2)  Nyasa- Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot. 

P.  persicariaefolia,  DC.     (i)   Blantyre,  Last ;   Zomba  and  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;    Buchanan  ; 

Mananja  hills,  Kirk  and  Waller. 

P. petitiana,  Rich,     (i)  Blantyre,  Last ;  Buchanan  ;  Mananja  hills,  Waller. 
P.  virgata,  Thunb.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie  ;  Buchanan. 
P.  krumanina,  Burchell.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
P.  micrantha,  G.  et  P.     (2)  Carson. 
Poly  gala  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Blantyre,  Last. 
Securidaca    longepedunculata,    Fresen.       (i)    Mananja    hills,    Meller ;    Zomba,    Whyte; 


Securidaca  sp.     (i)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott- Elliot. 
Muraltia  mix  fa,  L.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie  ;  Zomba,  Whyte. 


Dianthns  Serpae,  Ficalho  et  Hiern.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 

Silene  Burchellii,  Otth.      (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  and   McClounie;    Shire  Highlands,  Scott- 
Elliot  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Upper  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  J.  Thomson. 
Silene  sp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  J.  Thomson. 
Cerastium  africamim,  Oliv.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
Cerastium  sp.     (2)  Lower  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  J.  Thomson. 
Stellaria.  media,  Cyr.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
Drymaria  cordata,  Willd.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 
Polycarpaea  corymbosa,  L.     (4)  Menyharth  ;  var.  effusa,  Oliv.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Polycarpaea  sp.     (4)  Menyharth. 


Portitlaca  quadrtfida,  L.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Mweru,  Carson. 


Hypericum peplidifo Hum,  Rich,  (i)  Mlanje  and  Zomba,  Whyte;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott- 
Elliot  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nutt. 

H.  lanceolatum,  Lam.  (i)  Buchanan;  Mananja  hills,  Meller;  Blantyre,  Last;  Mlanje 
and  Zomba,  Whyte. 

H.  quartinianum,  Rich,     (i)  Upper  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

Hypericum  sp.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

Psorospermum  febrifugum,  Spach.  (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  and  Kirk  ;  Zomba,  Whyte  ; 
Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot  and  J.  Thomson. 

Psorospermum  sp.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

Haronga  madagascariensis,  Choisy.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 


Garcinia  IJuchanani,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 


Vatica  africana,  Welw.,  var.  glomerata,  Oliv.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 




Sidn  hum  His.  Cav.     (i)  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 

S.  rhonibi folia,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 

-S'.  spinosa,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 

S.  cordifolia,  L.     (i)  Lower  Shire  Valley,  Meller  ;  Buchanan. 

Sida  sp.     (4)  Menyharth  ;  Holub. 

Abutilon  angitlatitni,  Mast,     (i)  Katunga,  Meller;  Chiraozulu,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 

A.  zanzibaricnin,  Bojer.     (i)  Buchanan. 

A.  longicuspe,  Hochst.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Meller. 

A.  indicum,  Don.     (i)  Mafianja  hills,  Meller  ;  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  (4)  Sesheke,  Kirk. 

•A.  graveolens,  W.  et  A.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Abutilon  sp.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 

Urena  lobata,  L.     (2)  Carson. 

Pavonin  Meyeri,  Mast,     (i)  Mafianja  hills,  Meller  ;  Buchanan. 

P.   schimperhmn,   Hochst.     (i)    Buchanan;   Chiradzulu,  Meller  and  Whyte;    (2)   Lower 

plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
P.  urens,  Cav.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Pavonin  spp.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson. 
Kosteletzkyct  adoensis,  Hcchst.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Hibiscus  ritifolius,  L.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot ;  Buchanan. 
H.  dh'ersifolius,  Jacq.     (i)  Mafianja  hills,  Meller  ;  Lower  Shire  Valley,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 
H.  surattensis,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 
H.  Sabdariffa,  L.     (i)  Lower  Shire  Valley,  Kirk. 
H.  cannabinits,  L.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  Chiradzulu,  Meller. 

H.  gossypinus,    Thunb.       (i)    Mananja    hills,    Kirk    and    Meller;    Chiradzulu,    Whyte; 
Buchanan  ;   (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

//.  micrnnthus,   L.     (i)    Katunga,  Meller;    Buchanan;    (2)    Carson;    Nvasa-Taneanyika 

plateau,  Scott-Elliot. 

H.  Solandra,  L'He'rit.     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk. 

H.  physaloides,  G.  et  P.     (i)  Zomba  and  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Carson. 
Hibiscus  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;    Shire    Highlands,  K.  C.  Cameron  ;   (2)   Carson  ;    Nyasa- 

Tanganyika  plateau,  J.  Thomson  ;  (4)  Holub. 
Gossypium  barbadense,  L.     (i)  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 
Adansonia  digitata,  L.     (i)  Lake  Chilwa,  McClounie. 


Sterciilin  melisstfolici,  Benth.     (2)  Carson. 

-V.  triphaca,  R.  Br.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Stcrctilin  sp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson. 

Dombeya  multijlorn,  Planch,     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Buchanan  ;  Zomba,  Whyte. 

n.  spectabilis,  Bojer.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Buchanan. 

1).  Kirk ii,  Mast,     (i)  Katunga,  Meller. 

/>.  Jiiirgcssine,  Gerr.     (i)   Mananja  hills,  Meller;    Blantyre,  Last;    Chiradzuiu,  Whyte- 

Buchanan  ;   (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Dombeya  sp.     (2)  Carson  ;  Upper  and  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  Thomson. 
Melhaniti  Forbcsii,  Planch,     (i)  Buchanan. 
J/.  acuminata,  Mast,     (i)  Buchanan. 
Waltheria  <ii)ie>icnn<i,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Melocliia  corchorifolia.  L.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Shire  Valley,  Kirk. 
Hermannia  inamoena,  K.  Schuin.     (i)  Buchanan. 
H.  Kirkh',  Mast,     (i)  Buchanan. 



Grew  in  asiatica,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 

G.  inaequilatera,  Garcke.     (i)  Lower  Shire,  Kirk  and  Meller. 

Grewia  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

Triumfctta  rhomboidea,  Jacq.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson. 

T.  IVelwitschii,  Mast,     (i)  Near  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson. 

T.  Mastcrsii,  Baker  fil.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 

T.  Sonderii,  Ficalho  et  Hiern.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 

T.pilosa,  Roth,     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 

T.  trichocarpa,  Hochst.     (i)  Buchanan. 

T.  tomcntosa,  Bojer.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Triumfetta  spp.      (i)   Buchanan  ;    Blantyre,   Last  ;   (2)   Lower  plateau,  north  of  Nyasa, 

J.  Thomson  ;    Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot  ;   (4)  Menyharth. 
Sparmatmia  abyssinica,  E.  Mey.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mlanje,  McClounie  ;  (2)  Lower  plateau, 

north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
S.  palmata,  E.  Mey.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Cor  chorus  tridens,  L.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last. 
C.  olitorius,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Ceratosepalum  digitatum,  Oliv.     (2)  Carson. 


Erythroxylon  emarginatum,  Schum  et  Thonn.     (i)    Buchanan;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott- 


Acridocarpus  chloroptcrus,  Oliv.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  Meller  and  Kirk. 
Acridocarpus^.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Triaspis  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Tribulus  terrestris,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Geranium  aculeolatum,  Oliv.     (i)  Buchanan. 

G.  simcnsc,   Hochst.      (i)  Zomba,  Kirk;  Mlanje,  Whyte;    (2)    Lower  plateau,  north   of 

Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

G.favosum,  Hochst.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Geranium  spp.     (i)  Zomba,  Cunningham  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake 

Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

Pelargonium  sp.     (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  J.  Thomson  and  Scott-Elliot ;  Carson. 
Oxalis  semiloba,  Sond.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Kirk;  Blantyre,  Last. 
O.  oligotricha,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 

O.  sensitiva,  L.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  Blantyre,  Last. 
O.  trichophylla,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 
O.  corniculata,  L.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nutt. 

Oxalis  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot ;  (2)  Nutt. 
Impatiens  capensis,  Thunb.     ( i )  Chiradzulu  and  Mananja  hills,  Meller. 
/.  Kirkii,  Hook.  fil.     (i)  Western  side  of  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 
/.  assurgens,  Baker.     (2)  Nutt ;  Carson. 
/.  shircnsis,  Baker  fil.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie. 
/.  gomphophylla,  Baker.     (4)  Carson. 
/.  'micrantha,  Hochst.  (?)     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
Impatiens  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Blantyre,  Last ;  (2)  Carson. 



Toddalia  aculeata,  Pers.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Toddalia  spp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Clansena  inaequalis,  Benth.     (i)  Mlanje  and  Zomba,  Whyte. 

Citrus  Aurantiuin,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Brucea  sp.  (?)     (4)  Menyharth. 

Kirkia  acuminata,  Oliv.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Ochna  leptodada,  Oliv.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Maravi  country,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 
0.  macrocaly.v,  Oliv.     (i)  Sochi,  Kirk;  Mananja  hills,  Meller;  Zomba,  Whyte-  Mlanie 

McClounie;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 
O.Jioribunda,  Baker.     (2)  Mweru,  Carson. 
Ochna  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson ;  Carson 


Canarhtm  sp.     (i)  Lake  Nyasa,  Scott-Elliot. 

Commiphora  pilosa,  Engl.     (4)  Menyharth. 

C.  mozambicensis,  Engl.     (i)  Lower  Shire  River,  Kirk. 

Commiphora  spp.     (4)  Menyharth  ;   Boroma  and  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 


Turraea  nilotica,  Kotschy.     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk. 

T.  capitata,  Klotzsch.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 

Turraea  sp.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 

Trichilia  cmetica,  Vahl.     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan  ;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

T.  capitata,  Klotzsch.     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk  ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 

T.  Buchanani,  C.  DC.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 

Trichilia  spp.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

Khaya  senegalensis,  A.  Juss.  (?)     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Buchanan. 

Ekebergia  fiuchananii,  Harms,     (i)  Buchanan. 


Olax dissitiflora,  Oliv.     (i)  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 
Olax  sp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott- Elliot. 
Ximenia  americana,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Apodytes  di midiata,  E.  Mey.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Chlamydocarya  sp.     (4)  Menyharth. 


Ilex capcnsis,  Sond.  et  Harv.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie;  Buchanan. 


Celastrns  laurifolius,  Rich,     (i)  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 

C.  senegalensis,  Lam.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte;   Buchanan;  (2)?  Lower  plateau    north  of 
Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

C.  serratus,  Hochst.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

Gymnosporia  laurina,  Szyszyl.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

(j.  undata,  Szyszyl.     (i)  Buchanan. 

G.  bnxifolia,  Szyszyl.,  var.  vcmnnta,  Sand,     (i)  Buchanan. 



Gymnosporia  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Cassinc  Bnchananii,  Loesn.     (i)  Buchanan. 

C.  aethiopica,  Thunb.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Hippocratea  obtusifolia,  Roxb.     (4)  Menyharth. 

Hippocratea  Buchananii,  Loesn.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Hippocratea  sp.     (4)  Menyharth. 

Salaria  spp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Pleurostylia  Wightii,  Wight  et  Arnott.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Zizyphns  Jujuba,  Lam.     (i)  Buchanan;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot, 

Z.  mucronata,  Willd.     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk  and  Meller. 

Gouania  sp.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 

Helinus  ovatus,  E.  Mey.     (i)  Lower  valley  of  the  Shire  River,  Meller ;  Buchanan. 

Phylica  spicata,  L.  ?     ( i )  Mlanje,  Whyte. 


Vitis  erythrodes,  Fresen.     (i)  Buchanan. 

V.  congesta,  Baker,     (i)  Katunga,  Meller. 

V.  abysstnica,  Hochst.     (i)  Buchanan. 

V.  rnbiginosa,  Welw.     (i)  Buchanan. 

V.  serpens,  Baker,     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 

V.  grisea,  Baker.     ( I )  Shire  River,  Kirk. 

V.jatrophoides,  Welw.     (i)  Mbami,  near  Blantyre,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 

V.  integrifolia,  Baker,     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot ;  (4)  Menyharth. 

V.  subciliata,  Baker,     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot  ;  Katunga,  L.  Scott. 

V.  ibuensis,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 

Vitis    s.pp.      (i)    Buchanan;    Shire    Highlands,    Scott-Elliot;    Mananja    hills,    Meller; 

(2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  J.  Thomson. 
Cissus  aristolochiaefolia,  Planch,  (i)  Buchanan. 
C.  subglaucescens,  Planch,  (i)  Buchanan. 

C.  kirkiana,  Planch.,  var.  Livingstonii,  Planch,     (i)  Buchanan. 
C.  Buchananii,  Planch,     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 
C.  cucumerifolia,  Planch,     (i)  Katunga,  Kirk. 
C.  crotalarioides,  Planch,     (i)  Buchanan. 
Leea  sp.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 


Cardiosperminn  microcarpum,  H.  B.  K.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Paulliniapinnata,  L.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Zomba,  Whyte. 

Paullinia  sp.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie. 

Schmidelia  repanda,  Baker,     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk. 

S.  africana,  DC.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Schmidelia  spp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Cnpania  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

Blighia  zambesiaca,  Baker,     (i)  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 

Lecaniodiscus fraxinifolia,  Baker,     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 

Sapindus  xanthocarpus,  Kl.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Shire  River  to  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 

Dodonaea  viscosa,  L.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake 

Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Rersama  sp.     (i)  Buchanan;  Zomba,  Whyte;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 



Rfnis  I'iminalis,  Vahl.     (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 

A',    villosa,    Linn.  fil.      (i)    Mananja   hills,    Meller  ;    Buchanan  ;    Zomba,    Whyte  :    var. 

grandtfolia,  Oliv.  (i)  Mbami,  near  Blantyre,  Kirk. 
R.  Kirkii,  Oliv.     (4)  Victoria  Falls,  Kirk. 
R.  pulcherrima,  Oliv.     (i)  Buchanan. 
R.  glaucesccns.  Rich,     (i)  Lake  Nyasa,  Scott-Elliot  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north 

of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

R.  mitcronifolia,  Sond.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 
R.  insignis,  Del.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 
R.  retinorrhoea,  Steud.     (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 
Rhus  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Spondias  sp.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 
Sclerocarya  caffra,  Sond.     (i)  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 


Roiirca  oi'alifolia,  Gilg.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie. 


Crotalaria  anthyllopsis,  Welvv.     (i)  Buchanan. 

C.  laxiflora,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 

C.  glaitca,  Willd.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Kirk. 

C.  I'ogelii,  Benth.     (i)  Buchanan. 

C.  cephalotcs,  Steud.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Blantyre,  Last. 

C.  lotifolia,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 

C.  deomifoiia,  Welw.     (i)  Buchanan. 

C.  erisemoiiies,  Ficalho  et  Hiern.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 

C.  lanccolata,  E.  Mey.     (i)  Buchanan. 

C.  intermedia,  Kotschy.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

C.  natalitia,  Meisn.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 

C.  hyssopifolia,  Kl.     (i)  Buchanan. 

C.  recta,  Steud.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte;  Buchanan  ;  Mananja  hills,  Waller  :  (2)  Carson. 

C.  spinosa,  Hochst.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Crotalaria  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Blantyre,  Last  ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  :  (2)  Nutt  ;  Carson. 

Argyrolobium  shir  ens  e,  Taub.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Adenocarpns  Mannii,  Hook.  fil.     (i)  Mlanje  and  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 

Parochetits  comnninis,  Hamilt.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller. 

Medicago  lupulina,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Lotus  arabicus,  L.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

L.  tigrensis,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 

Lotus  sp.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

Psoralea  sp.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

Indigo/era  vicioides,  Jaub.  et  Spach.     (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 

I.  trachyphylla,  Benth.     <  i )  Buchanan. 

/.  polysphaera,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 

/.  Lyallii,  Baker,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

/.  heterotricha,  DC.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 

/.  dodecaphylla,  Ficalho  et  Hiern.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 

/.  secnndiflora,  Poir.     (i)  Upper  Shire  Valley,  Scott-Elliot;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of 

Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson  ;  Carson. 
/.  splendens,  Ficalho  et  Hiern.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 




Indigofcra  muliijuga,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 

/.  demissa,  Taub.     (i)  Buchanan. 

I.  tinctoria,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 

/.  hirsuta,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 

/.  tomlosa,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 

/.  emarginellci)  Steud.     (i)  Buchanan. 

/.  arrecta,  Hochst.     (2)  Karonga,  L.  Scott. 

7  cndccaphylla,  Baker,     (i)  Zomba,  Meller. 

Lprocera,  S.  et  T.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Indigofcra  spp.    (i)  Buchanan;  Biantyre,  Last;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot;  (2)  Nyasa- 

Tanganyika  plateau,  J.  Thomson  and  Scott-Elliot  ;  Nutt  ;  Carson. 
Tephrosia  sericea,  Baker,     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Waller  ;  Zomba,  Whyte. 
T.  Vogelii,  Hook.  fil.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nutt. 
T.  longipes,  Meisn.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
T.purpurea,  Pers.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
T.  linearis,  Pers.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
T.  whyteana,  Baker  fil.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
T.  Nyasae,  Baker  fil.     (i)  Buchanan. 
T.  lupinifolia,  DC.     (i)  Buchanan. 
T.  dichroocarpa,  Steud.     (i)  Buchanan. 
T.  schizocalyx,  Taub.     (i)  Buchanan. 
T.  sambesiaca,  Taub.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Tephrosia   spp.      (i)   Buchanan;    (2)    Carson;    Upper   plateau,    north   of   Lake    Nyasa, 

J.  Thomson. 

Mundulea  suberosa,  Benth.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Sesbania  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Astragalus  abyssinicus,  Steud.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Ormocarpum  mimosoides,  S.  Moore,     (i)  Buchanan. 
Herminiera  elaphroxylon,  Guill.  et  Perr.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Aeschynomene  aspera,  L.     (i)  Elephant  Marsh  on  Shire  River,  Kirk. 
A.  shirensis,  Taub.     (i)  Buchanan. 
A.  indica,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 
A.  Schimperi,  Hochst.     (i)  Buchanan. 
A.  siifolia,  Welw.     (i)  Zomba  and  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
A.  ghttinosa,  Taub.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Aeschynomene  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Biantyre,  Last ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ; 

(2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot ;  Carson. 
Smithia  nodulosa,  Baker,     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Meller. 
S.  strobilantha,  Welw.     (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 

5".  strigosa,  Benth.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot. 
S.  scaberrima,  Taub.     (i)  Buchanan. 
5.  sensitiva,  Ait.     (i)  Buchanan. 
S.  Carsoni,  Baker,     (i)  Carson. 
Smithia  spp.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa, 

J.  Thomson  ;  Carson. 
Geissaspis    humiiloides,    Hiern.      (2)    Nyasa-Tanganyika    plateau,    Scott-Elliot;    Lower 

plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Arachis  kypogaea,  L.     (2)  Nutt. 

Desmodium  dimorphum,  Welw.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 
D.  Scalpe,  DC.     (i)  Buchanan. 
D.  barbat um,  Benth.     (i)  Buchanan. 



Desnwdiiiin  lasiocarpum,  DC.     (i)  Buchanan. 
D. gangeticum>  DC.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mananja  hills,  Meller. 
D.  hirtum,  Guill.  et  Perr.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Zomba,  Whyte. 
D.  ascendens,  DC.     (1)  Zomba,  Whyte. 

D.  latifolium,  DC.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mananja  hills,  Waller. 

D.  tanganyikense,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 

D.  paleaceum,  Guill.  et  Perr.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Desniodiuni  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 

Pseiidarthria  Hookeri,  W.  et  A.     (2)  Nutt. 

Pseudarthria  sp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson. 

Alysicnrpus  rugosus,  DC.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Shire  Highlands  and  Lake  Nyasa,  Scott-Elliot. 

Alysicarpus  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Lathyrits  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Abrus  precatorius,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Clitorea  ternatea,  H.  B.  K.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Dumasia  villosa,  DC.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Glycine  javanica,  L.     (i)  Lower  Shire  Valley,  Meller  ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 

Glycine  sp.     (2)  Carson. 

Teramnus  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Erythrina  tomentosa,  Benth.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mananja  hills,  Meller. 

E.  Humet,  E.  Mey.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Shire  River,  Kirk. 

Erythrina  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Mucuna  coriacea,  Baker,     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Mlanje  and  Chiradzulu,  Whyte 

M.  erecta,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 

Mnctina  sp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson. 

Canavalia  obtusifolia,  DC.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 

C.  ensiformis,  DC.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Phaseolns  lunatus,  L.     (i)  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 

P.  Kirkii,  Baker,     (i)  West  shore  of  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 

Phaseolus  spp.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot ;  Buchanan. 

Vigna  vexillata,  Benth.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Zomba  and  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 

r.  tuteola,  Benth.     (i)  Zomba  and  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Fort  Johnston,  Scott-Elliot. 

V.  Catjang,  Walp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Vigna  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Voandzeia  subterranea,  Thouars.     (2)  Nutt. 

Psophocarpus  longepedunculalus,  Hassk.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Dolichos  btflonts,  L.     (2)  Carson. 

D.  erectus,  Baker  fil.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot ;  Zomba  and  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

D.  platypus,  Baker.     (2)  Mweru,  Carson. 

D.  axillaris,  E.  Mey.     (i)  Mbami,  L.  Scott. 

D.pteropus,  Baker.     (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot ;  Carson. 

D.  siinplicifolius,  Hook.  fil.     (i)  Buchanan. 

D.  xiphophyllus,  Baker.     (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot ;  Carson. 

D.  lupinoides,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 

Dolichos  spp.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nutt  ;  Carson. 

Cajanus  indicus,  Spreng.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 

Rhynchosia  cyanosferma,  Benth.    (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte ;  Buchanan 

A',  densiflora,  DC.     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk. 

R.  antenmtUfera,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Shire  Highlands,  Meller. 

R.  caribaea,  DC.     (i)  Buchanan. 



RhyucJwsia  minima,  DC.     (i)  Buchanan;  Upper  Shire  River,  Scott-Elliot. 
R.  comosa,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 
Rhynchosia  spp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Eriosema  cajanoides,  Hook.  fil.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;   Buchanan;   (2)  Carson;  (3)  Serpa 

E, parviflorum,  E.  Mey.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte;  Buchanan. 
E.flemingioideS)  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 

E.  shirensis,  Baker  fil.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 
E.  montanum,  Baker  fil.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

E.  polystachyum,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 

Eriosema  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson;  Nutt ;  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa, 
J.  Thomson. 

Flemingia  rhodocarpa,  Baker,     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Buchanan  ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 

F.  macrocalyx,  Baker  fil.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
Dalbergia  Melanoxylon,  Guill.  et  Perr.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Dalbergia  spp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Pterocarpus  melli ferns,  Welw.     (i)  Zomha,  Whyte. 
Pterocarpus  sp.     (0  Buchanan. 

Lonchocarpus  laxiflorus,  Guill.  et  Perr.,  var.  sericciis,  Baker,     (i)  Zomba  and  east  end  of 

Lake  Chilwa,  Meller  ;  Buchanan. 
Lonchocarpus  spp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Degiielia  Stiihlmanni,  Taub.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Baphia  racemosa,  Hochst.     (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 
Baphia  sp.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 
Osmosia  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Swartsia  madagascariensis,  Desv.     (i)  Maravi  country  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 
Cordyla  africana,  Lour,     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller. 
Cassia  abbreviata,  Oliv.      (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller;  west  shore  of  Lake   Nyasa,  Kirk; 

C.  pctersiana,  C.   Bolle.     (i)  Lower   Shire   Valley,   Meller;   Blantyre,   Last;   Buchanan; 

Zomba  and  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 

C.  didymobotrya,  Fresen.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller;  (2)  Carson. 
C.  Grantii,  Oliv.     (r)  Maravi  country,  Kirk. 
C.  Tora,  L.     (r)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson. 

C.  Kirkii,  Oliv.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Kirk  and  Meller  ;  Buchanan. 
C.  mimosoides,  L.     (i)  Buchanan;  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Carson. 
C.  occidentalis,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 
C.  Absns,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 
C.  goratensis,  Fresen.     (2)  Carson. 
Cassia  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Bauhinia fassoglensis^  Kotschy.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Waller  ;  Buchanan. 
B.  Kirkii,  Oliv.     (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 
B.  Serpae,  Ficalho  et  Hiern.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
B.  petersiana,  Bolle.      (i)   Mananja   hills,  Waller;   Buchanan;   Mlanje,   McClounie  ;    (2) 

Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot. 
B.  reticulata,  DC.     (i)  Shire  River,  Meller  ;  Buchanan. 
Banliinia  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Afzelia  citansensis,  Welw.     (i)  West  shore  of  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 
Afzelia  sp.     (2)  Carson. 

Cryptosepalnm  maraviense,  Oliv.     (i)  Maravi  country,  Kirk  ;  (2)  Nutt  ;  Carson. 
Cryptoscpalum  sp.     (i)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 



Bracliystegia  appendicitlata,   Benth.     (i)   Zomba  and  east  end   of   Lake    Chilwa,   Kirk 

(2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot  ;  (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 
B.  globiflora,  Benth.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Whyte. 
B.  longifolia,  Benth.     (i)  Buchanan. 
B.floribunda,  Benth.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Tamarindus  indica,  L.     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk  ;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot  ;  Buchanan 

(4)  up  the  Zambezi  to  the  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 
Copaifera  coleosperma,  Benth.     (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 
Burkea  africana,  Hook,     (i)  Buchanan. 
Trachylobium  sp.     Shire  Highlands,  Johnston. 
Erythropkleum  guitteense,  Don.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Parkin  filicoidea,  Welw.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 
Entada  abyssinica,  Steud.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 

Entada  spp.     (i)  Zomba  and  east  end  of  Lake  Chilwa,  Meller  ;  Buchanan. 
I*iptadcnia  Bnc/ianani,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 
Piptadenia  sp.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 
Tetraplcurii  undotigens/s,  Welw.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
Neptitnia  oleracea,  Lour,     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk. 
Dichrostachys  me  tans,  Benth.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 
D.  nyassana,  Taub.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Acacia  nigrescens,  Oliv.     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk. 
A.pennata,  Willd.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  Kirk. 
A.  lasiopetala,  Oliv.     (i)  M'pemba  hill,  Kirk. 
A.  albida,  Del.     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk. 
A.  Kirkii,  Oliv.     (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 
A.  Seyal,  Del.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller. 
A.fastigiata,  Oliv.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Acacia  spp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Calliandm  sp.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie. 

Albiszia  anthelmintica,  A.  Brongn.     (i)  Shire  River,  Meller. 
A.  Lcbbek,  Benth.     (i)  Buchanan. 
A.  versicolor,  Welw.     (r)  Maravi  country,  Kirk. 
A.fastigiata,  E.  Mey.     (i)  Buchanan;  Mlanje,  Whyte. 


Parinan'iem  Mobola,  Oliv.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (4)  Batoka  country;  Kirk. 

P.  capcnsc,  Harv.     (4)  Sesheke,  Kirk. 

Pygcinn  africamtm,  Hook.  fil.     (i)  Foot  of  Chiradzulu,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 

Rubiis  apetalus,  Poir.     (i)  Foot  of  Chiradzulu,  Kirk;  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 

A',  huillcnsis,  \\relw.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Rubns&p.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Alrltcinilla  sp.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

lincanfoUa,  Eck.  et  Zeyh.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whjte. 

sp.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie. 


Chorislylis  shirensis,  Baker  fil.     (i)  Mlanje,  \\"hyte. 


'I'iliacn  pcntiuidra,  Royle.     ,i    Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;   Blantyre,  Last  ;   Buchanan. 
/'.  aqmitica,  L.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 




Crassula  globularioides,  Britten,     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Meller  ;  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

C.  abyssinica,  A.  Rich,     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 
Crassitla  spp.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last  ;  Buchanan. 
Kalanchoe platysepala,  Welw.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  Kirk. 
A',  pzlosa,  Baker.     (2)  Mweru,  Carson. 

K.  coccinea,  Welw.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller. 

KaLmchoe  spp.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Nutt ;  Carson. 

Cotyledon  sp.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 


Drosera  ranicntacea,  Burch.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie. 

D.  affinis,  Welw.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Xyasa,  J.  Thomson. 


Myrothamnns flabellifolia,  Welw.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte;  Buchanan. 


Tcrminalia  nyassensis,  Engl.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Terminalia  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Combretinn  holosericeum,  Sond.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Kirk. 

C.  laurifoliiun,  Engl.     (i)  Buchanan. 

C.  tomentosum,  Don.     (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 

C.  oatesii,  Rolfe.     (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  J.  Thomson. 

C.  mweroense,  Baker.     (2)  Mweru,  Carson. 

C.  splendcns,  Engl.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Combrelum  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson  ;  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  J.  Thomson. 


Eugenia  cordata,  Laws,     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Buchanan. 

E.  owariensis,  P.  Beauv.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Eugenia  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 


Antherotoma  Naitdini,  Hook.  fil.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Nutt. 

Dissotis phaeotricha,  Hook.  fil.     (i)  Mpatamanga,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Xutt  ;  Carson. 

D.  Melleri,  Hook.  fil.     (i)  Chiradzulu  and  Mananja  hills,  Meller;  Zomba,  Kirk. 

D.  princcps,  Triana.      (i)    Mananja   hills,   Meller  and    Kirk;    Mlanje,    Chiradzulu,   and 

Zomba,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 

D.  incana,  Triana.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 
D.  johmtoniana,  Baker  fil.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
D.  cryptantha,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 
Dissotis  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson. 
Tristemma  sp.     (2)  Carson. 

Osbcckia  Antherotoma.  Naud.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  K.  C.  Cameron. 
Osbcckia  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Xyasa.  J.  Thomson.  . 


Rotttli-tjUifortnis^  Hiern.     (4)  Victoria  Falls,  Kirk. 

Nesaca  heptamcru,  Hiern.     (i)  Zomba  and  east  end  of  Lake  Chilwa.  Meller. 

N.floribunda,  Sond.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (4)  Victoria  Falls,  Kirk. 

Ainmannia  salicifolia,  Monti.     (2)  Carson. 

A.  scnegalcnsis,  Lam.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Ainmanniti  sp.     (2)  Carson  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 

Hcteropy.vis  nataltnsis,  Haw.     (i)  Buchanan. 



Epilobium  sp.     (2)  Carson. 

Jussiaea pilosa,  H.  B.  K.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  Kirk  ;  Upper  Shire,  Scott-Elliot. 

J.  I'illosa,  Lam.     (i)  Lower  Shire  Valley,  Meller. 

J  linifolia,  Vahl.     (i)  Upper  Shire,  Scott-Elliot ;  Buchanan. 

Lndiuigia  prostrata,  Roxb.     ( i )  Buchanan. 

L. parvifo Ha,  Roxb.     (i)  Buchanan. 

L.  jussiaeoides,  Lam.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Trapa  bispinosa,  Roxb.     (r)  Shire  River,  Kirk;  Blantyre,  Last  ;  Lake  Nyasa.  Laws(r). 


Myriophyllum  sp.     (i)  Lake  Nyasa,  Laws. 


Homaliiun •  africanuni,  Benth.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 


Wormskiolctta     longepedunculata,     Mast.       (i)     Mananja     hills,     Meller    and    Waller; 

Buchanan;    Allanje,    Whyte;    Shire    Highlands,    Scott-Elliot;    (2)    North    Nyasa, 

L.  Scott ;  Carson  ;  var.  integrifolia,  Urb.,  Blantyre,  Last. 
//•".  lobata,  Urb.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Tryphostemma  apetalum,  Baker  fil.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 
Tryplwstemma  sp.     (i)  Mlanje,  Scott-Elliot. 
Modecca  stricta,  Mast,     (i)  Murchison  Falls,  Meller. 
Modecca  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Trochomeria  macrocarpa,  Hook.  fil.     (i)  North  of  Chiradzulu,  Kirk. 

Adenopus  breviflorus,  Benth.     (i)  Elephant  Marsh  on  Shire  River,  Kirk;  Buchanan. 

Luffa  aegvptiaca,  Miller,     (i)  Buchanan. 

Luffa  sp.     (2)  Carson. 

Lagenaria  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Momordica  Charantia,  L.     (i)  Shire  Valley.  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 

M.  Morkorra,  A.  Rich.     (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  J.  Thomson. 

J/.  foctida,  Schum.  et  Thonn.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 

Momordica  spp.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

RaphanocarpKS  Kirkii,  Hook.  fil.     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk  ;  (4)  Menyharth 

Ciicumis  inctiiliferus,  E.  Mey.     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk. 

C.  Melo,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Cu aunts  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot ;  (2)  Carson. 

Zehneria  microsperma,  Hook.  fil.     (i)  Katunga,  Meller. 

Zchncria  sp.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte;  Buchanan. 

Miikin  scabrella,  Arn.     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk. 

Cephalandra  sp.  ?     (i)  Mlanje,  Scott-Elliot. 

Ctcnolcf>is  sp.  ?     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 


lic^onia  sp.     (i)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  J.  Thomson  ;  Carson. 



Mollugo  niidicauUs,  Lam.     (i)  Buchanan. 

M.  Glinits,  A.  Rich,     (i)  Lake  Nyasa,  Scott-Elliot. 

M.  Spergula,  L.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson. 

M.  verticillata,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Mollngo  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Hydrocotyle  moschata,  Forst.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Kirk. 

H.  asiatica,  L.     (i)  Ruangwa,  near  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan  ;  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Alepidca    anatymbica,    Eck.  et    Zeyh.      (j)    Sochi,   Kirk;    Zomba,  Whyte;    Buchanan; 

(2)  Upper  plateau,  north  of   Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson  ;    Carson. 
Sanicuhi  europaea,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Heteroinorpha  arborescent,  Cham,  et  Schlecht.      (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;    Chiradzulu, 

Whyte  ;    Buchanan  ;    Blantyre,  Last. 
Pimpinella  sp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nutt. 

Diphlophhim  zambesiacuiii,  Hiern.     (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 
Physotrichia  Buchanani,  Benth.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Zomba,  Kirk. 
Physolrichia  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Peucedanum  fraxinifolium,    Hiern.       (i)    Mananja    hills,   Meller;    Chiradzulu,   Whyte; 


Peucedanum  sp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Carson. 
Lefeburia  spp.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot ;  Buchanan. 
Caucalia  infesta,  Curt,     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 
C.  mclanantha,  Benth.  et  Hook.  fil.      (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte;   (2)    Lower   plateau,  north 'of 

Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
C.  pednnculata^  Baker  fil.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
Cauca/ts  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Cussonia  spicata,  Thunb.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 
C.  Kirldi,  Seem,     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 
Cussonia  sp.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 


Adina  microccpJiala,  Hiern?     (i)  Buchanan. 

Hymenodictyon  Kurrni,  Hochst.     (i)  Buchanan. 

H.  parvifolitim,  Oliv.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Crossopteryx  kotschyana,  Fenzl.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Pentas purpurca,  Oliv.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Sochi  and  Mbami,  Kirk;  Buchanan  ;  Mianje 

and  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 

P.  carnea,  Benth.,  var.  Klotsichii,  Scott-Elliot,     (i)  Buchanan. 
P.  longiflora,    Oliv.,   var.    nyassuna,    Scott-Elliot,      (i)   Buchanan:    Mlanje,   McClounie  ; 

Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  ot  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson  ;  Carson. 
P.  confertifolia,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 
P.  modesta,  Baker.     (2)  Mweru,  Carson. 
Pentas  spp.     Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 

-ia  dilaia,  Hiern.     (i)  Zomba  and  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

.     (Pentas  spcciosa,  Baker),     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan-;  Blantyre,  Last. 
Otomeria  sp.     (2)  Carson. 
Hedyotis  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson. 



Pentodon  dccitmbens,  Hochst.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 

Oldenlandia  trincwia,  Retz.     (i)  Buchanan. 

O.  echinulosa,  K.  Schum.     (i)  Buchanan. 

O. globosa,  Hiern.     (i)  Buchanan. 

O.  corymbosa,  L.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2    Xutt. 

O.  macrophylla,  DC.     (r)  Buchanan. 

O.  macrodonta,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 

O.  effusa,  Oliv.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Shire  Highlands,  K.  C.  Cameron. 

O.  Heynei,  Oliv.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Blantyre,  Last ;  (2)  Carson. 

(>.  Bojeri,  Hiern.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 

O.  tenuissiina,  Hiern.     (4)  Victoria  Falls,  Kirk. 

O.  olk>criana,  K.  Schum.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie. 

O.  licdyotoides,  Boiss.     (i)  Mlanje,  Scott-Elliot. 

O.  lancifolia,  Schweinf.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

O.  virgata,  DC.     (2)  Carson. 

Oldenlandia   spp.      (i)    Buchanan;    Mlanje    and    Zomba,    Whyte;    Blantyre,    Last;    (2) 

Mussaenda   arcnata,  Poir.     Mananja   hills,  Waller ;    Kanjanje,  Kirk  ;    Buchanan  ;   Shire 

Highlands,  Scott-Elliot ;  (2)  Nutt. 
Mussaenda  sp.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie. 
Sab;'cea&p"     (0  Buchanan. 

Heinsia fasmimflora,  DC.     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk;   Blantyre,  Last. 
H.  benguelensis,  Welw.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Heinsia  sp.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie. 
Berticra  sp.  ?     (4)  Menyharth. 
Leptactina  sp.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie. 
Chomclia  Bnchananii,  K.  Schum.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Randia  Buchananii^  Oliv.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 
Randia  spp.     (i)  Buchanan;  Chiradzulu,  Kirk;  (2)  Nutt. 
Gardenia    Thiinbergia,    L.    fil.       (i)    Lake    Chilwa,    Meller ;     Mananja    hills,    Waller; 


G.  resiniflua,  Hiern.     (i)  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 

G.  Manganjae,  Hiern.     (i)  Mananja,  Meller;  Chiradzulu,  Kirk;  Buchanan. 

Gardenia  sp.     (i)  Near  Lake  Chilwa,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 

O. \yanihns  sp.  ?     (i)  Buchanan. 

Zygoon  gravcolens,  Hiern.     (i)  Shire  rapids,  Kirk. 

Empogona  Kirkii,  Hook.  fil.     (i)  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 

Tricalysia  Nyassae,  Hiern.     (i)  West  shore  of  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 

T.  jastniniflora,  Benth.  et  Hook.  fil.      (i)  Lower  Shire,  Kirk;    Mananja  hills,  Meller; 


T.  A'tr/cti,  Hiern.     (i)  River  Shire,  Kirk. 
Tricalysia  spp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Pcntanisia    Sch-^einjiirtliii,    Hiern.      (2)    Nutt;    Lower  plateau,   north    of    Lake    Nyasa, 

rcntanisia  spp.     (i)  Buchanan;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

Cremaspora  nfrianid,  Benth.     (i)  Buchanan. 

C  coffe aides,  Hemsl.     (i)  Ruo  River,  Johnston. 

C'.  heterophylla^  K.  Schum.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Polysplmeria  lana'D/n/a,  Hiern.     (2)  Karonga  and  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau.  Scott-Elliot. 

Polysphacria  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;   (4)  Menyharth. 

Canthium foetidum,  Hiern.     (i)  Mpatamanga,  Kirk. 



Canthiiim  sanqucbaricum,  Klotzsch.     (i)  West  shore  of  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 

C.  lanciflorum,  Hiern.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (4)  Victoria  Falls,  Kirk. 

C.  Guenzii,  Sond.      (i)  Zomba,  Whyte  ;    Buchanan  ;   (2)  Upper  plateau,  north  of  Lake 

Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

Canthiiim  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot;  (4)  Menyharth. 
Plectronia  sp.     (2)  Carson. 
I'angucria  I'clutina,  Hiern.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot;    Buchanan;    (4)  Batoka 

country,   Kirk. 

I '.  edulis,  Vahl.     (i)  Buchanan. 
V.  infatista,  Burch.     (i)  Buchanan. 
\\uigueria  sp.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 
Fadogia  ancylantha,  Schweinf.     (i)  Buchanan. 

F.  triphylla,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 

Fadogia    spp.       (i)    Buchanan  ;     (2)    Nyasa-Tanganyika    plateau,    Scott-Elliot    and    J. 

Thomson  ;    Carson. 

Craterispcrmuin  laurinum,  Benth.     (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot. 
Ixora  laxiflora,  Sm.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 
Ixora  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Coffea  arabica,  L.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 
Pavetta  gracilzs,   Klotzsch.      (i)    Mananja   hills,   Kirk  ;    Shire    Highlands,   Scott-Elliot  : 

(4)    Menyharth. 

P.  Baconia,  Hiern.     (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot. 
P.  sclmmanniana,  Ferd.  Hoffm.     (i)  Buchanan. 
P.  canescens,  DC.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 

Pavetta  sp.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie  ;  Zomba  and  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 
Psychotria  hirtella,  Oliv.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Psyciiolria  sp.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie  ;  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 
Grumilea  Kirkii,  Hiern.     (i)  Zomba,  Kirk. 

Siphomeris foetens,  Hiern.     (i)  Shire  Rapids,  Kirk;  (4)  Menyharth. 
Otiophora  sp.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Anthospermumwhyteanum,  Britten,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
A.  lanceolatum,  Thunb.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 
Anthospernntm  sp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mlanje,  McClounie  ;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake 

Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Paederia  foctida,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Spermacoce  scnensis,  Hiern.     (i)  Near  Sochi,  Kirk. 
i'.  dibmchidta,  Oliv.      (i)   Mananja  hills,  Kirk  and  Meller  ;   Buchanan;    Mlanje,  Whyte ; 

Blantyre,  Last. 

.S'.  stricta,  L.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson. 
Spermacoce  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Xyasa,  J.  Thomson  ; 


Richardia  sp.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  K.  C.  Cameron. 

Riibia  cordifolia,  L.    (i)  Shire  Highlands,  K.  C.  Cameron;  Buchanan;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 
Gal  him  Aparinc,  L.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
(/.  rrcctum,  Huds.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

G.  stennphyllum,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nutt  ;  Carson, 
(y'.  Mollugo,  L.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

Galhtin  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot  ;  Carson. 


Thunb.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 



Cephalaria    centaur  aides,    Roem.    et    Schult.       (i)    Between    Mbami   and   Sochi,   Kirk  ; 

Buchanan  ;   (2)  Nutt  ;    Carson  ;    Xyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot. 
Cephalaria  sp.     (2)  Upper  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Scabiosa  Columbaria,  L.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last  ;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot  ;  Buchanan  ; 

(2)  Upper  and  Lower  plateaux,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 


Gutenbergia polyccphala,  O.  et  H.     (i)  Lake  Chilwa,  Kirk. 

Bothriocline  Schimperi,  O.  et  H.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last ;    Mlanje  and  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ; 

B.  laxa,  N.  E.  Br.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last. 

Vemonia  marginata,  O.  et  H.     (i)  Shire  River,  Stewart ;  Buchanan  ;  Zomba  and  Chirad- 
zulu, Whyte  ;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

V. purpurea,  Sch.  Bip.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  .Meller. 

V.  cistifolia,  O.  Hoffm.,  var.  rosea,  O.  Hoffm.     (i)  Buchanan. 

V.  Melleri,  O.  et  H.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller. 

V.  o.vyura,  O.  Hoffm.     (i)  Buchanan. 

V.  pteropoda,  O.  et  H.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Meller  and  Whyte  ;  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 

V.  senegahnsis,  Less,     (i)  Near  Katunga,  Meller  ;  (2)  Nutt. 

V.  glabra,    Yatke.      (i)    Shire    River,    Meller;    Buchanan;    Mlanje,  Whyte;    (2)   Lower 
plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

V.  shirensis,  O.  et  H.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  Meller. 

/".  oocephala,  Baker,     (i)  Carson. 

V.  livingstoniana,  O.  et  H.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Shire,  Stewart ;  Buchanan. 

\\podocoma,  Sch.  Bip.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller;  Buchanan. 

V.  aemulans.  Vatke.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie. 

V.  cinerascens,  Sch.  Bip.     (i)  Lake  Nyasa,  Scott-Elliot. 

V.  decumbens,  Vatke.     (i)  Buchanan. 

V.  cincrca,  Less,     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan  ;  Blantyre,  Last  ;  (2)  Carson. 

V.  nataknsis,  Sch.  Bip.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot  ;  Zomba  and  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

V.  Perottctii,  Sch.  Bip.     (2)  Carson. 

V.poskeana,  Vatke   et    Hildebr.      (i)   Buchanan;    Upper  Shire,   Scott-Elliot:    Blantyre, 
Last ;  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Carson. 

V.  subaphylla,  Baker.     (2)  Mweru,  Carson. 

V.  whytcana,  Britten,     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 

Vernonia  spp.     (i  and  2.)    There  are  many  unnamed  specimens  in  the  Herbarium  at  Kew 

from  all  the  botanists  who  have  collected  in  these  two  regions. 
ElepJiantopus  scaber,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Elcphantopus  sp.     (2)  Carson. 
Adenostemma  viscosum,  Forst.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Aster  sp.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie. 

Ageratum  conyzoides,  L.     (i)  Mlanje  and  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 
Eiipatoriuin  africanism,  O.  et  H.     (r)  Buchanan  ;  Mlanje  and  Zomba,  Whyte. 
Mikania   scandcns,    Willd.     (i)     Murchison    Falls,  Meller;    Buchanan:    Chiradzulu    and 

Zomba,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Carson. 

Dicroccphala  I  at  (folia,  DC.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 

Felicia  abyssinica,  Sch.  Bip.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Felicia  sp.     (2)  Upper  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Erigcron  sp.     (2)  Nutt. 

Microglossa  i>oh<bilis,  DC.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Buchanan. 

Nidorella  nricroccphala,  Steetz.      (i)  Shire  Valley,   Meller:  Mlanje  and  Zomba,  Whyte: 
Lake  Nyasa,  Scott-Elliot  ;  Buchanan. 



Nidorella  sp.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 

Conyza perstcifotia,  O.  et  H.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie  ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 

C.  variegata,  Sch.  Bip.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

C.  Hochstetteri,  Sch.  Bip.     (i)  Buchanan. 

C.  aegyptiaca,  Ait.     (i)  Mlanje,  \Vhyte. 

Conyza    spp.     (i)    Buchanan  ;    Shire    Highlands,  Scott-Elliot  ;    (2)    Nyasa-Tanganyika 

plateau,  Scott-Elliot. 

Psiadia  sp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Upper  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Bhunea   lacera,  DC.      (i)   Zomba,   Whyte;    Buchanan;  (2)   Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau, 


Blumea  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Laggera  brevipcs,  O.  et  H.     (i)  Sochi,  Kirk. 

L.  a/ata,  Sch.  Bip.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Denekia  capensis,  Thunb.     (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 
Sphaeranthus  hirtus,  Willd.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Sphaeranthns  sp.      (i)    Shire    Highlands,  K.  C.  Cameron  ;  (2)  Carson  ;  Lower  plateau, 

north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 
Amphidoxa  filaginea,  Ficalho  et  Hiern.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
Achyrocltne  batocana,  O.  et  H.     (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 
A.  Hochstetteri,  Sch.  Bip.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last ;  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
A.  Schimperi,  Sch.  Bip.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;   Mlanje,  Whyte. 
Gnaphalium  Steudelu,  Sch.  Bip.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Buchanan. 
G.  luteo-album,  L.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot ;  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 
Gnaphalium  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Helichrysum  pachyrhizum,  Harv.     (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 
H.  auricu/atum,  Less.      (i)    Mananja   hills,    Meller;    Shire,   Stewart;   Zomba,    Whyte; 

Buchanan  ;  Katunga,  Kirk. 
H.  Kirkii,Q.  et  H.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller;   Sochi,  Kirk;   Shire,  Stewart;   Maravi 

country  (?)  Kirk  ;   Buchanan  ;  Blantyre,  Last  ;  (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 
H.  nitons,  O.  et  H.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Meller  ;  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie  ;  Blantyre, 

Last ;  Buchanan. 

H.  argyrosphaerum,  DC.     (i)  Maravi  country.  Livingstone  and  Kirk. 
H.  globosiim,  Sch.  Bip.     (i)  Buchanan. 

H. gerberaefolium,  Sch.  Bip.     (i)  Sochi,  Kirk  ;  Shire  River,  Stewart  ;  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
//.  Pctcrsii,  O.  et  H.     (i)  Mpatamanga,  Kirk. 
H.  o.vypliyllitm,  DC.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller. 

H.  (.yinosiun,  D.  Don.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte;  Blantyre,  Last;   Buchanan. 
H.  Buchananii)  Engl.      (i)   Mlanje  and  Zomba,  Whyte;  Mlanje,  McClounie;  Blantyre, 

Last  ;   Buchanan. 

H.  midifloruin,  Less,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
H.  whyleanum,  Britten,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie  ;  Buchanan. 
//.  inilanjiense,  Britten,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie. 
H.  densifloruin,  Oliv.     (\)  Mlanje  and  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 
H.  lati folium,  Less,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie. 
H.  iindatum,  Less,     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan  ;   Blantyre,  L.  Scott. 
//.  Lastii,  Engl.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 

H.foctiditm,  Cass.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
1/eUchrysnm  spp.      (i)  Buchanan;    Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot;    Mlanje,   McClounie; 

Blantyre,  Last  and  L.  Scott ;  (2)  Upper  and  Lower  plateaux,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa, 

J.  Thomson. 
Atlinxia  rosmarinifolia,  O.  et  H.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Meller;  Zomba,  Mlanje,  and  Chiradzulu, 

Whyte  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 



Inula  glomerata^  O.  et  H.     (i)  Sochi,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 

/.  shirensis,  Oliv.     (i)  Buchanan. 

I mt la  spp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Bojeria  vcstila,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 

Geigeria  Zeyhcri,  Harv.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 

Sphacophyllum  Lastii,  O.  Hoffm.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last. 

S.  Kirkii,  Oliv.     (i)  Zomba,  Kirk. 

Anisopappus  africatnis,  O.  et  H.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Anisopappus  sp.     (2)  Carson. 

Ambrosia  sp.     (2)  Carson. 

Eclipta  erecta,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Epallage  dent  at  a,  DC.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Blainvillea  gay  ana,  Cass.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Itlainvillea  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Aspilia  Kotschyi,  Benth.  et  Hook.  fil.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Aspilia  spp.     (i)  Shire  Highlands  and  Lake  Nyasa,  Scott-Elliot  ;  Buchanan  ;  Chiradzulu, 

Whyte  ;  (2)  Carson  ;  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  J.  Thomson  ;  Nutt. 
Melanthera  abyssinica,  O.  et  H.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 
M.  Brownci,  Sch.  Bip.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Carson. 
Sptfanthes  Acmella,  L.     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk  ;  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 
Spilanthes  sp.     (2)  Nutt. 

Siegesbeckia  abyssinica,  O.  et  H.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Guisotia  bidentoides,  O.  et  H.     (i)  Maiianja  hills,  Kirk. 
Guisotia  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Coreopsis   Steppia,  Steetz.     (i)    Maiianja   hills,   Kirk;    Chiradzulu,   Whyte;     Buchanan; 

(2)  Carson. 

C.  Grantii,  Oliv.     (2)  Carson. 

Coreopsis  spp.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Xutt. 
Bidcns  lincariloba,  O.  et  H.     (2)  Carson. 
B.  pilosa,  L.     (i)  Mlanje  and  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of 

Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Bide  us  sp.     (2)  Carson. 

Chrysanthclliini procumbens,  Pers.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Jaumea  sp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;   (2)  Carson. 
Gynura   cernua,   Benth.      (i)   Zomba   and   Chiradzulu,  Whyte;    Mananja   hills,  Meller  ; 

Blantyre,   Last  ;    Buchanan ;    (2)    Nyasa-Tanganyika    plateau,    Scott-Elliot  ;    Lower 

plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson  ;  Carson. 
G.  amplc.vicaulis,  O.  et  H.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
G.  crepidioides,  Benth.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Carson. 
G.  vitellina,  Benth.     (2)  Carson. 
Gynura  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nutt  ;  Carson. 

Gongrothamnus  divaricatits,  Steetz.     (i)  Lower  Shire  Valley,  Kirk  and  Meller. 
Cineraria  /ci/iwanscharica,  Engl.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
Cineraria  spp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Emilia  sagitttifa,  DC.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Shire  Valley,  Kirk  ;  Blantyre,  Last ; 

(2)  Carson. 
E.   integrijolia,   Baker.      (2)    Nutt ;    Carson  ;    Lower   plateau    north   of   Lake    Nyasa,  J. 


Emilia  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Scnccic  buplcuroides,  DC.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller;  Sochi,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 
S.  cyanens,  O.  Hoffm.     (i)  Buchanan. 



Senecio  ddtoidciis,  Less,     (i)  ?  Mpatamanja,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 

.V.  subscandens,  Hochst.     (i)  Murchison  Falls,  Meller. 

5.  mweroensis,  Baker.     (2)  Mweru,  Carson. 

S.  lasiorltiziis,  DC.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie  and  PWhyte. 

S.  latifolius,  DC.      (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot ;  Mlanje  and  Zomba,  Whyte. 

S.  auriculatissimus,  Britten,     (i)  Zomba  and  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 

S.  whyteanus,  Britten,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Senecio   spp.      (i)    Buchanan ;    Shire    Highlands,   Scott-Elliot  ;    Chiradzulu,   Whyte  ;    (2) 

Nutt  ;  Carson. 

Othonna  whyteana,  Britten,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie. 
Tripteris  monocephala,  O.  et  H.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller. 
Osteospermum  moniliferum,  L.     (i)  Buchanan;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa, 

J.  Thomson. 

Haplocarpha  scaposa,  Harv.     (i)  Sochi,  Kirk  ;  (2)  Carson. 
Gazania  serrulata,  DC.     (i)  Sochi,  Kirk. 
Gazania  sp.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 
Berkheya  Zeyheri,  Sond.  et  Harv.     (i)   Kanjanje,  Kirk;   Buchanan;  (2)   Upper  plateau, 

north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
B.johnstoniana,  Britten,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

B.  subnlata,  Harv.     (i)  Zomba,  Kirk  ;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot  ;  Buchanan. 
Berkheya  sp.     (2)  Carson. 
Carduus  leptacanthns,  Nees.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Pleiotaxis  pulcherrima,  Steetz.     (2)  Carson. 
Pleiotaxis  sp.     (2)  Carson. 
Erythrocephahun  zambesiacum,  O.  et   H.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  Waller;    Mananja  country, 

Kirk  ;    Blantyre,    Last ;    Buchanan  ;    Shire    Highlands,    Scott-Elliot ;     Mlanje    and 

Zomba,  Whyte. 

Erythrocephalum  spp.     (2)  Carson  ;  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Phyllactinia  Grantii,  Benth.     (2)  Carson. 
Dicoma  Kirkii,  Harv.     (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 

D.  sessiliflora,  Harv.     (i)  Lake  Chilwa,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson. 
D.  anomala,  Sond.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson  ;  (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
D.  tomentosa,  Cass.     (4)  Menyharth. 
D.  quinqnevidnera,  Baker.     (2)  Mweru,  Carson. 
Gerbera   abyssinica,   Sch.    Bip.      (i)    Mlanje,  Whyte  and    McClounie;    Zomba,   Whyte; 

G.  piloselloides,  Cass.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Lower  plateau, 

north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Gerbera   spp.      (i)    Shire    Highlands,    Scott-Elliot;    Buchanan;    (2)    Nyasa-Tanganyika 

plateau,  Scott-Elliot ;    Upper  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Tolpis  abyssinica,  Sch.  Bip.     (i)  Mlanje  and  Zomba,  Whyte. 
Crepis  sp.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie  ;  Buchanan. 
Lactuca  abyssinica,  Fresen.     (i)  Buchanan. 

L.  capensis,  Thunb.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mlanje  and  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Carson. 
Lactuca  sp.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie  ;  (2)  Carson. 
Sonchus  Bipontini,  Aschers.     (i)  Lower  Shire  Valley,  Meller. 
S.  Schiveinfurthii,  O.  et  H.     (i)  Buchanan. 

S.  rarifolius,  O.  et  H.     (i)  Zomba  and  east  end  of  Lake  Chilwa,  Meller. 
5.  oleraceus,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Sonchus  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mlanje,  McClounie. 
Lobelia  trullifolia,  Hemsl.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Meller. 



Lobelia  Melleri,  Hemsl.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 

L.  Nyassae,  Engl.     (i)  Buchanan. 

L.  nnda,  Hemsl.     (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 

L.fervens,  Thunb.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

L.  naialcnsis,  A.  DC.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  (4)  Victoria  Falls,  Kirk. 

L.  coronopifolia^.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie  ;  Zomba,  Whyte. 

Lobelia  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Blantyre,  Last ;  (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt ;  Upper 

and  Lower  plateaux,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Cephalostigma  hirsutmn,  Edgw.     (i)  Near  Katunga,  Meller. 
Sphenoclea  zeylanica,  Gaertn.     (4)  Menyharth. 
Lightfootia  abyssinica,  Hochst.     (i)  Marianja  hills,  Meller;  Mlanje  and  Zomba,  Whyte  • 

Buchanan  ;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot  ;  (2)  Nutt. 
L.  arenaria,  A.  DC.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last. 

Lightfootia,  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Upper  and  Lower  plateaux,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa 
J.  Thomson. 

Wahlenbergia  oppositifolia,  A.  DC.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

W.  virgata,  Engl.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie  ;  Buchanan. 

Wahlenbergia  spp.     (i)  McClounie  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nutt ;  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake 
Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 


Vacci ilium  africanum,  Britten,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie. 


Aganria  salitifolia,  Hook.  fil.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa, 
J.  Thomson. 

Erica  johnstoniana,  Britten,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

E.  ivhyteana,  Britten,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Erica  sp.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  Mlanje,  McClounie  ;  Buchanan. 

Blacria  setulosa,  Welw.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

B.  microdonta,  Wright,     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie. 

Blaeria  sp.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last. 

Philippia  milanjiensis,  Britten  et  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

P.  bengitellensis,  Welw.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Philippia  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

Ericinella  Mannii,  Hook.  fil.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Plumbago  zeylanica,  L.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson. 


Anagallis  qitartiniana,  Engl.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie. 
Anagallis  sp.     (2)  Carson. 


Maesn  lanccolata,  Forsk.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte;  Buchanan. 
Maesa  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Myrsine.  africana,  L.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie;  Buchanan. 
^.     (i)  Buchanan. 



ChrysophyUum  mctgalismontanitm,  Sond.     (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 

C.  Stithlmannii)  Engl.     (i)  Buchanan. 
ChrysophyUum  spp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Sideroxylon  brevipes,  Baker.     (2)  North  end  of  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 
Mimusops  Mochtsia,  Baker.     (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 
M.  Kirkii,  Baker,     (i)  Lower  Shire  Valley,  Kirk. 
.]/.  linchananii)  Engl.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Royena  pallens,  Thunb.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  (4)  Sesheke,  Kirk. 

R.  whyteana,  Hiern.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Royena  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Enclea  Divinorum,  Hiern.     (4)  Victoria  Falls,  Kirk. 

E.  multiflora,  Hiern.     (4)  Menyharth. 

Euclea  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Maba  spp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Diospvros  shirensis,  Hiern.     (i)  Fort  Johnston  and  River  Ruo,  Scott-Elliot. 

D.  batokana,  Hiern.     (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 
Diospyros  sp.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 


Jasminium  stenolobum,  Harv.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot  ; 

Buchanan  ;  (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 

/.  brachyscyphum,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mlanje,  McClounie. 
/.  Walleri,  Baker,     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Waller. 
/.  mauritianum,  Bojer.     (i)  Buchanan;  (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  J.  Thomson  ;  (4) 

Sesheke,  Holub. 

/.  niicrophyllum,  Baker,     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie. 
J.  Kirkii,  Baker,     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 
Jasminium  spp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Schrebera  Buchanani,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 
S.  alata,  Wehv.     (i)  Buchanan. 
S.  golungensis,  Welw.     (4)  Menyharth. 
Schrebera  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 


"  Salvadora persica,  L.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 
Azima  spp.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot ;  (4)  Menyharth. 


Landolphia  Kirkii,  Dyer,     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 
Landolphia  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Carissa  Arduina,  Lam.     (i)  Buchanan. 

C.  edulis,V&\\\.     (i)  Buchanan;    Mananja  hills,  Meller:    Chiradzulu,  Whyte  and  Kirk; 

(4)  Victoria  Falls,  Kirk. 
Diplorrhynchus  mossambicensis,  Benth.     (i)  Buchanan;  (4)  Menyharth. 

D.  psilopus,  Welw.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 

Ranwolfia  caffra,  Sond.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mananja  and  Katunga,  Kirk. 

Holarrhcna  fcbrifuga,  Klotzsch.    (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  west  side  of  Lake 

Nyasa,    Kirk ;   Zomba,    Whyte  ;    Lake    Chilwa,    McClounie  ;  (2)    Nyasa-Tanganyika 

plateau,  Scott-Elliot. 



Tabernacmontana  stapfiana,  Britten,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
T.  ventricosa,  Hochst.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
T.  clegans.     (i)  River  Ruo,  Johnston. 

Voacanga    africana,    Stapf.      (i)    Shire    Valley,    Kirk;    Shire    Highlands,    Scott-Elliot; 

Stroplianthus  Konibe,  Oliv.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;    Buchanan  ;   (4)  Victoria  Falls, 

*S\  ecaudatits,  Rolfe.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 
Stroplianthus  sp.     (2)  Carson  ;  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott- Elliot. 
Mascarenhasia  variegata,  Britten  et  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
Adenium  multiflorum,  Klotzsch.     (i)  Near  Metope,  L.  Scott. 


Cryptolepis  obtusa,  N.  E.  Br.     (i)  Lower  Shire  Valley,  Meller  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 

C.  Welwitschii,    Schlechter.      (i)   Buchanan  ;    Mlanje,   Whyte  ;   (2)    Nyasa-Tanganyika 

plateau,  Scott-Elliot. 

Cryptolepis  sp.     (i)  Mananja  hills  and  west  shore  of  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk;  Shire  Highlands, 


Raphionacme grandtflora,  N.  E.  Br.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last. 
R.  longifolia,  N.  E.  Br.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Kirk. 

Secamonc  zambesiaca,  Schlechter.     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk  ;  Chiromo,  Scott-Elliot. 
Taccazia  Kirkii,  N .  E.  Br.     (4)  Menyharth. 
Chlorocodon  Whytei,  Hook.  fil.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Daemia  cxtensa,  R.  Br.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  Meller;  Buchanan. 

D.  barbata,  Klotzsch.     (4)  Menyharth. 
Xysmahbium  spuriitm,  N.  E.  Br.     (i)  Buchanan. 
X.  Carsoni,  N.  E.  Br.     (2)  Carson. 

X.  bellum,   N.   E.   Br.     (i)  Buchanan;    Mananja  hills,   Kirk;    Shire  Highlands,   K.  C. 

Cameron ;   (2)  Carson. 
X.  reticitlatum,  N.  E.  Br.     (i)  Buchanan. 
X.fraternitiii,  N.  E.  Br.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last. 
Xysmalobium  sp.     (2)  Carson. 
Schizoglossum  connatum,  N.  E.  Br.     (2)  Carson. 

.  elatum,  K.  Schum.     (i)  Buchanan. 

-S.  shirense,  N.  E.  Br.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  Kirk  and  Waller. 
S.  Nyasae,  Britten  et  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte;  Buchanan. 
S.  barbatum,  Britten  et  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie. 
S.  erttbesccns,  Schlechter.     (i)  Mlanje,  Scott-Elliot. 
Schizoglossum  sp.      (i)  Mlanje,  Scott-Elliot;  (4)  Menyharth. 

Asclepias  spectabilis,  N.  E.  Br.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Blantyre,  Last ;  Magomera,  Waller. 
A.  consptcna,  N.  E.  Br.     (2)  Carson. 
A.fniticosa,  L.     (i)  Lower  Shire  Valley,  Meller. 
A.  amabilis,  N.  E.  Br.     (2)  Carson. 

A.pygmaca,  N.  E.  Br.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
A.  reflexa,  Britten  et  Rendle.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  and  Waller;   Zomba,  Meller; 

Mlanje,    Whyte  ;    Shire    Highlands,    Scott-Elliot  ;    Buchanan  ;    (2)    North    Nyasa, 

L.  Scott. 
A.    lincolata,    Schlechter.      (i)   Mlanje,    Scott-Elliot;    Shire   Valley,   Kirk   and   Waller; 

(2)  Carson. 

A. palustris,  Schlechter.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  Mlanje,  Scott-Elliot  and  McClounie. 
Asclepias  sp.     (2)  Nutt. 



Gomphocarpns  foliosus,    K.    Schum.      (i)    Marianja   hills,  Waller;    Blantyre,   Last;    (2) 

Higher  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Brachystelma  Bitchanani,  N.   E.  Br.     (i)  Sochi,  Chiromo   and   Mananja,   Scott-Elliot; 


Cynanclniin  nwssanibiccnsc,  K.  Schum.     (i)  Shire  Rapids,  Kirk. 

Margaretta  distincta,  N.  E.  Br.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
M.  orbicularis,  N.  E.  Br.     (i)  Maravi  country,  Kirk  ;  (2)  North  Nyasa,  L.  Scott. 
M.   Wkytei,  K.  Schum.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Meller  ;  Zomba  and  east  end  of  Lake  Chihva, 

Meller  ;  Blantyre,  L.  Scott  ;  Buchanan  ;  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  near  Metope,  Scott-Elliot. 
Dregea  macrant/ia,  Kl.     (i)  Chiromo,  Scott-Elliot  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 
Gymnema  sylvestre,  R.  Br.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Pergularia  africana,  N.  E.  Br.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 
Sphacrocodon  obtusifolium,  Benth.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Ceropegia  constricta,  N.  E.  Br.     (2)  Carson. 
C.  debtlis,  N.  E.  Br.     (  i  )  Zomba,  Buchanan. 
Riocreuxia  prof  lisa,  N.  E.  Br.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Mostuaea  Brunonis,  F.  Didrichs.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Bnddleia  salviaefolia,  Lam.     (i)  Zomba,  Kirk  and  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 

Buddleia  sp.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Nuxia  congesta,  R.  Br.     (i)  Buchanan;  Zomba,  Whyte;  var.  N.  tomentosa,  Sond/f  (i) 

Buchanan  ;  var.  N.  dentata,  R.  Br.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller. 
N.  sambesina,  Gilg.     (i)  Zomba,  Kirk. 
Strychnos  dysophylla,  Benth.     (i)  Buchanan. 
5.  spinosa,  Lam.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 
Strychnos  sp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 

Anthodeista  zambesiaca,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 
A.  nobilis,  Don.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 
Anthodeista  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Exacuin  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Sebaea  bradiyphylla,  Griseb.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Blantyre,  Last. 
S.  crassulaefolia,  Cham,  et  Schlecht.     (i)  Mlanje  and  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 
Sebaea  sp.     (4)  Victoria  Falls,  Kirk. 
Tadiiadcnus  continentalis,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 
Chironia  purpurascens,  Benth.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nutt. 
C.  laxiflora,  Baker,     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  and  Kirk. 
C.  densiflora,  Scott-Elliot,     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 
Chironia  sp.     (2)  Nutt. 

Faroa  salutaris,  Welw.     (i)  West  shore  of  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 
F.  Bndianani,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 

Swertia  Mannii,  Hook.  fil.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 
spp.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Cordia  abyssinica,  R.  Br.     (i)  Buchanan. 

C.  Myxa,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 

C.  Kirldi,  Baker.     (4)  Menyharth. 

C.  Rot/tit,  Roem.  et  Schult.     (4)  Menyharth. 



Ehrctia  divaricata,  Baker,     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Kirk. 
Ehretia  sp.     (4)  Menyharth. 

Trichodesma  zeylanicum,  R.  Br.     (i)  Blantyre,  Descamps. 

T.  physaloides,  A.  DC.  (i)  Zomba  and  east  end  of  Lake  Chilvva,  Meller  ;  Mananja  hills, 
Meller  ;  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan  ;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot ;  (2)  Carson  ; 
Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  J.  Thomson. 

Heliotropiitm  oral  i  folium,  Forsk.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  L.  Scott ;  Fort  Johnston,  Scott-Elliot. 
H.  strigosttm,  Willd.     (i)  Buchanan. 
H.  bractcatum,  R.  Br.     (2)  North  Nyasa,  L.  Scott. 

H.  zeylanicmn,  Lam.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  North  Nyasa,  L.  Scott  and  J.  Thomson. 
H.  indicum,  L.     (i)  Shire  River,  L.  Scott ;  Buchanan  ;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 
Cynoglossum  hmceolatum,  Forsk.    (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte ;  Buchanan ; 

(2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot. 
Lithospermiiin  crythrocephaliim,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 
Lobostemon  cryptoccphalnm,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 


Argyreia  laxiflora,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 

Lepistemon  africanum,  Oliv.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Kirk  ;  Lake  Nyasa,  Simons. 

Heivittia  bicolor,  Wight,     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte;  Mananja  hills,  Meller;  Shire  Valley, 

L.  Scott ;    Mlanje,  Whyte  ;    Buchanan. 
Jacqiiemontia  capita  ta,  Don.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  L.  Scott. 

Convolvulus  hyoscyamoides,  Vatke.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
C.   iiKili'aceus,  Oliv.      (i)   Shire    Highlands,    Scott-Elliot;    Mlanje,  Whyte;    Buchanan; 

(2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
C.  sagtttatiis,  Thunb.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
C.  Thomsoni,  Baker.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Evolvulus  alsinoidcs,  L.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
fpomoea  simplex,  Thunb.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot ;  Buchanan. 
/.  Pes-tigridis,  L.     (4)  Menyharth. 
/.  tanganyikensis.  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 
/.  discolor,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 
/.  operosa,  Wright,     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Whyte. 

/.  involucnita,  P.  Beauv.     (i)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Lpilcata,  Roxb.     (2)  Carson;  Nutt. 

/.  crassipes,  Hook,     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot;  Buchanan. 
/.  chryseides,  Ker.     (4)  Menyharth. 
/.  Hanntngtom,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 
/.  / I'd-idtsc/in,  Yatke.     (i)  Buchanan. 
/.    (ingiistfo/ia,   Jacq.      (i)    Buchanan;    (2)    Lower    plateau,   north    of    Lake    Nyasa,  J. 

Thomson  ;  (3)  Serpa  Pinto  ;   (4)  Menyharth. 
/.  vngtins,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 
/.  Carson  i,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 
/.  inconspiciui.  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 
/.  erio.drpa,  R.  Br.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  V.  Scott;  Buchanan;  (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika 

plateau,  J.  Thomson  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 
I.  iiiwerooisis,  Baker.     (2)  Mweru,  Carson. 
L pharbitifortnis,  Baker.     (2)  Mweru,  Carson. 
/.  stmonsiiina,  Rendle.     (i)  Nyasa,  Simons. 
/.  shirensiS)  Oliv.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 
f.  liallcriana,  Britten,     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte;  near  Katunga,  Kirk. 



Ipomoca  tambclcnsis,  Baker,     (i)  Upper  Shire  Valley,  Kirk. 

I.obsaira,    Koen.      (i)    Zomba,    Whyte ;    Buchanan;     (2)    Nyasa-Tanganyika    plateau, 

J.  Thomson. 

/.  Buchanani,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 

/.  Undleyi,  Choisy.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan  ;  (4)  ?  Menyharth. 
/.  aqiiatica,  Forsk.     (i)  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 
I.pilosa,  Sweet,     (i)  Buchanan;  (4)  Menyharth. 
/.  Wightii,  Choisy.     (4)  Menyharth. 
/.  afra,  Choisy.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Lpterygocaulis,  Choisy.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 
I.pinnata,  Hochst.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 
/.  palmata,  Forsk.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 
/.  dissecta,  Willd.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 
I.  kirkuma,  Britten,     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 
I.fulvicaulis,  Boiss.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 


Solatium  nodiflorum,  Jacq.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  Kirk. 

S.  nigrum,  L.     (i)  Blantyre,  Descamps. 

S.  schimperianum,  Hochst.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 

5.  Naumannii,  Engl.     (i)  Buchanan. 

S.  anomalum,  Thonn.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 

S.  aculeastrum,  Dun.     (i)  Blantyre,  L.  Scott ;  Buchanan  ;  Mananja  hills,  Meller. 

S.  Rohrti,  Wright,     (i)  Mpatamanga,  Kirk. 

5.  chrysotrichum,  Wright,     (i)  Buchanan. 

S.  acanthocalyx,  Klotzsch.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

S.  trepidans,  Wright,     (i)  Shire  Valley,  L.  Scott. 

Pliysalis  pubescens,  L.     (i)  Blantyre,  Descamps. 

P.  pcruviana,  L.     (i)  Blantyre,  L.  Scott. 

Capsicum  conoides,  Mill.     (4)  Sesheke,  Kirk. 

Datura  alba,  Nees.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan  ;  Mananja  hills,  Meller. 


Diclis  ovata,  Benth.     (i)  Mandala,  Scott-Elliot. 
D.  tenella,  Hemsl.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 
•    Hal  I ena  Indda,  L.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 
H.  elliptic*,  Thunb.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Chaenostoma  sp.     (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot. 

Uimuliisgnicilis,  R.  Br.     (i)  Zomba  and  east  end  of  Lake  Chilwa,  Meller ;  Buchanan. 
Craterostigma plantagineunii  Hochst.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Torenia  pannflora,  Hamilt.     (2)  North  of  Lake  Nyasa,  L.  Scott. 
Vanddlia  lobclioides,  Oliv.     (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  J.  Thomson. 
Ilysanthcs  sp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Shire  Valley,  L.  Scott  ;  (2)  Nutt. 
Alectra  melmnpyroides,  Benth.       (i)    Mbami,  near  Blantyre  and  Mananja  hills,   Kirk; 

Ikichanan  ;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Alectra,  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Atihiya  obtiisifolia,  Benth.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  K.  C.  Cameron. 
Huchncra  quadrifaria,  Baker.      (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of   Lake  Nyasa,  J 

Carson  ;  Nutt. 
B.  Lasiii.  Engl.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last. 



Biichnera  spp.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Buchanan;  Mlanje  and  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ; 

(2)  Upper  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Striga  elegans,  Benth.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last. 
S.  cocdnea,  Benth.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan, 
.s.  Forbesii,  Benth.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Meller. 

S.  orobanchoides,  Benth.     (2)  North  of  Lake  Xyasa,  L.  Scott  ;  Carson. 
Striga  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  North  of  Lake  Nyasa,  L.  Scott ;  Carson. 
Rhamphicarpa  fistulosa,  Benth.     (2)  North  of  Lake  Nyasa,  L.  Scott. 
R.  serrata,  Klotzsch.     (i)  Zomba  and  east  end  of  Lake  Chilvva,  Meller  ;  Buchanan. 
A',  tubulosciy  Benth.     (i)  Mandala,  Scott-Elliot. 

Rhamphicarpa  spp.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson. 
Cycninm  udotiensc,  E.  Mey.     (i)   Mlanje  and  Zomba,  Whyte;    Buchanan;   (2)  Carson; 

Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot. 

C.  longiflorum,  Eck.  et  Zeyh.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  Kirk;    Buchanan;   (2)  North  of  Lake 

Xyasa,  J.  Thomson  and  L.  Scott. 
Cycnium  spp.     (i)  Buchanan;  (2)  Carson. 
Sopitbia  Janata,  Engl.     (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 
6".  mmosa,  Hochst.     (i)   Mananja  hills,  Meller  and   Kirk  ;    Blantyre,  Last  ;    Buchanan  ; 

(2)  Carson  ;    Nutt. 

S.  dregcana,  Benth.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 
S.  Hildebrandtii,  Vatke.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 
Sopubia   spp.     (i)    Mananja   hills,   Meller;    (2)    Lower   plateau,  north   of    Lake  Nyasa, 

J.  Thomson;    Carson. 


Orobanche  ccrnna,  Loefl.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  L.  Scott. 


UtricuJaria  capensis,  Spreng.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Blantyre,  Last. 

Utrictdaria  spp.  (i)  Buchanan  ;  Lake  Nyasa,  Laws  ;  (2)  Nutt  ;  Carson  ;  Lower  plateau, 
north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson  ;  (4)  Victoria  Falls  and  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 


Streptocarpus  caulescens,  Vatke.     (i)  Buchanan. 
S.  Cooperi,  C.  B.  Clarke,     (i)  Buchanan. 


Tecoma  shirensis,  Baker,     (r)  Buchanan. 

71  nyassae,  Oliv.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

Dolichandrone  obtusifolia,  Baker,     (r)  Shire  Highlands,  Buchanan  and  Scott-Elliot. 

D.  toincntosa,  Benth.     (2)  Carson. 

Stcreospennnin  kunthiannm,  Cham.  (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Waller  ;  Buchanan  ;  Chirad- 
zulu, Meller  ;  West  shore  of  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk  ;  (2)  Mweru,  Carson  ;  (4)  Batoka 
country,  Kirk. 

Kigelia pinnata,  DC.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Sesamum  angolense,  Welw.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  West  shore  of  Lake  Xyasa,  Kirk  ;  Blantyre  ; 

Last  ;  (2)  Carson  ;  Xutt. 
S.  indicum,  L.     (2)  Karonga,  L.  Scott. 
S. \calycinum,  Welw.     (4)  Holub. 
Ceratothcca  sesamoides,  Endl.     Buchanan  ;   (i)  Shire  Valley,    L.   Scott  ;    West  shore  of 

Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk  and  Simons  ;   (2)  Carson  ;    Karonga,  L.  Scott  ;   (4)  Holub. 
Ceratothcca  sp.     (2)  Karonga,  L.  Scott. 
1'rclrcii  -.anqiiebarica,  J.  Gay.     (i)  Zomba  and  east  end  of  Lake  Chilwa,  Meller;  (4)  Holub. 



Hebenstreitia  sp.    (4)  Holub. 
Selago  milanjiensis,  Rolfe.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
6".  whyteana,  Rolfe.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie. 

Selago  spp.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Meller  and  Whyte;    Mlanje,   McClounie;    Buchanan;   (2) 
Lower  and  Upper  plateaux,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson  ;   (4)  Menyharth. 


Thunbergia  kirkiana,  T.  Anders,     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 

T.  a/a/a,  Bojer.      (i)  Buchanan;    Mlanje,  Whyte;    Mananja   hills,    Kirk   and   Meller; 
(2)  Carson. 

T.  lancifolia,  T.  Anders,     (i)  Blantyre,  L.  Scott  ;  Mananja  hills  and  Chiradzulu,  Meller; 
Buchanan  ;  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Carson  ;  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  J.  Thomson. 

T.  obtusifolia,  Oliv.     (2)  Upper  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

T.  erecta,  Benth.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Blantyre,  Last ;  Mananja  hills,  Waller. 

T.  oblongifolia,  Oliv.      (i)  Mananja   hills,  Waller;    Buchanan;    (2)    Nyasa-Tanganyika 
plateau,  Scott-Elliot. 

T.  subulata,  Lindau.     (i)  Buchanan. 

T.  mollis,  Lindau.     (i)  Buchanan. 

T.  manganjensis,  Lindau.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Kirk. 

Thunbergia   spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;   Zomba,  Whyte  ;    Shire   Highlands,   Scott-Elliot  ;    (2) 

Nutt ;    Carson  ;    Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot. 
Nelsonia  campestris,  R.  Br.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Buchanan. 
Hygrophila  spinosa,  T.  Anders,     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Shire  River,  Kirk. 
H. parviflora,  Lindau.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Mellera  lobulata,  S.  Moore,     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mananja  hills,  Meller. 
Calophanes  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 
Ruellia  pro  strata,  T.  Anders,     (i)  Buchanan;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot;  Lower  Shire 

Valley,  Kirk  ;  (2)  Carson. 

Paulo-wilhclmia  sp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  Mananja  hills,  Meller. 
Mimnlopsis  sesamoides,  S.  Moore,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
Mimulopsis  sp.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Eranthemnm  senense,  Klotzsch.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mlanje,  McClounie  ;  Mananja  hills,  Kirk. 
Acanthopale  sp.     (Dischistocalyx  confertiflora,  Lindau).     (i)  Buchanan. 

Whitfieldia  sp.     (2)  Carson. 
Dyschoriste,  sp.   {Calophanes  verticillaris,  Oliv.)     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Buchanan  ; 

Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;   (2)  Higher  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Dyschoriste  spp.     (2)  Carson  ;  (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 
Strobilanthes  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Phaylopsis parviflora,  Willd.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 
Phaylopsis  sp.     (Micranthus  Poggei,  Lindau).     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 
Blepharis  serrnlata,  Ficalho  et  Hiern.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 

B.  longifolia,  Lindau.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Blepharis  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nutf. 

Crossandra    Greenstockii,    S.    Moore,      (i)   Mananja   hills,   Meller  ;    Mlanje,  Whyte  and 
McClounie  ;    Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot  ;  Buchanan. 

C.  nilotica,  Oliv.     (2)  Tanganyika  and  Mweru,  Carson. 

C.  puberula,  Klotzsch.     (i)  Lower  Shire  Valley,  Meller  and  Kirk  ;  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ; 


Crossandra  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Barleria  Kirkii,  T.  Anders,     (i)  Buchanan. 
B.  calophylloides,  Lindau.     (i)  Nutt. 
/,'.  Prionitis,  L.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Meller. 



Barleria  spinulosa,  Klotzsch.     (i)  River  Shire,  Meller  and  Kirk  :  Buchanan. 

B.  eranthemoides,  R.  Br.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Barleria  sp.     (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 

Crabbeanana,  Nees  (C.  aovalifolia,  Ficalho  et  Hiern.)     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
Crabbea  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Lepidagathis  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nutt. 

Asystasia  coromandeliana,  Nees.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson. 
Asystasia  sp.     (2)  Carson. 

Brachystephanus  africanus,  S.  Moore,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
Justicia  Whytei,  S.  Moore,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
J.  heterocarpa,  T.  Anders.     (2)  Nutt. 
J.  anselliana,  T.  Anders,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
J.  melainpyrum,  S.  Moore,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Justicia  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  Blantyre,  Last  ;  Shire  Highlands  and 
Lake  Nyasa,  Scott-Elliot ;  (2)  Nutt ;  Carson  ;  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot. 
Isoglossa  milanjiensis,  S.  Moore,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
Isoglossa  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Rhinacanthus  commitnis,  Nees.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 
Rhinacanthiis  sp.     (i)  Buchanan;  Blantyre,  Last ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 
Himantochilus  marginatus,  Lindau.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 
Dicliptera  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Peristrophe  bicalyculata,  Nees.     (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot. 
Hypoestes  -vertidllaris,  R.  Br.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 
H. phaylopsoides,  S.  Moore,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
H.  Rothii,  T.  Anders,     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 
H.  latifo/ia,  H.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Hypoestes  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson. 


Lantana   salviaefolia,   Jacq.      (i)    Buchanan  ;    Mlanje   and    Chiradzulu,   Whyte ;    Shire 
Highlands,    Scott-Elliot;   (2)    Lower   plateau,    north   of  Lake    Nyasa,  J.   Thomson; 
Carson;  Nutt;   (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
Lippia  nodiflora,  A.  Rich,     (i)  Buchanan. 
L.  asperifolia,  Rich,     (i)  Lower  Shire  Valley,  Meller  ;   Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Plateau, 

north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Lippia  sp.     (2)  Carson. 
Priva  leptosiachya,  Juss.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Premna  scnensis,  Klotzsch.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Premna  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Holmskioldia  tettensis,  Vatke.     (i)  Banks  of  Shire  River,  Kirk. 
Vitex  milanjiensis,   Britten,      (i)   Shire    Highlands,    Scott-Elliot;    Mlanje   and   Zomba, 

Whyte  ;   (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot. 
V.  Mombassae,  Vatke.     (i)  Buchanan. 
V.  paludosa,   Vatke.      (i)   River    Shire,   Kirk;    Buchanan;    Maiianja   hills,   Meller;    (2) 

Karonga,  L.  Scott. 

V.  Buchananii,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 

Vitex  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Lake  Chilwa,  Kirk  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 
Clerodendron  tanganyikense,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 

C.  capitation,    Schum.      (i)   Buchanan  ;    (2)   Upper  plateau,  north    of    Lake    Nyasa,  J. 

Thomson  ;    Carson. 
C.  discolor,  Vatke.     (i)  Mlanje  and  Zomba,  Whyte. 



Clerodendron  lanccolatum,  Giirke.     (4)  Menyharth. 

C.   myricoides,   R.  Br.      (i)  Buchanan;    Mlanje  and  Zomba,  Whyte  ;    Shire  Highlands, 

Scott-Elliot ;    Mananja  hills,  Meller. 

C.  spinescens,  Giirke.     (i)  Maravi  country,  Kirk  ;  (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 
Clerodendron  spp.     (i)  Maiianja  hills,  Meller  ;  Lower  Shire  Valley,  Waller  ;  Buchanan. 


Ocimum  suave,  Willd.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Last  ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Nutt. 

O.  affinc,  Hochst.     (i)  Blantyre,  L.  Scott ;  Mlanje,  McClounie ;  (2)  Carson. 

O.filamentosum,  Forsk.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

O.  cornigertim,  Hochst.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

O.  hians,  Benth.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

O.  bracteosum,  Benth.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Ocimum  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot,  L.  Scott  and  K.  C.  Cameron  ; 

(2)  Upper  and  Lower  plateaux,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa. 
Acrocephalus  caUianthus,  Briquet,     (i)  Buchanan;   Chiradzulu,  Whyte;   Blantyre,  Last; 

Mananja  hills,  Meller. 
A.  zambesiacus,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 
A.  caeruleus,  Oliv.     (2)  Nutt. 
Acrocephalus  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mananja  hills,  Kirk  ;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake 

Nyasa,  J.  Thomson  ;  Carson  ;  Nutt. 
Orthosiphon  coloratus,  Vatke.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 
O.  trichodon,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 
O.  Kirkii,  Baker,  ined.  ex.  Britten,  in  Trans.  Linn.  Soc.  2nd  Ser.  iv.,  p.  37.     (i)  Mlanje, 


O.  Canter oni,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 

Orthosiphon  spp.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot ;  (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 
Geniosporum  affine,  Giirke.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Moschosma polystachyum,  Benth.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 
M.    riparium,    Hochst.      (i)    Murchison    Falls,    Meller;     Chiradzulu,    Whyte;     Last; 

Buchanan  ;    Shire  Highlands,  L.  Scott ;   (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of   Lake   Nyasa, 

J.  Thomson. 

Moschosma  sp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Blantyre,  Last. 
Coleus  umbrosus,  Vatke.     (i)  Blantyre,  Descamps. 
C.  leucophyllus,  Baker.     (2)  Mweru,  Carson. 
C.  punctatus,  Baker.     (2)  Mweru,  Carson. 
C.  shirensis,  Giirke  (Plectranthus  glandulosies,  Britten,  non  Hook.  fil.).      (i)  Buchanan; 

Zomba,  Whyte. 

Coleus  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Carson. 
Solenostemon  sp.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 
Aeolanthus  Nyassae,  Giirke.     (i)  Buchanan. 
A.  ukambensis,  Giirke.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Aeolanthus  spp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Pycnosiachys  parvifolia,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 
P.  verticillata,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 
P.  cyanea,  Giirke.     (i)  Buchanan. 
P. pnbescens,  Giirke.     (i)  Buchanan. 
P.  reticulata,  Benth.     (2)  Carson. 

P.  urtici folia,  Hook,     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Buchanan  ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 
Pycnostachys  spp.     (2)  Nutt ;  Carson. 
Plectranthus  subacaulis,  Baker.     (2)  Mweru,  Carson. 



PlcctnintJnis  niodcstus,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 

PL  floribitndus,    N.    E.    Br.  ;    var.    longipes,   N.    E.    Br.      (i)    Marianja    hills,    Meller ; 

Maravi  country,  Kirk;    Buchanan;    Shire  Highlands,  L.  Scott;    (2)  Lower  plateau, 

north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
PL  elegans,  Britten,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
PL  priinulinus,  Baker.     (2)  Mweru,  Carson. 
PL  sangu  incus,  Britten,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
PL  betonicaefolins,  Baker.     (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 

PL  dcnsus,  N.  E.  Br.     (2)  Higher  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
PL  manganjensis,  Baker,  ined.  ex.  Britten,  in  Trans.  Linn.  Soc.  2nd  Ser.  iv.,  p.  37.     (i) 

Zomba,  Whyte. 

Plectranthits  sp.  (PL  Mellcri,  Britten,  non  Baker),  (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Chiradzulu, 

Plectranthiis  spp.  (i)  Shire  Valley  and  Mananja  hills,  Kirk;  Buchanan;  Last;  Shire 
Highlands,  Scott-Elliot ;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson  ; 

Hoslimdia  opposita,  Vahl.     (i)  Mlanje  and  Zomba,  Whyte;    Mananja  hills,  Zomba  and 

east  end  of  Lake  Chilwa,  Meller. 

Hyptis pcctinata,  Poit.     (i)  Zomba  and  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  Blantyre,  Descamps. 
Calamintha  simensis,  Benth.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Micromeria  biflora,  Benth.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Xyasa, 

J.  Thomson. 

Micromeria  sp.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 
Elsholtzia  sp.     (2)  Carson. 

Achyrospermum  sp.     (i)  Ndirande  Mountain,  Buchanan. 
Lasiocorys  sp.     (2)  Carson. 

Lconitis pallida,  R.  Br.     (i)  Blantyre,  Descamps. 
L.  nepetaefolia,  R.  Br.     (2)  Carson. 
L.  Leonitrus,  R.  Br.     (2)  Carson. 

L.  I'diitina,  Fenzl.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Descamps  ;  Mananja  hills,  Meller. 
Leonitis  spp.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 
Tinnea  sp.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan  ;  (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 
Scutellaria  paucifolia,    Baker.       (2)    Carson ;    Lower    plateau,  north    of    Lake    Nyasa, 

J.  Thomson  ;  Mweru,  Carson. 
.5".  Livingstonei,  Baker,  ined.   ex.   Britten,  in  Trans.   Linn.  Soc.  2nd  ser.  iv.  p.  37.     (i) 

Mananja  hills,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan  ;  Blantyre,  L.  Scott ;  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  Livingstone  ; 

(2)  Mweru,  Carson. 
Scutellaria  sp.     (2)  Carson. 
Stachys  aethiopica,  L.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
Stachys  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Lcucas  martinicdisis,  R.  Br.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 
L.  Nyassae,  Giirke.     (i)  Buchanan. 

L.  milanjiana,  Gtirke  (L.  glabrata,  Britten,  non  R.  Br.)     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 
L.  decadonta,  Giirke.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Lcucas  spp.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller;   Buchanan;   (2)  Nutt;  Carson;  Lower  plateau, 

north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson  ;  (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 


Mirabilis  Jalapa,  L.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  Meller;  Mananja  hills,  Kirk. 
Jioerhaat'in  rcpens,  L.,  var.  asccndcns,  Willd.     (i)  Buchanan. 
/>'.  filiiinl><t£incti,  Cav.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 
/.'.  Hurchellii,  Choisy.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  Waller. 



i  sp.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 


Celosia  argentea,  L.     (2)  Carson. 

C.  Schweinfurthii,  Schinz.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  L.  Scott. 

C.  trigyna,  L.  (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Mlanje  and  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ; 
Blantyre,  Last. 

Celosia  spp.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 

Amarantiis  Blitnm,  L.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot  ;  Buchanan. 

A.  Thunbergii,  Moq.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  L.  Scott. 

A.  caiedatiis,  L.  (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Mpatamanga,  Shire  River,  Kirk  ;  (2)  North 
Nyasaland,  L.  Scott. 

Centema  Kirkii,  Hook.  fil.  (i)  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk;  Elephant  Marsh,  Shire  River,  L. 
Scott ;  Buchanan. 

Cyathula  cylindrica,  Moq.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 

C.  globulifera,  Moq.  (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Buchanan  ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  Mpata- 
manga, on  Shire  River,  Kirk. 

Pu.palia  lappacea,  Moq.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Aema  lanata,  Juss.     (i)  Buchanan. 

A.  javanica,  Juss.  (i)  Shire  Highlands,  and  throughout  the  Mananja  and  Shire  hills, 
Buchanan,  Meller  and  L.  Scott. 

Psilotrichum  spp.     (i)  Blantyre,  Buchanan  and  Last  ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 

Achyranthes  aspera,  L.  (i)  Blantyre,  Descamps  ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Carson  ;  var. 
argentea,  Lam.  (2)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 

Achyranthes  sp.     (2)  Carson. 

Alternanthera  sessilzs,  R.  Br.    (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot ;  (2)  North  Nyasa,  L.  Scott. 

A.  nodiflora,  R.  Br.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Chcnopodiujii  Botrys,  L.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  var.  C. procerum,  Hochst.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Phytolacca  abyssintca,  Hoffm.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 


OxygoniDii  atriplicifoliiun,  Baker  (Ccntogomun  atriplicifolium,  Meisn.),  var.  O.  sinii- 
atuni,  Engl.  (i)  Lake  Chilwa,  Kirk. 

Polygonum  Poiretii,  Meisn.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 

P.  plcbchnii,  R.  Br.     (i)  Buchanan. 

P.  senegalensc,  Meisn.     (i)  Banks  of  Shire  River,  Kirk  ;  (2)  North  Nyasa,  L.  Scott. 

P.  tomentosuiii,  Willd.     (i)  Buchanan. 

P.  serrielatitin,  Lag.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Lake  Nyasa,  L.  Scott. 

P.  barbatum,  L.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Lake  Nyasa,  Scott-Elliot. 

P.  tristachyiiin,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 

P.  glabrum,  Willd.     (i)  Upper  Shire,  Scott-Elliot. 

P.    lanigcrum,    R.    Br.     (i)    Upper    Shire,  Scott-Elliot ;     Lower    Shire    Valley,    Meller; 

Lake  Chilwa,  Buchanan  ;    Shire  Highlands,  K.  C.  Cameron. 
P.  lapathifolium,  L.     (i)  Lower  Shire  Valley,  Meller. 
P.  alatinn,  Hamilt.     (i)  Buchanan. 
P.  strigosuin,  R.  Br.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Ritmex  nepalensis,  Spreng.     (i)  Buchanan. 

R.  abyssinicus,  Jacq.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  K.  C.  Cameron;   Buchanan. 
R.  maderensis,  Lowe.     (2)  Carson  ;  Higher  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 



Hydrostachys  polymorpha,  Klotzsch.     (i)  Tributary  of  Shire  to  north-east  of  Katunga, 

Kirk  ;    Blantyre,  Last ;    Buchanan. 
Sphaerothylax  sp.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last. 


Piper  capense,  L.  fil.     (i)  Chiradzulu  and  Zomba,  Whyte;  Buchanan. 

Pepcromia  reflexa,  Dietr.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie  and  Whyte;  Zomba,  Whyte;  Buchanan. 


Cassytha  guincen si's,  S.  et  T.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Protea  Nyasae,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

P.  abyssinica,  Willd.     (i)  Blantyre,  L.  Scott;  Buchanan;  (2)  Nutt ;  (4)  Batoka  country, 

Protea  spp.     (i)  Marianja  hills,  Meller ;  Buchanan;  Katunga,  Kirk;   (2)  Higher  plateau, 

north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Faurea  speciosa,  Welw.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Zomba,  Whyte. 

Faurea  sp.      (i)    Chiradzulu,   Meller;    near    Chiradzulu,   Kirk;    Buchanan;    (4)    Batoka 
country,  Kirk. 


Arthrosolenflavus,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Blantyre,  L.  Scott  ;  (2)  Nutt. 

A.  glaucescens,  Oliv.     (2)  Carson. 

Arthrosolen  spp.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Kirk  and  Meller  ;  Last  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nutt. 

Gnidia  Buchananii,  Gilg.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Chiradzulu  and  Mananja  hills,  Meller. 

G.  microcephala,  Meisn.     (i)  Mlanje  and  Zomba,  Whyte;  Zomba  and  east  end  of  Lake 

Chilwa,  Meller. 

G.  apiculata,  Gilg.     (i)  Buchanan. 
G.  fastigiata,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
Gnidia  spp.     (i)  Foot  of  Chiradzulu,  Kirk;  Blantyre,  L.  Scott;  Sochi,  Kirk;  Buchanan; 

(2)  Carson  ;  Upper  and  Lower  plateaux,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa.  J.  Thomson  ;  Nutt. 
Lasiosiplion  spp.     (i)  Buchanan;  (2)  Lower  plateau, north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson; 

(4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 

Peddiea  longipediccllata,  Gilg.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Loranthus  iinccmcnsis,  Baker.     (2)  Mweru,  Carson. 

Loranthus  spp.     (i)  Lower  Shire,  Meller;  Zomba,  Kirk;  Buchanan;  (2)  Lower  plateau, 
north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson  ;  Carson. 


Thcsium  nigricans,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje  and  Zomba,  Whyte. 

T.  whyteanitm,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Thesiitm  spp.     (i)  Foot  of  Chiradzulu,  Kirk  ;  Blantyre  and  Matope,  L.  Scott ;  Buchanan  ; 

Mlanje,  McClounie  ;  (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 
Colpoon  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Osyridocarpus  scandens,  Engl.     (i)  Katunga,  Kirk. 


Euphorbia  scordi/olia,  Jacq.  (i)  Buchanan. 

E.  zainbesiaca,  Benth.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie  ;  Buchanan  ;  Zomba  and  east  end  of  Lake 

Chilwa,  Meller  ;  (2)  Mweru,  Carson. 
E.  Grantii,  Oliv.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 



Euphorbia  u>hyteana,  Baker  fil.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
E.  shirensis,  Baker  fil.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
E.  indica,  Lam.     (4)  Menyharth. 

Euphorbia   spp.      (i)    Above  Elephant  Marsh  and  Murchison  Falls,  Shire  River,  and 
Mananja  hills,  Meller ;  Katunga,  Kirk  ;  west  shore  of  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan  ; 
(2)  Karonga,  L.  Scott ;  Carson. 
Synadenium  Grantii,  Hook.  fil.     (4)  Menyharth. 
Synadcninm  sp.     (2)  Carson. 
Bridelia  micrantha,  Baill.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Briddia  sp.     (i)  Zomba,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 
Phyllantkus  nummulariaefolius,  Poir.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last. 
P.  leucanthus,  Pax.     (i)  Buchanan. 

P.  maderaspatemis,  L.     (i)  Above  Elephant  Marsh,  on  River  Shire,  L.  Scott. 
P.  hystcracanthus,  Muell.-Arg.     (i)  West  shore  of  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 
P.  rotundifolius,  Willd.      (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte;  var.  leitcocaly.i;  Muell.-Arg.     (i)   Mlanje, 

Phyllanthus  spp.     (i)  Buchanan;  Blantyre,  L.  Scott;  Mlanje,  Whyte;  (2)  Karonga,  L. 

Scott ;  Carson  ;  Nutt ;  (4)  Menyharth. 
Securinega  obovata,  Muell.-Arg.     (4)  Menyharth. 

Uapaca  nitida,  Muell.-Arg.     (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 

U.  kirkiana,  Muell.-Arg.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 

Uapaca  spp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Antidesma  spp.     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk  ;  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 
Jatropha  Curcas,  L.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mlanje,  McClounie  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 
Jatropha  sp.     (2)  Carson. 

Croton  macrostachyus,  Hochst.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Croton  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 

Cluytia  richardiana,  Muell.-Arg.     (t)  Buchanan  ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 

Cluytia  sp.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

Caperonia  spp.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last ;  Buchanan. 

Cephalocroton  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Micrococca  Mercurialis,  Benth.     (i)  Elephant  Marsh,  on  Shire  River,  L.  Scott. 

Acalypha  bcnguelensis,  Muell.-Arg.     (i)  Mlanje  and  Zomba,  Whyte. 

A.    villicauiis,   A.    Rich,      (i)    Mananja    hills,    Meller;     Mlanje    and    Zomba,    Whyte; 
Buchanan  ;    (2)  Carson. 

A.  pilosfachya,  Hochst.     (i)  Mpatamanga,  on  Shire  River,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan  ;  Chiradzulu, 
Whyte  ;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

Acalypha  spp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Alchornea  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Neoboutinia  africana,  Muell.-Arg.     (l)  Zomba,  Whyte. 

Mallotus  Mclleri,  Muell.-Arg.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Buchanan. 

Macaranga  spp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Ricinus  coininunis,  L.     (i)  Lower  Valley  of  Shire,  Meller. 

Tragia  mitis,  Hochst.     (4)  Menyharth. 

Tragia  sp.     (i)  Shire  River  above  Elephant  Marsh,  L.  Scott. 

Dalechampia  sp.     (i)  Lower  Shire  River,  Kirk  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 

Maprounea  sp.     (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 

Excoecaria  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Trema  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mananja  hills,  Meller  and  Kirk. 
Dorstcnia  Bitchananii,  Engler.     (i)  Buchanan. 



Dorstcnia  Wallcri,  Hemsl.     (i)  Marianja  hills,  Meller  ;  Buchanan. 

Dorstenia  spp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Fiats  capreaefolia,  Del.     (i)  Island  in  River  Shire,  near  Mbenje,  L.  Scott. 

Fiats  spp.      (i)    Katunga,    Shire   Valley,    L.    Scott;    Buchanan;    Kankanje,   Kirk;    (2) 

Karonga,  L.  Scott. 

Treculia  sp.     (i)  West  shore  of  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 
Myrianthus  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Urtica  sp.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte. 
J'lcitrya  aestuans,  Gaudich.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Fleurya  sp.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  L.  Scott ;  (4)  Menyharth. 
Urera  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Girardinia  heterophylla,  Dene,     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mananja  hills,  Waller  ;  Chiradzulu,  Kirk. 
Girardinia  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Pilea  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Boehmeria  platyphylla,  Don.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte;  Buchanan. 
Bochmcria  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Ponsolzia  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Pipturus  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Myrica pilulifera,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
Myrica  spp.     (i)  Buchanan. 


Ceratophyllum  sp.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last ;  Lake  Nyasa,  Laws. 


Lagarosiphon  Nyassac,  Ridley,     (i)  Lake  Nyasa,  Laws. 

Vallisneria  spiralis,  L.     (i)  Lake  Nyasa,  Laws. 

Ottelia  spp.     (i)  Luangwa,  west  shore  of  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk  ;  Blantyre,  Last. 


Biirtnannia  bicolor,  Mast.,  var.  ufricana,  Ridley.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa, 
J.  Thomson. 


Liparis  Boivkcri,  Harv.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Megaclinium  Melleri,  Hook.  fil.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Meller  :  Mlanje,  McClounie. 

Knlophia  callichroma,  Rchb.  fil.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  and  Kirk  ;  Zomba,  Meller. 

E.  Nyasae,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

E,  aristata,  Rendle.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

E.praesfans,  Rendle.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

E.  milanjiana,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Mananja  hills,  Meller  :  Buchanan. 

E.  missionis,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Scott-Elliot. 

E.  Shupangae,  Kranz.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Kirk  and  Waller  ;  Blantyre,  L.  Scott;  Zombn, 


E.  longesepala,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
E.  't'cuulosa,  Rchb.  fil.  (E.  hionilis,  Rendle).     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller;  Shire  Highlands, 

Eulophirt    spp.      (i)     Mananja    hills,    Kirk,    Meller    and    Waller ;    Mlanje,  McClounie  ; 

Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  J.  Thomson  and  H.  H.  Johnston  :  Carson  ; 

Nutt  ;  (4)  Sesheke,  Holub. 
Cyrtopcrn  II  'nllcri,  Rchb.  fi).       i     M.manja  hills,  Waller  ;   Buchanan. 



Lissochilus  microceras,  Rchb.  fil.     (i)  Sochi,  Kirk  ;  Mananja  hills,  Meller. 

L.  heteroglossus,  Rchb.  fil.     (i)  Upper  Shire  Valley,  Kirk. 

L.  gracilior,  Rendle.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

L.  livingstonianus,  Rchb.  fil.    (i)  Mananja  hills,  Waller  and  Meller;  Mlanje,  Whyte  and 

McClounie  ;  between  Matope  and  Blantyre,  L.  Scott. 
L.  arenarhis,  Lindl.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Kirk  and  Meller  ;   Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot  ; 

Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  North  of  Lake  Nyasa,  L.  Scott  ;  Carson. 
L.  Sanderson!',  Rchb.  fil.     (i)  Buchanan. 

L.  papilio naccns,  Rendle.     (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot. 
L.  Krebsii,  Rchb.  fil.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie. 
L.  shircnsis,  Rendle.     (i)  Sochi,  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 
L.  calopterus,  Rchb.  fil.     (i)  Lower  Shire  Valley,  L.  Scott. 
L.  Wakefieldii,  Rchb.  fil.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
L.  dispcrsus,  Rolfe.     (i)  Livingstonia  (Collector  not  known). 
L.  brevisepalus,  Rendle.     (i)  Sochi  and  Ndirande,  Scott-Elliot. 
L.  milanjianns,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Buchanan. 
Lissochilus  spp.     (i)  Buchanan;  Mananja  hills,  Waller  ;  (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau, 

Carson  and  J.  Thomson  ;  Mweru,  Carson. 
Polystachya  imbricata,  Rolfe.     ( i )  Buchanan. 
P.  Buchanani,  Rolfe.     (i)  Buchanan. 
P.  shirensis,  Rchb.  fil.     (i)  Shire  River,  Meller. 
P.  sambesiaca,  Rolfe.     (i)  Buchanan. 
P.  la-wrenceana,  Kranz.     (i)  Buchanan. 
P.  villosa,  Rolfe.     (i)  Buchanan. 

P.  minima,  Rendle.     (i)  Sochi,  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 
Polystachya  spp.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie,  Zomba,  Kirk. 
Angraecum  alcicorne,  Rchb.  fil.     (i)  Mlanje;  McClounie  ;  Shire  River,  Kirk. 
A.  chiloschistae,  Rchb.  fil.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  Kirk  ;  Blantyre,  Last. 
A.  megalorrhizum,  Rchb.  fil.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  Kirk  and  Waller  ;   Buchanan. 
A.  -verrucosum,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
Angraecum  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Pogonia  spp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Stenoglottis  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Holothrix Johnstontii  Rolfe.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie;  Zomba,  Whyte. 
Holothrix  sp.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last ;  (2)  Upper  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
Peristylis  hispidula,  Rendle.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Habenaria  zambesina,  Rchb.  fil.     (i)  Buchanan. 
H.  siibarmata,  Rchb.  fil.     (i)  Katunga,  Kirk. 
H.  sflchensis,  Rchb.  fil.     (i)  Sochi  hill,  Kirk. 

H.  Waller  i,  Rchb.  fil.     (i)  Mananja  hills  and  foot  of  Mlanje,  Kirk  ;  Blantyre,  Last. 
H.  praestans,  Rendle.     (i)  Buchanan;  Blantyre,  Last. 
H.  buchananiana,  Kranz.      i'i;  Buchanan  ;  Mananja  hills,  Waller  ;  Mlanje,  Scott-Elliot; 

(2)  Nutt. 
Habenaria  spp.     ( i )  Carson. 

•  vthis  pleistophylla,  Rchb.  fil.     ^i)  Buchanan;  Mlanje,  McClounie  and  Whyte; 

Sochi,  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot  ;  Blantyre,  Last. 
/>'.  pubescens,  Harv.     (i;  Mlanje,  Scott-Elliot;  Blantyre,  Last;  Buchanan. 
Hiachycorytliis  temiior,  Rchb.  fil.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last;  (2)  Nutt ;  Carson. 
Satyriiim  cheirophonun,  Rchb.  fil.     (i;  Blantyre,  Last. 
S.  minax,  Rchb.  fil.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last. 
5.  Buchanani,  Rchb.  fil.     ( I ;  Blantyre,  Last. 



Satyrium  spp.     (i)  Mpatamanga  and  Mananja  hills,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 
Disa  hircicornis,  Rchb.  fil.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Kirk. 
D.  Waller  i,  Rchb.  fii.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Waller. 
D.  sombaensis,  Rendle.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 
D.  hamatopetala,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie  and  Whyte. 

Disa  spp.  (i)  Buchanan;  Zomba,  Kirk;  Blantyre,  Last;  (2)  Higher  plateau,  north  of 
Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson  ;  Carson  ;  Nutt ;  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Johnston. 


Kacinpferia  aethiopica,  Benth.  (i)  Buchanan;  Mandala,  Scott-Elliot;  Mananja  hills, 
Meller  ;  near  Blantyre,  L.  Scott  ;  (2)  Karonga,  Carson  ;  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau, 
H.  H.  Johnston. 

K.  rosea,  Schweinf.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot  ;  Lake  Nyasa,  L.  Scott ;  Buchanan  ; 

Lower  Shire  Valley,  Kirk  ;  Shire  Valley,  Meller. 
Kciempferia  sp.     (2)  Karonga,  Carson. 
Cadnlvcnia  spectabHis^  Fenzl.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot;    Buchanan;  Blantyre, 

Last ;  (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  H.  H.  Johnston. 
Anwiniini  sp.     (i)  Zomba,  Kirk. 

Canna  //id/in,  L.,  subsp.  C.  oricntalix,  Roscoe.     (i)  Lower  valley  of  Shire  River,  Meller. 
Mitsa  Biichnnani,  Baker,     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 
J/.  sapicntuin ,  L.,  var.  J/.  paradisiaca,  L.     (1,2,  and  4)  abundant. 
M.  livingstoniana^  Kirk,     (i)  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 


Sansevieria  Kir/cii,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 

Cyanastntm  sp.     (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  H.  H.  Johnston  ;  Nutt. 


Moraea  zainbesiaca,  Baker,     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Sochi  and  Katunga,  Kirk  ;  Zomba, 

Buchanan  ;    Mlanje,   McClounie ;    (2)    Higher   plateau,   north   of    Lake    Nyasa,   and 

between  Nyasa  and  Tanganyika,  J.  Thomson. 
M.  itn^usta,  Ker.     (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 
M.  ventricosa,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 

J/.  Tlwmsoni,  Baker.     (2)  Higher  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
M.  Carsoni,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 
M.  iridoides,  L.     (i)  Mpatamanga,  Kirk. 

Artstea johnstontana,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie. 
Dierama  pendula,  Baker,      (i)   Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie;   (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika 

plateau,  J.  Thomson. 

Lapeyrousia  erythrantha,  Baker.      Mananja  hills,  Waller. 
L.  Sandcrsoni,  Baker,     i  i;  Buchanan  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 
L.  grandijlora,  Baker,     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller;   Buchanan. 
L.  kolostachya,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 

Crocosma  aurea,  Planch,     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 
Addanthera  bicolor,  Hochst.       i)  Buchanan. 

Gladiolus  unguiculatus,  Baker.     (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  J.  Thomson  ;  Carson. 
(i.  Oatcsiiy  Rolfe.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte;  Buchanan. 

(i.  Thomson},  Baker.     (2)  Higher  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
G.flexiiosits,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 

G.  utropitrpiirciis,  Baker,     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Waller;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 
(i.  Melleri,  Baker,     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  and  Waller;  Katunga  and  Mpimbi,  Kirk; 
Buchanan  ;  Mlanje,  Whyte. 



Gladiolus  Buchanan!,  Baker,     (i)  Ndirande,  Buchanan. 

G.  gracillimus,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 

G.  tritonioides,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 

G.  Hanningtoni,  Baker.     (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 

6".  zambcsi acus,  Baker,     (i)  Blantyre,  Last. 

G.  oligophlcbiiis,  Baker.     (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 

G.  ercctiflorus,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 

G.  caudatus,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 

G.  brachvandrus,  Baker.     (2)  Buchanan. 

G.  quartinianus,  A.  Rich,     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 

Gladiolus  spp.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot;  (2)  Carson. 


Hypoxis  villosa,  L.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Shire  Highlands,  L.  Scott  and  Scott-Elliot ;  Mananja 

hills,  Meller  ;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 
H.  obtusa,  Burch.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake 

Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

H.  angiistifolia,  Lam.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
Cure uligo  gallabatensis,  Schweinf.     (2)  R.  Nsessi,  L.  Scott. 
Curculigo  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Crinum  subcernuum,  Baker,     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk. 
Crinum  sp.     (4)  Menyharth. 
Buphane  disticha,   Herb,     (i)   Mananja  hills,  Meller;    Shire  Highlands,  Buchanan  and 

Scott-Elliot ;  (2)  between  Nyasa  and  Tanganyika,  and  upper  plateau,  north  of  Lake 

Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

Brunsvigia  Kirkii,  Baker.     (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika  plateau,  Scott-Elliot. 
Cyrtanthus  Wehvitschit,  Hiern.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie  ;  Buchanan. 
Haemanthus  multiflonis,  Martyn.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Buchanan. 
Haemanthus  sp.     (4)  Menyharth. 

Pancratium  trinnthitnt,  Herb,     (i)  Shire  cataracts,  Kirk. 
Vellozia  splendens,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie. 
Vcllozia  sp.     (i)   Mananja  hills,  Meller;  Zomba  and   east   end  of  Lake    Chilwa,  Kirk; 

Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot  and  Buchanan. 


Tacca  pinnatifida,  L.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Buchanan  and  Scott-Elliot. 


Dioscorea  Bnchanani,  Benth.     ( i )  Buchanan. 
D. prehensilis,  Benth.     (i)  Buchanan. 

D.  schimpcriana,  Hochst.     (i)  Mpatamanga,  Kirk;  Buchanan. 
D.  dumetorum,  Pax.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  Buchanan. 

D.  bcccariana,  Martelli,  var.  vcstita,  Pax.      (i)   Shire   Highlands,  Buchanan   and   Scott- 


Dracaena  fragrans,  Ker.-Gawl.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Meller;   Buchanan;  Zomba,  Whyte. 

D.  elliptica,  Thunb.  et  Dallm.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Smilax- kraitssiana,  Meisn.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Kirk;    Mlanje,  Whyte  ;   Buchanan;  Shire 

Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

Asparagus  inrgatus,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan;  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
A.plitmosus,  Baker,     (i ;  Buchanan  ;  Mlanje,  Whyte. 



Asparagus  Paulo-guliclmi,  Solms.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  L.  Scott. 

A.  piiberulus,  Baker,     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller. 

A.  irregularis,  Baker,     (i)  Foot  of  Chiradzulu,  Kirk. 

A.  africanus,  Lam.     (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 

A.  asiaticits,  L.     (4)  Menyharth. 

A.  racemosus,  Willd.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson. 

A.  Buchanani,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 

Asparagus  sp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Blantyre,  Last. 

Hylonome  reticulata,  Webb,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Kniphofin  longistyla,  Baker,     (i)  Zomba,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 

K.  zombensis,  Baker,     (i)  Zomba,  Buchanan. 

Aloe  Buchanani,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 

A.  Nuttii,  Baker.     (2)  Nutt  ;  Carson. 

A.  cryptopoda,  Baker.     (4)  Menyharth. 

Eriospermum  abyssiniciim,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 
E.  Kirkii,  Baker,     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Buchanan  and  L.  Scott. 
Eriospermum  sp.     (2)  Carson. 
Bulbine  alooides,  Willd.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Kirk  and  Meller. 

B.  asphodeloides,  Schult.   fil.      (i)    Shire    Highlands,  K.  C.  Cameron,  Scott-Elliot  and 

Buchanan  ;  Mlanje,  McClounie. 

Anthericum  sitbpetiolatum,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

A.  Nyasae,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

A.  milanjianum,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

A.  Cameroni,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 

A.  nidulans,  Baker,     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Meller. 

A.  jacquinianum,  Schult.  fil.     (2)  Carson. 

Anthericum  sp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Nutt ;  Carson. 

Chlorophytum  blcpharophyllum,   Schweinf.     (i)   Zomba,   Whyte;    Fort   Johnston.   Scott- 
Elliot  ;  Buchanan. 

C.  stenopetalum,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 

C.  brachystachyum,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 

C.  gallabatense,  Schweinf.     (i)  Buchanan. 

C.  andongense,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 

C.  piibiflorum,  Baker.     ( i )  Buchanan. 

Chlorophytum  spp.     (2)  Carson  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 

Dasystachys  drimiopsis,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan;  (4)  Menyharth. 

Dasystachys  spp.     (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 

Tulbaghia  alliacea,  Thunb.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Buchanan  and  Scott-Elliot. 

Drimia  robusta,  Baker,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie. 

Drimia  sp.     (i.)  Zomba,  Kirk. 

Dipcadi  longifolium,  Baker,     (i)  Lower  Shire  River,  Meller. 

Hyadnthus  ledcbourioides,   Baker,     (i)   Zomba  and  east  end  of  Lake  Chilwa    Meller- 

Shire  Highlands,  L.  Scott. 
Eucomis  zambcsiaca,  Baker,     (i)  Mbami,  Kirk;  Buchanan. 

Albuca  caudata,  Jacq.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie  ;  Shire  Highlands,  Buchanan,  L.  Scott  and 


A.  Buchanani,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 
A.  \Vakeficldii,  Baker.     (?  i)  Lake  Nyasa. 
Albuca  sp.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller;  (4)  Menyharth. 
Urginea  altissimn,  Baker  (U.  innntimn,  Rendle,  non  Baker),     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller- 

Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Shire  Highlands,  L.  Scott  and  Buchanan  ;  Mpimbi,  Kirk ;  Zomba! 

Whyte ;  (2)  Carson. 




rrginea  Nyasae,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie  ;  Buchanan. 

Urginea  spp.     (i)  Mandala,  Scott-Elliot;  (2)  Nutt. 

Sdlla  rigidifolia,  Kunth.     (2)  Upper  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  and  between  Nyasa 

and  Tanganyika,  J.  Thomson. 
S.  indica,  Baker,     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  L.  Scott. 
5.  inaesla,  Baker.     (4)  Menyharth. 
S.  Buchanani,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 
S.  zambesiaca,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 
Scilla  sp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  Mlanje,  McClounie. 
Ornithogalum  Eckloni,   Schlecht.       (i)   Shire   Highlands,   Buchanan   and   Scott-Elliot ; 

Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Ornithogalum  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Androcymbhun  melanthioides,  Willd.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Buchanan  and  Scott-Elliot. 
Ornithoglossum  glaitcum,  Salisb.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last. 
Gloriosa  superba,  L.     (i)  Marianja  hills,  Waller. 

G.  virescens,  Lindl.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot ;  (4)  Menyharth. 
G.  Carsoni,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 

.  Walleria  Mackemii,  Kirk,     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Waller  ;  Buchanan. 
W.  nutans,  Kirk,     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Waller. 


Xyris pauciflora,  Willd.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie. 
Xyris  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 


Commelyna  benghalensis,  L.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (4)  Holub. 

C.  zambesiaca,  C.  B.  Clarke.     (2)  Carson. 

C.  latifolia,  Hochst.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson. 

C.  africana,  L.  (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot ;  Zomba  and  east  end  of  Lake  Chilwa, 
Meller  ;  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 

C.  invohicrata,  A.  Rich,     (i)  Blantyre,  L.  Scott ;  Buchanan. 

C.  Kirkii,  C.  B.  Clarke,  (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot;  (2)  Nyasa-Tanganyika 
plateau,  J.  Thomson. 

C.  Forskalaei,  Vahl.     (4)  Holub. 

C.  Bainesit,  C.  B.  Clarke,  var.  glabrata,  Rendle.     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 

C.  Vogelii,  C.  B.  Clarke,     (i)  Buchanan. 

C.  Welwitschii,  C.  B.  Clarke,     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

C.  nudiflora,  L.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

C,  subulata,  Roth.     ( i )  Buchanan. 

C.  albescens,  Hassk.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Commelyna  sp.     (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 

Aneilema  sinicum,  Lindl.     (i)  Buchanan;  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Nutt ;  Carson. 

A  aequinoctiale,  Kunth.  (i)  Buchanan;  Chiradzulu,  Meller;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott- 
Elliot;  Mlanje  and  Zomba,  Whyte  ;  var.  Kirkii,  C.  B.  Clarke,  (i)  Buchanan;  var. 
adhaerens,  C.  B.  Clarke,  (i)  Mananja  hills,  H.  Waller. 

A.  pedunculosum,  C.  B.  Clarke.     (4)  Menyharth. 

A.  lanceolatum,  Benth.     (i)  Buchanan. 

A.  dregeanum,  Kunth.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Cyanotis  lanata,  Benth.     (2)  Carson;  var.  Schwcinfnrthii,  C.  B.  Clarke,     (i)  Buchanan. 

Cyanotis  sp.     (2)  Nutt. 

Floscopa  rivularis,  C.  B.  Clarke.     (2)  Nutt. 

F.glomerata,  Hassk.    (i)  Buchanan;  Zomba,  Whyte;  (2)  Carson;  (4)  Victoria  Falls,  Kirk. 



Elaeis  guineensis,  L.     (i)  West  shore  of  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 

Borassus  flabellifer,  L.,  var.  Aethiopum,  Mart,     (i)  Lower  Shire  and  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 

Raphia  vinifera,  P.  de  Beauv.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Kirk. 

Hyphaene  crinita,  Gaertn.     (i)  Along  the  Shire  River  and  at  south  end  of  Lake  Nyasa, 

H.  ventricosa,  Kirk.     (4)  Victoria  Falls,  Kirk. 

Phccnix  sp.     (i)  Matope,  Scott-Elliot  ;  (4)  Central  regions,  Kirk. 


Typha  angiistifolia,  L.     (i)  Shire  River,  below  Katunga,  L.  Scott. 
'yp.     (i)  Marianja  hills,  Meller. 


Stylochiton  spp.     (4)  Menyharth. 

Amorphophallus  spp.     (2)  Nsese  River,  North  Nyasa,  L.  Scott  ;    4    Menyharth. 
Gonatopus    Boivinii,    Hook.    fil.     (i)    Lower   Shire   Valley,    Kirk;    Mlanje,    McClounie  ; 

Gonatopus  sp.     (4)  Menyharth. 


Liinnophyton  obtusifolium,  Miq.     (2)  Mweru,  Carson. 


Potamogeton  pectinatus,  L.     (i)  South-western  bay  of  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk;  Livingstonia, 

P.  obtusifoliiiSy  Mert.  et  Koch,     (i)  Zomba,  Whyte. 

P.  longifolius,  Gay.     (i)  South-western  bay  of  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 

P.  crispus,  L.     (i)  Ruangwa,  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 


Eriocanlon  sonderianum,  Korn.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Eriocaulon  spp.     (i)  Mananja  country  and  Katunga,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Lower  plateau, 
north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson  ;  Nutt. 


i  sp.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie. 


Pycreus  flavescens,  Nees.     (2)  Nsese  River,  North  Nyasa,  L.  Scott. 
P.  nigricans,  C.  B.  Clarke,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 
P.  inacmnthiis,  C.  B.  Clarke,     (i)  Buchanan;  (2)  Nutt. 
P.  Mundtii,  C.  B.  Clarke,     (i)  Buchanan. 

P.  sulcinux,  C.  B.  Clarke.     (2)  Umbaka  River,  North  Nyasa,  L.  Scott. 
P.  capillaris,  Nees.     (i)  Buchanan. 
P.  umbrosiis,  Nees.     (2)  Carson. 
P.  spissiflorits,  C.  B.  Clarke.     (2)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
P.  alboinarginatits,  Nees.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Juncellus  alopecuroideS)  C.  B.  Clarke,     (i)  Buchanan. 
/.  laevigatits,  C.  B.  Clarke,     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller. 
Cyperits  intdicuulis,  Poir.     (i)  Lower  Shire  River,  Kirk. 
C.  compactus,  Lam.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nutt. 

C.  angolensis,  Boeck.  (Rhynchospora  ochrocephala,  Boeck.        i     Mlanje,  Whyte;  Zomba, 
Kirk  ;  (2)  Nutt. 

C.  niargaritaceus,  Vahl.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson  ;  (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 




Cyperus  amabilis,  Vahl.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 

C.  tenaX)  Boeck.     (i)  Buchanan. 

C.  Haspan,  L.     (2)  Karonga,  L.  Scott. 

C.  sphacrospennus,  Schrad.     (4)  Victoria  Falls,  Kirk. 

C.flabeUiformis^  Rottb.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller;  Great  Elephant  Marsh,  Shire  River, 

L.  Scott ;  Buchanan. 
C,  sexangiilariS)  Nees.     (4)  Menyharth. 
C.  Deckenii,  Boeck.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 
C.fischerianus,  Hochst.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Meller  ;  Buchanan. 
C.  glaucophyllus,  Boeck.     (i)  Buchanan. 
C.  lotrgifolitts,  Poir.     (i)  Buchanan. 

C.  aristatus,  Rottb.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (3)  Serpa  Pinto  ;  (4)  Menyharth. 
C.  distatis,  L.  fil.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot  ;  (2)  Carson. 
C,  articulatus,  L.     (i)  Elephant  Marsh,  Shire  River,  L.  Scott. 
C.  schiveinfurthianus,  Boeck.     (2)  Carson. 
C.   maculatus,  Boeck.     (i)  Buchanan;  (2)   Umbaka   and    Nsese  Rivers,    North    Nyasa, 

L.  Scott. 

C.  rotiindus,  L.     (i)  Lower  Shire  Valley,  Kirk  ;  (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
C.  esculentus,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 
C.  radiatus,  Vahl.     (i)  Great  Elephant  Marsh,  Shire  River,  L.  Scott ;  (2)  Umbaka  River, 

North  Nyasa,  L.  Scott. 
C.  zambesiensis,  C.  B.  Clarke,  ined.  in  Trans.  Linn.  Soc.  2nd  Ser.  iv.,  p.  53.      (i)  Mlanje, 

Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 
C.   exaltatus,   Retz,   var.  C.  dives,  Del.       (i)    Buchanan;    Lower   Shire   Valley,  Meller; 

Elephant  Marsh,  Shire  River.  Kirk  and  L.  Scott. 
Cyperus  spp.     (i)   Mananja  hills,  Meller;    Shire   Highlands,  Scott-Elliot;    (2)   Umbaka 

River,  North  Nyasa,  L.  Scott  ;  (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
Mariscus  coloratus,  Nees.     (i)  Buchanan. 
M.  vestitus,  C.  B.  Clarke,     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 
M.  sieberianus,  Nees.     (i)  Buchanan;  Blantyre,  Last;  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
J/.  hetnisphaericus,  C.  B.  Clarke,     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mandala,  Scott-Elliot ;  Blantyre,  Scott ; 

Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Lower  Shire  Valley,  Meller. 
M.  squarrosits,  C.  B.  Clarke,     (i)  Buchanan. 
Mariscus  sp.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
Kylliuga  pungens,  Link.     (2)  Karonga,  L.  Scott. 
K.  elatior,  Kunth.     (i)  Buchanan. 
K.  alba,  Nees.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 

K.  aitrata,  Nees.     (2)  Nsese  River,  North  Nyasa,  L.  Scott. 

Kyllinga  sp.  (Cyperus  albiceps,  Ridley).     (2)  Nsese  River,  North  Nyasa,  L.  Scott. 
Kyllinga  sp.     ( i )  Buchanan. 
Eleocharis  sp.     (4)  Victoria  Falls,  Kirk. 

Fimbristylis  dichotomy  Vahl.     (2)  Karonga  and  River  Nsese,  North  Nyasa,  L.  Scott. 
F.  diphylla,  Vahl.     (i)  Buchanan. 
F.  exilis,  Roem.  et  Sch.     (i)  Buchanan. 
F.  africana,  C.  B.  Clarke.      (i)    Mananja   hills,    Meller;    Buchanan;    Shire   Highlands, 

F.  zambcsiaca,  Dur.  et  Schinz.       (i)  Sochi,  Kirk;    Blantyre,  L.  Scott;    Kampala,  Shire 

Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

Bulbostylis  schoenoides,  C.  B.  Clarke,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
B.  ciniMinoinea,  Dur.  et  Schinz.     (i)  Buchanan. 
B.  sph  aero  carpus,  C.  B.  Clarke.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
B.  capillaris,  Kunth.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last. 



Bulbostylis  pusilla,  Dur.  et  Schinz.     (2)  Nutt. 

B.  Biirchellii,  Dur.  et  Schinz.     (i)  Blantyre,  Last  ;  (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 

B.  abortiva^  Dur.  et  Schinz.     (i)  Buchanan. 

B.  oritrephes,  C.  B.  Clarke,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Bulbostylis  spp.     ( i )  Buchanan. 

Scirpus  articitlatus,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 

S.  littoralis,  Schrad.     (i)  West  shore  of  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk  ;  Zomba  and  east  end  of  Lake 
Chilwa,  Meller. 

S.  maritinnts,  L.     (i)  Lower  Shire  River,  Kirk  and  Meller. 

.5".  costatits,  Boeck.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Ftdrena pubescens,  Kunth,  var.  Kuchanani,  C.  B.Clarke,     (r)  Buchanan  ;  (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 

F.  Welivitschii,  Ridley,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Xutt. 

/•'.  iimbellata,  Rottb.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mbami,  near  Blantyre,  Kirk. 

Fuirena  sp.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 

Lipocarpha  argentea,  R.  Br.     (2)  Nkonde  country,  North  Nyasa,  L.  Scott. 

L.  albiceps,  Ridley,     (i)  Mandala,  Scott-Elliot  ;  Buchanan. 

L.piilchcrrima,  Ridley,     (i)  Buchanan. 

A scolepis protea,  Welw.,  var.  bellidiflora,  Wehv.      (i)  Mandala,  Scott-Elliot  ;  Buchanan  ; 
(2)  Nutt. 

A.  anthemiflora,  Welw.     (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 
A.  speciosa,  Welw.     (2)  Carson. 
A.  data,  Welw.     (2)  Carson  ;  Nutt. 

A.  capcnsis,  Benth.     (i)  Buchanan;  Mlanje,  Whyte;  (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake 

Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

A.  brasiliensis,  Benth.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nutt  ;  Carson. 

Rynchospora  Candida,  Boeck.      (R.  adsccndens,  C.  B.  Clarke),     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nutt. 
Eriospora  Oliveri,  C.  B.  Clarke,     (i)  Buchanan. 

E.  I'iUosula,  C.  B.  Clarke,     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Ndirande,  near  Blantyre,  Scott-Elliot. 
Sderia pulchella,  Ridley,     (i)  Buchanan. 
6".  ranota,  Ridley,     (i)  Buchanan. 

S.  glabra,  Boeck.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mandala,  Scott-Elliot. 
S.  liirtclla,  Swartz.     (2)  Nkonde  country,  North  Nyasa,  L.  Scott. 
S.  catophylla  Dur.  et  Schinz.     (i)  Buchanan. 
S.  Buchanani,  Boeck.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Shire  Valley,  Waller. 
S.  dregeana,  Kunth.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 
5.  bulbifera,  A.  Rich,     (i)  Ndirande,  near  Blantyre,  Scott-Elliot. 
5.  multispiculata,  Boeck.     (i)  Buchanan. 
.s'.  melanomphala,  Kunth.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Sderia  spp.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 
Carex  boryana,  Schk.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
Carcx  spp.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 


Paspalum  scrobiciilatum,  L.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 

Paniciiin  sanguinale,  L.     (i)  Buchanan;  (2)  Karonga  and  Umbaka  River,  North  Nyasa, 

L.  Scott  ;  (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
r.brizanthum,  Hochst.     (i)  Buchanan. 

P.  Crus-galli,  L.     (i)  Shire  Valley,  Meller;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Umbaka  River,  North  Nyasa, 

L.  Scott ;  Carson. 

P.  coloniiin,  L.     (i)  Lower  Shire  Valley,  L.  Scott  ;  (2)  Karonga,  L.  Scott. 
P.  indicuiii)  L.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Kirk. 



Panicum  nitdigluinc,  Hochst.     (i)  Lower  Shire,  L.  Scott. 

P.paludcsiim,  Roxb.     (i)  Shire  River,  Kirk. 

P.peciinatum,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  (2)  Buchanan. 

P.  itnguicitldtiun,  Trin.     (i)  Buchanan. 

P.   itisigne,  Steud.     (i)   Mananja  hills,  Meller ;    Buchanan;    Mlanje,  Whyte;  (2)  Nutt ; 

Carson  ;  (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
P.pUcatum,  Lam.     (2)  Carson. 
P.  milanjianiim,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
P.  serratum,  R.  Br.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
P.  maximum,  Jacq.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
P.  nigropcdatitm,  Munro.  (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
Panicum  spp.     (i)  Shire  River  and  Mananja  hills,  Kirk;  Shire  River,  Meiler  ;  Mandala 

and  Shire  River,  L.  Scott  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson  ;  (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 
Setaria  spp.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Waller  ;  Elephant  Marsh,  Shire  River,  Kirk  and  L.  Scott  ; 

Buchanan  ;    Blantyre,    L.    Scott  ;    (2)    Umbaka  and    Nsese    Rivers,    North    Nyasa, 

L.  Scott. 

Pennisetum  Benihamii,  Steud.     (i)  Lower  Shire  Valley,  Meller. 
P.  wiisetum,  Benth.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Pennisetum  sp.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Kirk. 
Cleislachne  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Perotis  latifolia,  Ait.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Imperata  arundinacea,  Cyr.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
Sac  chant  m  piirpuratum,  Rendle.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mlanje,  Whyte. 
Saccharitm  sp.     (i)  West  shore  of  Lake  Nyasa,  Kirk. 
Hemarthria  compressa,  R.  Br.     (i)  Lower  Shire,  L.  Scott. 
Hemarthria  sp.      (i)  Elephant  Marsh,  Shire  River,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nsese  River, 

North  Nyasa,  L.  Scott. 

Eliomiriis  argenteus,  Nees.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
Rottbocllia  exaltata,  L.     (i)  Lower  Shire  Valley,  L.  Scott. 

Manisuris granularis,  Sm.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Waller  ;  near  Sochi,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan. 
Vossia procera,  Griff,     (i)  Elephant  Marsh,  on  Shire  River,  Kirk. 
Ischacimtm  sp.     (4)  Victoria  Falls,  Kirk. 
Andropogon  ceresiaeformis,  Nees.     (i)  Buchanan. 
A.  squainulatits,  Hochst.     (i)  Buchanan. 
A.  schirensis,  Hochst.     (i)  Buchanan. 
A.  Sorghum,  Brot.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;  (2)  Nutt. 
A.  anmilaris,  Forsk.     (i)  Lower  Shire  Valley,  Kirk. 
A.  hirtus,  L.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
A.  anthistirioidcs,  Hochst.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
A.  pertusus,  Willd.,  var.  insculptus,  Hackel.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
A.  Schoenanthus,  L.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
A.  eucomus,  Nees.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 

A.  intermedius,  R.  Br.,  var.  punctatus,  Hackel.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
A.  Nyasae,  Rendle.     (i)  Buchanan. 
A.  cymbarius,  L.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nutt. 
Andropogon  spp.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mbami,  near  Blantyre,  Kirk. 
Anthistiria  ci/inta,  Retz.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Anthistiria  sp.     (i)  Maiianja  hills,  Kirk. 
Aristida  barbicollis,  Trin.  et  Rupr.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
A.  i>estita,  Thunb.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
Aristida  spp.     (i)  Upper  Shire  Valley,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan  ;  (4)  Batoka  country,  Kirk. 



Sporobolus  mimitiflorus,  Link,     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (4)  Holub. 

S.  leptostachys,  Ficalho  et  Hiern.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 

S.  indicus,  R.  Br.     (i)  Mananja  hills,  Meller. 

Sporobolus  spp.      (i)  Upper  and  Lower  Valley  of   the  Shire  River,  Kirk  ;    Buchanan  ; 

(2)  Umbaka  River,  North  Nyasa,  L.  Scott. 
Agrostis  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Tristachya  decora,  Stapf.     (2)  Carson. 
T.  inainoena,  K.  Schum.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Tristachya  spp.     (i)  Blantyre,  L.  Scott ;  (2)  Carson. 
Trichopteryx  leucothri.v,  Trin.     (2)  Carson. 
Trichopteryx  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Klicrochloa  abyssinica,  Hochst.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Triraphis  sp.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
Chloris  gay  ana,  Kunth.     (i)  Chiromo,  L.  Scott. 
C.  radiata,  Sw.     (i)  Buchanan. 
C.  petraca,  Thunb.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 

C.  breviseta,  Benth.     (2)  Umbaka  River,  North  Nyasa,  L.  Scott. 
Chloris  spp.     (i)  Lower  Shire  Valley,  Kirk  and  Meller. 

Harpechloa  altera,  Rendle.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie. 
Elcusine  indica,  L.     (i)  Elephant  Marsh,  on  Shire  River,  Kirk  ;  Buchanan  ;  Katunga,  L. 

Scott ;  (2)  Umbaka  River,  North  Nyasa,  L.  Scott. 
Leptochloa  uniflora,  Hochst.     (i)  Buchanan. 
L.  chinensis,  Nees.     (i)  Elephant  Marsh,  on  Shire  River,  Kirk. 
Leptochloa  sp.     (i)  Lower  Shire  Valley,  L.  Scott. 
Schniidtia  quinqueseta,  Benth.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
Triodia  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Phragmites  communis,  Trin.     (i)  Lower  Shire  Valley,  Meller  ;  near  Blantyre,  L.  Scott. 
Phraginitcs  sp.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Koeleria  cristata,  Pers.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie  ;  Buchanan. 
Eragrostis  nainaquensis,  Nees.     (2)  Umbaka  River,  North  Nyasa,  L.  Scott. 
E.  nindensis,  Ficalho  et  Hiern.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
E.  major,  Host,     (i)  Buchanan. 
E.elata,  Munro.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
E.  aspera,  Nees.     (i)  Buchanan. 
E.  giitnniifliia,  Nees.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 
E.  Lnppiila,  Nees.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 

E.  obtusa,  Munro.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 

Eragrostis  spp.     (i)   Mananja  hills,  Meller  ;    Buchanan  ;    Mlanje,  Whyte  ;   (2)  Umbaka 

and  Ouaqua  Rivers,  North  Nyasa,  L.  Scott. 
Festitca  niilanjiana,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  ;  Buchanan. 

F.  costata,  Nees.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Broinus  milanjianus,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Oxytenanthera  sp.     (i)  Mbami  and  Blantyre,  Lake  Chihva,  and  Katunga,  Kirk. 


Podocarpits  milanjiana,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte. 

Widdringtonia  Whytei,  Rendle.     (i)  Mlanje,  Whyte  and  McClounie  ;  Zomba,  Whyte. 


Gnetuin  africanum,  Welw.     (i)  Buchanan. 



Lycopodiinu  dacrydioides,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 
L.  cernuitm,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 


SclagincUa  versicolor,  Spring,     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson. 
S.  molliceps,  Spring,     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Buchanan. 
S.  Vogelii,  Spring.     (2)  Carson. 


Eqiiisetum  elongatum,  Willd.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Buchanan. 


Azolla pinnata,  R.  Br.     (i)  Lake  Nyasa,  Laws. 


Gleichenia  polypodioides,  Sm.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie. 

G.  dichototna,  Hook.     (2)  Nutt. 

Cyathea  Dregei,  Kze.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Nutt. 

C.  Thomsoni^  Baker.     (2)  Lower  plateau,  north  of  Lake  Nyasa,  J.  Thomson. 

C.  zambesiaca,  Baker,     (i)  Buchanan. 
Hymcnophylhim  australe,  Willd.     (i)  Buchanan. 
Davallia  thecifera,  H.  B.  K.     (i)  Buchanan. 

D.  Speluncae,  Baker.     (2)  Carson. 
Cheilanthes  Schimperi,  Kze.     (i)  Buchanan. 
C.  imtltifida,  Sw.     (i)  Mlanje,  McClounie. 
Pellaea  hastata,  Link,     (i)  Buchanan. 

P.  dura,  Willd.     (i)  Shire  Highlands.  Scott-Elliot. 

P.  Calomelanos,  Link.     (3)  Serpa  Pinto. 

P.  doniana,  Hook,     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson. 

P.  pectiniformis,  Baker  ;  (2)  Nutt. 

Pteris  quadriaurita,  Retz.     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot  and  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson. 

Pt.  biaurita,  L.     (2)  Carson. 

Pt.  flabellata,  Thunb.     (2)  Carson. 

Pt.  cretica,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Pt.  atrovirens,  Willd.     (2)  Carson. 

Adiantmn  aethiopicuin,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 

A.  Capillus-Veneris,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 

A.  caitdatiiin,  L.     (i)  Buchanan. 

A.  kispidiihiin,  Sw.     (i)  Buchanan. 

A.  litintiatiim,  Burm.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  (2)  Carson. 

Lonchitis pubescens^  Willd.     (2)  Nutt. 

Lomaria  boryana,  Willd.     (i)  Buchanan. 

Actiniopteris  radiata,  Link,     (i)  Buchanan. 

Aspleninm  Sandersoni,  Hook,     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Buchanan  and  Scott-Elliot. 

A.  Mannii,  Hook,     (i)  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

A.  anisophylluiu,  Kze.     (i)  Chiradzulu,  Whyte  ;  Shire  Highlands,  Scott-Elliot. 

A.  h/inilatitni,  Sw.     (i)  Buchanan  ;  Chiradzulu,  Whyt